Worshipful Company of Armourers and Brasiers
The Worshipful Company of Armourers and Brasiers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. The Armourers' Guild was established in 1322. Other Companies, including the Armour Repairers, merged with the Armourers. In 1708, brass workers joined the Company, renamed as the Armourers' and Brasiers' Company; the Company does support the metallurgy industry, but does not retain a close association with its original trade, as is the case with a majority of Livery Companies. It exists as a charitable establishment; the Company is based at Armourers' Hall, situated on the corner of Coleman Street and London Wall, has occupied this same site since 1346. The Hall was one of the few to escape destruction in the Great Fire of London in 1666. In 1795, the Hall was enlarged; the lantern, or dome, of the Livery Hall was added in 1872. On 29 December 1940, during a major blitz on London, the surrounding area was devastated, but again the Hall survived; the Armourers' and Brasiers' Company ranks twenty-second in the order of precedence of Livery Companies.
The Company's motto is. The Worshipful Company of Armourers and Brasiers Glover, Elizabeth. Men of Metal: History of the Armourers and Brasiers of the City of London. Huddersfield/London: Jeremy Mills Publishing/Worshipful Company of Armourers and Brasiers. ISBN 978-1906600242
Worshipful Company of Curriers
The Worshipful Company of Curriers is one of the ancient livery companies of London, associated with the leather trade. The curriers, or "curers of leather", of London formed an organisation in 1272; the company now exists, as do most other livery companies, as an education and charitable institution, the traditional process of currying having been made more or less obsolete by technological advances. The Curriers' Company, like other livery companies, supports the work of the Lord Mayor, the City Corporation and the Sheriffs of London; the company ranks 29th in the order of precedence of City livery companies. Its motto is Spes Nostra Deus, Latin for "Our Hope is God". Most of the Curriers' Company archives are kept at the Guildhall Library for public view; the Curriers' Company dates from 1272 when the Art or Mystery of Curriers formed a trade association with the tanners. In the 14th century the Curriers constituted themselves into a guild linked with the religious fraternity of Carmelite Friars near Fleet Street.
In 1415 the City Common Council granted them full autonomy over all currying and tanning trade in and within two miles of the City. Before 1580 the Guild of Curriers was recognised as a City livery company and became armigerous in 1583, not until 1605 did the Curriers' Company receive its Royal Charter of Incorporation from King James I. During the ensuing four centuries the company built no less than six Curriers' halls in London. After the sale of its sixth and last hall in 1921 it moved in with its longstanding trade and livery partner, the Worshipful Company of Cordwainers, with which it maintains a close relationship. Along with many other livery halls, Cordwainers' Hall in Cannon Street was itself destroyed by enemy action in 1941 and since the Curriers have been without their own hall. However, from 1942 onwards the company has been housed at Tallow Chandlers' Hall, where it holds its Court meetings. Several streets in the now London Borough of Camden's environs were named after the currying trade, eg.
Curriers' Alley, Curriers' Lane, etc. The Curriers' Company donates to charities which benefit the young, the elderly, the disabled and the disadvantaged, it supports City of London charities and cultural organisations, general educational establishments and the training of young people in leathercraft. The educational institutions which it assists financially include: the London College of Fashion. In 2000 the Curriers' Millennium Healthcare Bursary was established; this annual bursary endows research or personal study to improve the health care of underprivileged sectors of London's population or elsewhere. Though directed towards general practitioners, the scope of the bursary was widened in 2003, since when it has attracted submissions from dentists, nurses, mental health workers and an ophthalmologist; the Curriers' Company is affiliated to military units in HM Armed Forces: 101 Engineer Regiment. The Curriers' Historical Essay Prize on the history of London is competed for by young graduates of British universities annually, is presented by the Lord Mayor at The Mansion House.
It has created 16 annual prizes in mathematics and history for pupils aged 14 to 15 at the four London academies of the Oasis Trust. Annually, each newly elected Master Currier has the option of designating a charity of choice: Master’s Charitable Appeal; the Master and Company make initial donations: liverymen and others are invited to follow suit. The company encourages any enterprise; the present Clerk to the Curriers' Company is Lt-Col Adrian Rafferty, whose role combines that of executive officer as well as supporting the Master: James Allen. Its honorary chaplain is the Revd Ann McNeil. Sir Carl Aarvold Donald Adamson Henry Spencer Ashbee Judge Brian Barker John Belcher Norman Birkett, 1st Baron Birkett Peter Cadbury Sir Oliver Chesterton Thomas Dewar, 1st Baron Dewar Gordon Hewart, 1st Viscount Hewart George Jarvis, founder of Jarvis plc Francis Jeune, 1st Baron Saint Helier Sir Richard Jolly, KCMG The Earl Jowitt David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor Sir Robert Lush John Maberly Sir Godfrey Russell Vick John Rylands Sir Frank Sanderson, Bt Sir Philip Shelbourne Sir Lawrence Verney In 1485 the Curriers’ Company had its hall in the parish of St Mary Axe, by London Wall in Aldgate Ward.
Circa 1583 the Curriers’ Hall was situated close to the site of the Boar’s Head, on a property, devised to the company in 1516. It stood on the south side of the street leading along London Wall. Curriers’ Hall was one of the 44 livery halls destroyed in the Great Fire of London early in September 1666. Curriers’ Hall in 1670 was the most attractive of the company’s five halls on the Boar’s Head site. In 1820 a new and smaller hall was rebuilt to the east of the old one; the Curriers’ Hall begun in 1873 and completed in the following year extravagantly was demolished in 1875 before it could be furnished. Between 1874 and 1876 a new Curriers’ Hall was built in the French Gothic style, it abutted on London Wall. It was sold in 1921 and destroyed by enemy action on 29 December 1940; the arms of the company are blazoned:- Arms: Azure a Cross engrailed Or between four pairs of Sha
Royal National Theatre
The Royal National Theatre in London known as the National Theatre, is one of the United Kingdom's three most prominent publicly funded performing arts venues, alongside the Royal Shakespeare Company and the Royal Opera House. Internationally, it is known as the National Theatre of Great Britain. From its foundation in 1963 until 1976, the company was based at The Old Vic theatre in Waterloo; the current building is located next to the Thames in the South Bank area of central London. In addition to performances at the National Theatre building, the National Theatre tours productions at theatres across the United Kingdom. Permission to add the "Royal" prefix to the name of the theatre was given in 1988, but the full title is used; the theatre presents a varied programme, including Shakespeare, other international classic drama, new plays by contemporary playwrights. Each auditorium in the theatre can run up to three shows in repertoire, thus further widening the number of plays which can be put on during any one season.
In June 2009, the theatre began National Theatre Live, a programme of simulcasts of live productions to cinemas, first in the United Kingdom and internationally. The programme began with a production of Phèdre, starring Helen Mirren, screened live in 70 cinemas across the UK. NT Live productions have since been broadcast to over 2,500 venues in 60 countries around the world; the NT had an annual turnover of £105 million in 2015–16, of which earned income made up 75%. Support from Arts Council England provided 17% of income, 1% from Learning and Participation activity, the remaining 9% came from a mixture of companies, individuals and foundations. In 1847, a critic using the pseudonym Dramaticus published a pamphlet describing the parlous state of British theatre. Production of serious plays was restricted to the patent theatres, new plays were subjected to censorship by the Lord Chamberlain's Office. At the same time, there was a burgeoning theatre sector featuring a diet of low melodrama and musical burlesque.
There was a demand to commemorate serious theatre, with the "Shakespeare Committee" purchasing the playwright's birthplace for the nation demonstrating a recognition of the importance of'serious drama'. The following year saw more pamphlets on a demand for a National Theatre from London publisher Effingham William Wilson; the situation continued, with a renewed call every decade for a National Theatre. Attention was aroused in 1879 when the Comédie-Française took a residency at the Gaiety Theatre, described in The Times as representing "the highest aristocracy of the theatre"; the principal demands now coalesced around: a structure in the capital that would present "exemplary theatre". The Shakespeare Memorial Theatre was opened in Stratford upon Avon on 23 April 1879, with the New Shakespeare Company; this still left the capital without a national theatre. A London Shakespeare League was founded in 1902 to develop a Shakespeare National Theatre and – with the impending tri-centenary in 1916 of his death – in 1913 purchased land for a theatre in Bloomsbury.
This work was interrupted by World War I. In 1910, George Bernard Shaw wrote a short comedy, The Dark Lady of the Sonnets, in which Shakespeare himself attempts to persuade Elizabeth I of the necessity of building a National Theatre to stage his plays; the play was part of the long-term campaign to build a National Theatre. In 1948, the London County Council presented a site close to the Royal Festival Hall for the purpose, a "National Theatre Act", offering financial support, was passed by Parliament in 1949. Ten years after the foundation stone had been laid in 1951, the Government declared that the nation could not afford a National Theatre. Still, the Government tried to apply unacceptable conditions to save money. Following some initial inspirational steps taken with the opening of the Chichester Festival Theatre in Chichester June 1962, the developments in London proceeded. In July 1962, with agreements reached, a board was set up to supervise construction, a separate board was constituted to run a National Theatre Company and lease the Old Vic theatre.
The "National Theatre Company" opened on 22 October 1963 with Hamlet. The current building was designed by architects Sir Denys Lasdun and Peter Softley and structural engineers Flint & Neill and contains three stages, which opened individually between 1976 and 1977; the construction work was carried out by Sir Robert McAlpine. The Company remained at the Old Vic until 1977; the National Theatre building houses three separate theatres. Additionally, a temporary structure was added in April 2013 and closed in May 2016. Named after the theatre's first artistic director, Laurence Olivier, this is the main auditorium, modelled on the ancient Greek theatre at Epidaurus. A'drum revolve' is operated by a single staff member; the drum has two rim revolves and two platforms, each
University of London
The University of London is a collegiate federal research university located in London, England. As of October 2018, the university contains 18 member institutions, central academic bodies and research institutes; the university has over 52,000 distance learning external students and 161,270 campus-based internal students, making it the largest university by number of students in the United Kingdom. The university was established by royal charter in 1836, as a degree-awarding examination board for students holding certificates from University College London and King's College London and "other such other Institutions, corporate or unincorporated, as shall be established for the purpose of Education, whether within the Metropolis or elsewhere within our United Kingdom", allowing it to be one of three institutions to claim the title of the third-oldest university in England, moved to a federal structure in 1900, it is now incorporated by its fourth royal charter and governed by the University of London Act 1994.
It was the first university in the United Kingdom to introduce examinations for women in 1869 and, a decade the first to admit women to degrees. In 1948 it became the first British university to appoint a woman as its vice chancellor; the university's colleges house the oldest teaching hospitals in England. For most practical purposes, ranging from admissions to funding, the constituent colleges operate on an independent basis, with many awarding their own degrees whilst remaining in the federal university; the largest colleges by enrolment as of 2016/17 are UCL, King's College London, Queen Mary, the London School of Economics, Royal Holloway, Goldsmiths, each of which has over 9,000 students. Smaller, more specialist, colleges are the School of Oriental and African Studies, St George's, the Royal Veterinary College, London Business School, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the Royal Central School of Speech and Drama, the Royal Academy of Music, the Courtauld Institute of Art, the Institute of Cancer Research.
Imperial College London was a member from 1907 before it became an independent university in 2007, Heythrop College was a member from 1970 until its closure in 2018. City is the most recent constituent college, having joined on 1 September 2016; as of 2015, there are around 2 million University of London alumni across the world, including 12 monarchs or royalty, 52 presidents or prime ministers, 84 Nobel laureates, 6 Grammy winners, 2 Oscar winners, 3 Olympic gold medalists and the "Father of the Nation" of several countries. University College London was founded under the name “London University” in 1826 as a secular alternative to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which limited their degrees to members of the established Church of England; as a result of the controversy surrounding UCL's establishment, King's College London was founded as an Anglican college by royal charter in 1829. In 1830, UCL applied for a royal charter as a university; this was rejected, but renewed in 1834. In response to this, opposition to "exclusive" rights grew among the London medical schools.
The idea of a general degree awarding body for the schools was discussed in the medical press. And in evidence taken by the Select Committee on Medical Education. However, the blocking of a bill to open up Oxford and Cambridge degrees to dissenters led to renewed pressure on the Government to grant degree awarding powers to an institution that would not apply religious tests as the degrees of the new University of Durham were to be closed to non-Anglicans. In 1835, the government announced the response to UCL's petition for a charter. Two charters would be issued, one to UCL incorporating it as a college rather than a university, without degree awarding powers, a second "establishing a Metropolitan University, with power to grant academical degrees to those who should study at the London University College, or at any similar institution which his Majesty might please hereafter to name". Following the issuing of its charter on 28 November 1836, the new University of London started drawing up regulations for degrees in March 1837.
The death of William IV in June, resulted in a problem – the charter had been granted "during our Royal will and pleasure", meaning it was annulled by the king's death. Queen Victoria issued a second charter on 5 December 1837; the university awarded its first degrees in 1839, all to King's College. The university established by the charters of 1836 and 1837 was an examining board with the right to award degrees in arts and medicine. However, the university did not have the authority to grant degrees in theology, considered the senior faculty in the other three English universities. In medicine, the university was given the right to determine which medical schools provided sufficient medical training. In arts and law, by contrast, it would examine students from UCL, King's College, or any other school or college granted a royal warrant giving the government control of which colleges could affiliate to the university. Beyond the right to submit students for examination, there was no other connection between the affiliated colleges and the university.
In 1849 the university held its first graduation ceremony at Somerset House following a petition to the senate from the graduates, who had received their degrees without any ceremony. About 250 students graduated at this ceremony; the London academic robes of this period were distinguished by their "rich velvet facings". The list of affiliated colleges g
Worshipful Company of Butchers
The Worshipful Company of Butchers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London, England. Records indicate that an organisation of Butchers existed as early as 975; the Butchers' Guild was incorporated by Royal Charter centuries in 1605. The Butchers' still, unlike other Livery Companies, continues to exist as a trade association for members of the industry, instead of evolving into an institution dedicated to charity. However, the Company does contribute, to various charities; the Company ranks twenty-fourth in the order of precedence of City Livery Companies. The Company's motto is: Omnia Subiecisti Sub Pedibus, Oves Et Boves, from the Book of Psalms and Latin for: Thou Hast Put All Things Under Man's Feet, All Sheep and Oxen; the Company's headquarters is at Butchers' Hall. The Butchers' has had several halls throughout its history; the next Hall near St Bartholomew's Hospital was destroyed in the Great Fire of London of 1666, together with forty three other Livery Company Halls. Its successor in Pudding Lane was again burnt down, rebuilt in 1829-30 and compulsorily purchased by an Act of Parliament in 1882.
A new Hall was built at the present site in Bartholomew Close, bombed in both world wars: 1915 and again in 1944. The Company's present Hall dates from 1960. HM Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother was admitted as an Honorary Freeman of the Company in March 1976, continuing a link with the Monarchy that started with King James I in 1605. Following the Queen Mother's death in March 2002, her granddaughter, HRH the Princess Royal was admitted to the Honorary Freedom of the Company. Like the Queen Mother, the Princess Royal takes a keen interest in Company affairs, serving as its Master. Arms: Azure two Poleaxes in saltire Or blades inwards between two Bulls' Heads couped in fesse Argent on a Chief of the last a Boar's Head couped Gules tusked of the second langued of the first between two bunches of Knee-Holly Vert banded Gold Crest: A Bull Statant Or with wings addorsed lined Argent the head forequarters hoofs and tuft of the tail of the first the hindquarters of the second armed Gules about the Head a Nimbus Gold Mantling: Gules doubled Argent Supporters: On either side a Bull with wings addorsed the head forequarters wings hoofs and tuft of the tail Or the hindquarters Argent armed Gules about the head a Nimbus of the first The Butchers' connections with the local area remain strong, many Liverymen working at Smithfield Market.
The Butchers' Hall and St Bartholomew's Hospital have stood side by side for years, forging links that continue to this day. The Butchers' maintains close relations with Commonwealth and international associations. For instance, the Australian High Commissioner and New Zealand High Commissioner are customarily granted the Honorary Freedom of the Company. St Bartholomew-the-Great is the Butchers' adopted Church, is where the Company's Annual Church Service takes place prior to Common Hall; the Honorary Chaplain to the Master Butcher is the Rector of St Barts. Livery Company Smithfield Market St Bartholomew-the-Great The Butchers' Company The Arms of Worshipful Company of Butchers
Imperial College London
Imperial College London is a public research university located in London, England. In 1851, Prince Albert built his vision for a cultural area composed of the Victoria and Albert Museum, Natural History Museum, Royal Albert Hall, Royal Colleges, the Imperial Institute. In 1907, Imperial College was established by Royal Charter, bringing together the Royal College of Science, Royal School of Mines, City and Guilds College. In 1988, the Imperial College School of Medicine was formed through a merger with St Mary's Hospital Medical School. In 2004, Queen Elizabeth II opened the Imperial College Business School; the main campus is located with a new innovation campus in White City. The college has a research centre at Silwood Park, teaching hospitals throughout London. Imperial is organised through faculties of natural science, engineering and business, its emphasis is on the practical application of technology. With more than 140 countries represented on campus and 59% of students from outside the UK, the university has a international community.
In 2018–19, Imperial is ranked 8th globally in the QS World University Rankings, 9th in the THE World University Rankings, 24th in the Academic Ranking of World Universities, 8th in Reuters Top 100: World's Most Innovative Universities. Student and researcher affiliations include 14 Nobel laureates, 3 Fields Medalists, 1 Turing Award winner, 74 Fellows of the Royal Society, 87 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering, 85 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences; the college's origins can be traced back as far as the founding of the Royal College of Chemistry on Hanover Square in 1845, with the support of Prince Albert and parliament. Following some financial trouble, this was absorbed in 1853 into the newly formed Government School of Mines and Science Applied to the Arts, located on Jermyn Street; the school was renamed the Royal School of Mines a decade later. The medical school has roots in many different school across London, the oldest of which dates back to 1823, with the foundation of the teaching facilities at the West London Infirmary at Villiers Street.
Known as Charing Cross Hospital Medical School, it was designed to provide medical education for the needs of a university. This was followed in 1834 when Westminster Hospital surgeons started taking students under their care. Established on Dean Street, the school was forced to close in 1847, but was reopened in 1849 with a new specimen museum; the first teaching at St Mary's Hospital hospital in Paddington began in 1851, with St Mary's Hospital Medical School established in 1854. Proceeds from the Great Exhibition of 1851 were designated by Prince Albert to be used to develop a cultural area in South Kensington for the use and education of the public. Within the next 6 years the Victoria and Albert and Science museums had opened, joined by the Natural History Museum in 1881, in 1888 the Imperial Institute; as well as museums, new facilities for the royal colleges were constructed, with the Royal College of Chemistry and the Royal School of Mines moving to South Kensington between 1871 and 1872.
In 1881 the Normal School of Science was established in South Kensington under the leadership of Thomas Huxley, taking over responsibility for the teaching of the natural sciences and agriculture from the Royal School of Mines. The school was granted the name Royal College of Science by royal consent in 1890; as these institutions were not part of universities, they were unable to grant degrees to students, instead bestowed associateships such as the Associateship of the Royal College of Science. The Central Institution of the City and Guilds of London Institute, formed by the City of London's livery companies, was opened on Exhibition Road by the Prince of Wales, founded to focus on providing technical education, with courses starting in early 1885; the institution was renamed the Central Technical College in 1893, becoming a school of the University of London in 1900. At the start of the 20th century there was a concern that Britain was falling behind its key rivals – Germany – in scientific and technical education.
A departmental committee was set up at the Board of Education in 1904, to look into the future of the Royal College of Science. A report released in 1906 called for the establishment of an institution unifying the Royal College of Science and the Royal School of Mines, as well as – if agreement could be reached with the City and Guilds of London Institute – their Central Technical CollegeOn 8 July 1907, King Edward VII granted a Royal Charter establishing the Imperial College of Science and Technology; this incorporated the Royal College of Science. It made provisions for the Central Technical College to join once conditions regarding its governance were met, as well as for Imperial to become a college of the University of London; the college joined the University of London on 22 July 1908, with the Central Technical College joining Imperial in 1910 as the City and Guilds College. The main campus of Imperial College was constructed beside the buildings of the Imperial Institute, the new building for the Royal College of Science having opened across from it in 1906, the foundation stone for the Royal School of Mines building being laid by King Edward VII in July 1909.
As students at Imperial had to study separately for London degrees, in January 1919, students and alumni voted for a petition to make Imperial a university with its own degree awarding powers, independent of the University of London. In response, the University of London changed its regulations in 1925 so that the courses taught only at Imperial would be examined by the university, enabling students to ga
A motto is a maxim. Mottos are found predominantly in written form, may stem from long traditions of social foundations, or from significant events, such as a civil war or a revolution. A motto may be in any language, but Latin has been used in the Western world. In heraldry, a motto is found below the shield in a banderole. In the case of Scottish heraldry it is mandated to appear above the crest. Spanish coats of arms may display a motto in the bordure of the shield. In heraldic literature, the terms "rallying cry" "battle banner" are common, which date back to the battle cry, is located above the coat of arms. In English heraldry mottos are not granted with armorial bearings, may be adopted and changed at will. In Scottish heraldry, mottos can only be changed by re-matriculation, with the Lord Lyon King of Arms. Although unusual and outside standard heraldic practice, there are some examples of the particular appearance of the motto scroll and letters thereon being blazoned. Ships and submarines in the Royal Navy each have a badge and motto, as do units of the Royal Air Force.
Latin has been common for mottos, but for nation states their official language is chosen. Examples of unusual choices in motto language include: County of Somerset, Sumorsaete ealle, Anglo-Saxon. A canting motto is one. For example, the motto of the Earl of Onslow is Festina lente, punningly interpreting on-slow; the motto of the Burgh of Tayport: Te oportet alte ferri – "It is incumbent on you to carry yourself high" – is a rather terrible cant on: Tayport at auld Tay Ferry alluding to the local lighthouse. In literature, a motto is a sentence, poem, or word prefixed to an essay, novel, or the like suggestive of its subject matter, it is a suggestive expression of a guiding principle for the written material that follows. For example, Robert Louis Stevenson's Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes uses mottos at the start of each section. Epigram Hendiatris Inscription List of Latin phrases List of mottos List of national mottos Slogan Tagline United in diversity United we stand, divided we fall