A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Albany is a city in the U. S. state of Georgia. Located on the Flint River, it is the seat of Dougherty County. Located in southwest Georgia, it is the principal city of Georgia metropolitan area; the population was 77,434 at the 2010 U. S. Census, it became prominent in the nineteenth century as a shipping and market center, first served by riverboats and by railroads. Seven lines met in Albany, it was a center of trade in the Southeast, it was part of the extensive area in the Deep South of cotton plantations. From the mid-20th century, it received military investment during World War II and after, that helped develop the region. Albany and this area were prominent during the civil rights era during the early 1960s as activists worked to regain voting and other civil rights. Railroad restructuring and reduction in the military here caused job losses, but the city has developed new businesses; the region where Albany is located was long inhabited by the Creek Indians, who called it Thronateeska after their word for "flint", the valuable mineral found in beds near the Flint River.
They used it for making other tools. In 1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, the United States made treaties to extinguish Creek and other Native American land claims in the Southeast; the US Army forcibly removed most of the native peoples to Indian Territory, lands west of the Mississippi River. European-American settlement began with Nelson Tift of Groton, who took land along the Flint River in October 1836 after Indian removal. Tift and his colleagues named the new town Albany after the capital of New York. Alexander Shotwell laid out the town in 1836, it was incorporated as a city by an act of the General Assembly of Georgia on December 27, 1838. Tift for decades was the city's leading entrepreneur. An ardent booster, he promoted education and railroad construction. During the Civil War he helped build two ships, he opposed Radical Reconstruction inside the state and in Congress, was scornful of the Yankee carpetbaggers who came in. Historian John Fair concludes that Tift became "more Southern than many natives."
His pro-slavery attitudes before the war and his support for segregation afterward made him compatible with Georgia's white elite. This area was developed for cotton cultivation by planters, who used numerous enslaved African Americans to clear lands and process the cotton; as a result of the planters' acquisition of slave workers, by 1840 Dougherty County's majority population was black, composed overwhelmingly of slaves. The market center for cotton plantations, Albany was in a prime location for shipping cotton to other markets by steamboats on the river. In 1858, Tift hired Horace King, a former slave and bridge builder, to construct a toll bridge over the river. King's bridge toll house still stands. Important as a shipping port, Albany became an important railroad hub in southwestern Georgia. Seven lines were constructed to the town. An exhibit on trains is located at the Thronateeska Heritage Center in the former railroad station. After the war, Carey Wentworth Styles founded the newspaper Albany News.
In the early years following the war, like Tift, took great exception to the Radical Reconstruction program in force, advocated for a more moderate response based on his interpretation of Georgia's rights under the Constitution. Styles backed "constitutional reconstruction" advanced by Benjamin H. Hill and sought support for the idea from the national Democratic party. While on a trip to Atlanta in May 1868, to meet with Democratic party leaders, Styles took measure of the contemporary Atlanta newspapers, found them lacking. Styles believed them to be little more than organs for the Radical Republican reconstruction agenda, he resolved to bring a paper aligned with the Democratic party viewpoint to the Atlanta market, one supporting his constitutional reconstruction ideals. Styles moved from Albany to Atlanta, on May 9th he announced that he had obtained the necessary financial backing to purchase the Daily Opinion. On June 16, 1868 the new Democratic daily printed its first edition, under the name The Constitution.
Styles' tenure at the Atlanta Constitution would be brief. Unable to pay for his portion of the purchase, when the sale of his Albany News fell through, Styles was forced to surrender his interest in the paper to his joint venture partners. Styles returned to Albany as editor of the News. In 1872, he was elected to the Georgia Senate, representing Augusta and surrounding communities, in an ironic turn of events, having killed a member of the Georgia House of Representatives in his earlier years. After his legislative service, Styles returned to Atlanta. While integral to the economic life of the town, the Flint River has flooded regularly, it caused extensive property damage in 1841 and 1925. The city has been subject to tornadoes. On February 10, 1940, a severe tornado hit Albany, killing eighteen people and causing large-scale damage. On April 11, 1906, the Carnegie Library, created by matching funds from the philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, was opened downtown. A segregated facility under Jim Crow laws, it was not open to African Americans until after the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
It functioned as a library through 1985. In 1992, after renovation, the building was reopened as the headquarters of the Albany Area Arts Council. In 1912, the downtown U. S. Po
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Georgia State Route 33
State Route 33 is an 81-mile-long state highway that travels south-to-north through portions of Thomas, Colquitt and Crisp counties in the south-central part of the U. S. state of Georgia. The highway travels from its southern terminus, an intersection with US 84/SR 38 in Boston, to its northern terminus, an intersection with US 41/SR 7 north of Wenona, it travels through Moultrie and Sylvester. SR 33 begins at an intersection with US 84/SR 38 in Boston; the highway travels north-northeast to Pavo. After a brief concurrency in Pavo with SR 122, SR 33 travels to the north-northwest. In the southern part of Moultrie, SR 33 begins a concurrency with US 319 Bus. on Thomasville Road. The two highways travel north, through downtown Moultrie. North of the city, US 319 Bus. ends, after a brief concurrency with SR 133, SR 33 continues north to Sylvester. In Sylvester, SR 33 has a brief concurrency with SR 112 before departing and continuing north to meet its northern terminus, an intersection with US 41/SR 7 just north of Wenona, south of Cordele.
SR 33 was established at least as early as 1919, from Thomasville northeast and north-northwet to Sylvester. At this time, SR 35 was established from the Florida state line south-southeast of Quitman to SR 33 in Moultrie. By the end of September 1921, the northern terminus of SR 33 was proposed to be extended north-northeast to SR 7 south of Cordele; the northern terminus of SR 35 was truncated to SR 33 in Pavo. By October 1926, the segment of SR 33 from Thomasville to Moultrie was shifted eastward to SR 35's former path from the Florida state line to Quitman, from Quitman north-northwest and northwest to Moultrie; the segment of SR 35 from the Florida state line to Moultrie was shifted westward to SR 33's former path from Thomasville to Moultrie. The northern terminus of SR 33 was extended on its proposed path, from Sylvester to the Cordele area. US 41 was designated on SR 7 in the Cordele area. By October 1929, the northern terminus of SR 35 was extended north-northwest and north-northeast to Sylvester, replacing the Moultrie–Sylvester segment of SR 33, splitting SR 33 into two parts.
By June 1930, the northern terminus of SR 35 was truncated to Moultrie, replaced by an extension of SR 33, which eliminated its split. In the first quarter of 1937, the entire length of SR 33 that existed at the time had a "completed hard surface". In the third quarter of 1939, SR 133 was extended on SR 35 south of Moultrie, south-southeast to SR 122 in Pavo, south-southwest to US 84/SR 38 in Boston. In the second quarter of 1941, US 319 was designated on SR 35/SR 133 south of Moultrie and on all of SR 33 north of Moultrie. Between January 1945 and November 1946, US 319 was shifted eastward, off of SR 33, onto SR 35. Between September 1953 and June 1954, the entire extension of SR 133, from Boston to Moultrie, was hard surfaced. In 1993, the path of SR 33 from Florida to Moultrie was shifted westward, replacing the Boston–Moultrie segment of SR 133, its former segment was redesignated as SR 333, from the Florida state line to north of New Rock Hill, an eastern rerouting of SR 133, from north of New Rock Hill to Moultrie.
State Route 33 Connector is a 1.8-mile-long connector route near Cordele. SR 33 Conn. connects the SR 33 mainline, in Wenona, as well as US 41/SR 7, with Interstate 75, via Rockhouse Road. SR 33 Conn. begins at an intersection with the SR 33 mainline in Wenona. It travels to the east-northeast for 0.2 miles, to an intersection with US 41/SR 7. It continues to the east-northeast and crosses over some railroad tracks of Norfolk Southern Railway, it curves to the east, resumes its east-northeast direction. At an interchange with I-75, SR 33 Conn. ends, Rockhouse Road continues to the east-northeast. Between Augusta 1950 and January 1952, Rockhouse Road was established on this path. In 1978, SR 33 Conn. was established on its current path. The entire route is in Crisp County. Georgia portal U. S. roads portal Media related to Georgia State Route 33 at Wikimedia Commons
Mitchell County, Georgia
Mitchell County is a county in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,498; the county seat is Camilla. Mitchell County was created on December 21, 1857, it was named for 27th Governor of Georgia. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 514 square miles, of which 512 square miles is land and 1.7 square miles is water. The bulk of Mitchell County is located in the Lower Flint River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin; the county's southeastern corner, bordered by a line from Sale City southwest through Pelham, is located in the Lower Ochlockonee River sub-basin of the same Ochlockonee River basin. Dougherty County Worth County Colquitt County Thomas County Grady County Decatur County Baker County The County Commission meets the second Tuesday of each month at 7 pm; as of the census of 2000, there were 23,932 people, 8,063 households, 5,934 families residing in the county. The population density was 18/km². There were 8,880 housing units at an average density of 7/km².
The racial makeup of the county was 49.57% White, 47.86% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.34% from other races, 0.70% from two or more races. 2.05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,063 households, out of which 34.40% had children younger than 18 living with them, 46.60% were married couples living together, 22.50% had a female householder with no husband present and 26.40% were non-families. 23.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 older. The average household size was 2.72, the average family size was 3.19. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.30% younger than 18, 9.90% from 18 to 24, 29.40% from 25 to 44, 21.60% from 45 to 64, 11.70% who were 65 older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.50 males. For every 100 females 18 and older, there were 101.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,581, the median income for a family was $31,262.
Males had a median income of $25,130 vs. $19,582 for females. The per capita income for the county was $13,042. About 22.30% of families and 26.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.50% of those younger than 18 and 20.30% of those 65 or oler. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 23,498 people, 8,055 households, 5,761 families residing in the county; the population density was 45.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,996 housing units at an average density of 17.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 47.9% white, 47.7% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 2.4% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 13.0% were American, 5.8% were Irish, 5.2% were English. Of the 8,055 households, 37.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.0% were married couples living together, 23.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.5% were non-families, 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.15. The median age was 37.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $36,198 and the median income for a family was $43,930. Males had a median income of $36,272 versus $25,243 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,322. About 16.4% of families and 22.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.9% of those under age 18 and 13.2% of those age 65 or over. The Mitchell County School District operates public schools. Baconton Camilla Meigs Pelham Sale City George Thornewell Smith - former Lieutenant Governor of Georgia and state court judge National Register of Historic Places listings in Mitchell County, Georgia
Crisp County, Georgia
Crisp County is a county located in the central portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,439; the county seat is Cordele. The county was named for Charles Frederick Crisp. Crisp County comprises GA Micropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 281 square miles, of which 273 square miles is land and 8.4 square miles is water. The western two-thirds of Crisp County, bordered on the east by a line from south of Arabi running northeast, is located in the Middle Flint River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin; the eastern third of the county is located in the Alapaha River sub-basin of the Suwannee River basin. Dooly County Wilcox County Turner County Worth County Lee County Sumter County As of the census of 2000, there were 21,996 people, 8,337 households, 5,869 families residing in the county; the population density was 80 people per square mile. There were 9,559 housing units at an average density of 35 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 54.07% White, 43.40% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.68% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.98% from other races, 0.68% from two or more races. 1.74% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,337 households out of which 34.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.80% were married couples living together, 21.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.60% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.10. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.00% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 21.80% from 45 to 64, 13.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 88.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,547, the median income for a family was $32,747.
Males had a median income of $28,595 versus $19,393 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,695. About 24.60% of families and 29.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.80% of those under age 18 and 24.00% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 23,439 people, 9,079 households, 6,295 families residing in the county; the population density was 86.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 10,734 housing units at an average density of 39.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 53.3% white, 43.0% black or African American, 0.8% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 1.8% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 9.7% were Irish, 9.3% were American, 7.8% were English. Of the 9,079 households, 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.7% were married couples living together, 21.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.7% were non-families, 26.8% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.04. The median age was 38.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $29,960 and the median income for a family was $41,616. Males had a median income of $35,290 versus $25,932 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,187. About 24.0% of families and 29.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 47.9% of those under age 18 and 16.9% of those age 65 or over. Arabi Coney Cordele National Register of Historic Places listings in Crisp County, Georgia http://www.crispcounty.com Crisp County historical marker
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol