Ford Madox Ford
Ford is now remembered for his novels The Good Soldier, the Parades End tetralogy and The Fifth Queen trilogy. Ford was born in Wimbledon to Catherine Madox Brown and Francis Hueffer, Fords father, who became music critic for The Times, was German and his mother English. His paternal grandfather Johann Hermann Hüffer was first to publish Westphalian poet, Ford used the name of Ford Madox Hueffer, but in 1919 he changed it to Ford Madox Ford in honour of his grandfather, the Pre-Raphaelite painter Ford Madox Brown, whose biography he had written. In 1889, after the death of his father, Ford graduated from the University College School in London, but never attended university. In 1894, Ford eloped with his school girlfriend Elsie Martindale, the couple were married in Gloucester and moved to Bonnington. In 1901, the moved to Winchelsea. The couple had two daughters and Katharine, Fords neighbors in Winchelsea included the authors Henry James and H. G. Wells. In 1904, Ford suffered a breakdown due to financial and marital problems.
He went to Germany to spend time with family there and undergo cure treatments, between 1918 and 1927 he lived with Stella Bowen, an Australian artist twenty years his junior. In 1920, Ford and Bowen had a daughter, Julia Madox Ford, in the summer of 1927, The New York Times reported that Ford had converted a mill building in Avignon, France into a home and workshop that he called Le Vieux Moulin. The article implied that Ford was reunited with his wife at this point, Ford spent the last years of his life teaching at Olivet College in Olivet, Michigan. Ford died in Deauville, France, at the age of 65, one of Fords most famous works is the novel The Good Soldier. Set just before World War I, The Good Soldier chronicles the tragic lives of two perfect couples, one British and one American, using intricate flashbacks. In the Dedicatory Letter to Stella Ford” that prefaces the novel, Ford reports that a friend pronounced The Good Soldier “the finest French novel in the English language. ”Ford pronounced himself a Tory mad about historic continuity and believed the novelists function was to serve as the historian of his own time.
Ford was involved in British war propaganda after the beginning of World War I. He worked for the War Propaganda Bureau, managed by C. F. G. Masterman, along with Arnold Bennett, G. K. Chesterton, John Galsworthy, Hilaire Belloc and Gilbert Murray. After writing the two books, Ford enlisted at 41 years of age into the Welch Regiment of the British Army on 30 July 1915. Fords combat experiences and his previous propaganda activities inspired his tetralogy Parades End, set in England and on the Western Front before, Ford wrote dozens of novels as well as essays, poetry and literary criticism
Ben Green (mathematician)
Ben Joseph Green FRS is a British mathematician, specializing in combinatorics and number theory. He is the Waynflete Professor of Pure Mathematics at the University of Oxford, ben Green was born on 27 February 1977 in Bristol, England. He studied at schools in Bristol, Bishop Road Primary School and Fairfield Grammar School. He entered Trinity College, University of Cambridge in 1995 and completed his B. A. in mathematics in 1998 and he earned his doctorate under English mathematician Timothy Gowers in 2003, with a thesis entitled Topics in arithmetic combinatorics. He became the Waynflete Professor of Pure Mathematics at the University of Oxford on 1 Aug 2013, Green has published several results in both combinatorics and number theory. These include improving the estimate by Jean Bourgain of the size of arithmetic progressions in sumsets and this theorem showed that for all sufficiently large n there exist arithmetic progressions of length n in the prime numbers. Green received the Clay Research Award in 2004 and the Salem Prize in 2005 for his contributions to number theory related to progressions of primes.
In 2005, he was awarded the Whitehead Prize, an award for British mathematicians in the early stage of their career. In 2007 he was awarded the SASTRA Ramanujan Prize, in 2008 he was among the ten recipients of the European Mathematical Society prize. In 2010 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society In 2012 he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society, in 2013, he was awarded a Gauss Lecture by the German Mathematical Society. NT/0404188 – Preprint on arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions on primes
Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter
Harold Scott MacDonald Donald Coxeter, FRS, FRSC, CC was a British-born Canadian geometer. Coxeter is regarded as one of the greatest geometers of the 20th century and he was born in London but spent most of his adult life in Canada. He was always called Donald, from his third name MacDonald, in his youth, Coxeter composed music and was an accomplished pianist at the age of 10. He felt that mathematics and music were intimately related, outlining his ideas in a 1962 article on Mathematics and he worked for 60 years at the University of Toronto and published twelve books. He was most noted for his work on regular polytopes and higher-dimensional geometries and he was a champion of the classical approach to geometry, in a period when the tendency was to approach geometry more and more via algebra. Coxeter went up to Trinity College, Cambridge in 1926 to read mathematics, there he earned his BA in 1928, and his doctorate in 1931. In 1932 he went to Princeton University for a year as a Rockefeller Fellow, where he worked with Hermann Weyl, Oswald Veblen, returning to Trinity for a year, he attended Ludwig Wittgensteins seminars on the philosophy of mathematics.
In 1934 he spent a year at Princeton as a Procter Fellow. In 1936 Coxeter moved to the University of Toronto and John Flinders Petrie published The Fifty-Nine Icosahedra with University of Toronto Press. In 1940 Coxeter edited the eleventh edition of Mathematical Recreations and Essays and he was elevated to professor in 1948. Coxeter was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1948 and he inspired some of the innovations of Buckminster Fuller. Coxeter, M. S. Longuet-Higgins and J. C. P. Miller were the first to publish the full list of uniform polyhedra, since 1978, the Canadian Mathematical Society have awarded the Coxeter–James Prize in his honor. He was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1950, in 1990, he became a Foreign Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and in 1997 was made a Companion of the Order of Canada. In 1973 he got the Jeffery–Williams Prize,1940, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes I, Mathematische Zeitschrift 46, 380-407, MR2,10 doi,10. 1007/BF011814491942, Non-Euclidean Geometry, University of Toronto Press, MAA.
1954, Uniform Polyhedra, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A246, arthur Sherk, Peter McMullen, Anthony C. Thompson and Asia Ivić Weiss, Kaleidoscopes — Selected Writings of H. S. M. John Wiley and Sons ISBN 0-471-01003-01999, The Beauty of Geometry, Twelve Essays, Dover Publications, LCCN 99-35678, ISBN 0-486-40919-8 Davis, Ellers, Erich W, the Coxeter Legacy and Projections. King of Infinite Space, Donald Coxeter, the Man Who Saved Geometry, www. donaldcoxeter. com www. math. yorku. ca/dcoxeter webpages dedicated to him Jarons World, Shapes in Other Dimensions, Discover mag. Apr 2007 The Mathematics in the Art of M. C, escher video of a lecture by H. S. M
Philippa Garrett Fawcett was an English mathematician and educationalist. She was the daughter of the suffragist Millicent Fawcett and of Henry Fawcett MP, Professor of Political Economy at Cambridge and her aunt was Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, the first English female doctor. Philippa Fawcett was educated at Newnham College, Cambridge which had been co-founded by her mother, in 1890 Fawcett became the first woman to obtain the top score in the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos exams. The results were highly publicised, with the top scorers receiving great acclaim. Her score was 13 per cent higher than the second highest score, women had been allowed to take the Tripos since 1881, after Charlotte Angas Scott was unofficially ranked as eighth wrangler. When the womens list was announced Fawcett was described as above the senior wrangler, coming amidst the womens suffrage movement, Fawcetts feat gathered worldwide media coverage, spurring much discussion about womens capacities and rights. Her published papers include Note on the Motion of Solids in a Liquid and she was subsequently appointed as a College Lecturer in Mathematics at Newnham College, Cambridge a position she held for 10 years.
In this capacity, her teaching abilities received considerable praise, one student wrote, Fawcett left Cambridge in 1902, when she was appointed as a lecturer to train mathematics teachers at the Normal School, South Africa. Here, she remained until 1905, setting up schools in South Africa and she returned to England to take a position in the administration of education for London County Council. Here, in her work developing secondary schools, she attained a rank on the London City Council. Philippa Fawcett maintained strong links with Newnham College throughout her life, the Fawcett building was named in recognition of her contribution to Newnham, and that of her family. She died on 10 June 1948, two months after her 80th birthday, just one month after the Grace that allowed women to be awarded the Cambridge BA degree received royal assent, rita McWilliams Tullberg, Philippa Fawcett, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Philippa Fawcett and the Mathematical Tripos, S. T. C
The Unseen University is a school of wizardry in Terry Pratchetts Discworld series of fantasy novels. Located in the city of Ankh-Morpork, the UU is staffed by a faculty composed of mostly indolent. The universitys name is a pun on the Invisible College, the official motto of Unseen University is Nunc Id Vides, Nunc Ne Vides, loosely translated as Now you see it, now you dont. The unofficial motto is η β π, or Eta Beta Pi, the coat of arms is, Azure, in chief an open book proper bearing the motto nunc id vides, nunc ne vides and in base a wizards hat gules with stars semy Or. For crest is an owl displayed proper, as usually rendered, the coat of arms resembles the coat of arms of the University of Oxford. The title wizard is said to be derived from the archaic word Wys-ars, meaning one who, in fact, the older wizards tend not to understand how magic actually works at all, instead relying on centuries of lore to achieve their effects. Younger wizards enthusiastically experiment, pushing back the boundaries of knowledge and they dont understand how magic works either, but have much more exciting words to explain why not.
These often invoke images of particle physics, the main issue is a generalized worry to where the power actually comes from and what sort of entities excessive use can attract. An eighth son of a son is automatically a wizard. When a wizard nears death – which they know some time in advance – he formally passes on his staff to a newborn wizard. If a wizard happens to have a son, this child will be a wizard squared or Sourcerer, as he generates his own magic. This is very dangerous, both because absolute power corrupts absolutely, and because it increases background magic levels considerably, because of this, wizards generally lack children, due to both rigid celibacy laws and overall non-enabling personality. Besides a mention of Krull and the prominent Eskarina Smith, all wizards are implicitly male, Wizards grade magical ability in a series of levels, the highest of which is eight. People without magical ability are level zero, the University is a large walled-off complex on the turnwise side of the Ankh, somewhat hubwards of the Isle of Gods.
Aside from the Tower of Art, the geography of the UU is somewhat fluid and it is much larger on the inside than on the outside. Turnwise of the building lies the Library, housing the largest collection of magical texts known on the Disc. Further hubwards of this is the High Energy Magic Building, the spot between this building and the Library is the workspace of the University gardener, Modo, a genteel dwarf who was nearly eaten by his own compost pile. The University holds rowing contests, but because of the state of the Ankh
C. S. Forester
Two of the Hornblower books, A Ship of the Line and Flying Colours, were jointly awarded the James Tait Black Memorial Prize for fiction in 1938. His other works include The African Queen, Forester was born in Cairo and, after a family breakup at an early age, moved with his mother to London, where he was educated at Alleyns School and Dulwich College, south London. At Alleyns he may have been a contemporary of E. S. Hornblower, who died on active service with the Canadian Infantry in 1917. It is possible that as Cecil L. T. Smith and he began to study medicine at Guys Hospital, but left without completing his degree. Forester had always worn glasses and been thin, trying to enlist in the army, he failed his physical and was told there was not a chance that he would be accepted, even though he was of good height and somewhat athletic. Around 1921, after leaving Guys, he began writing seriously using his pen name, during World War II, Forester moved to the United States where he worked for the British Information Service and wrote propaganda to encourage the US to join the Allies.
He eventually settled in Berkeley, while living in Washington, D. C. he met a young British intelligence officer named Roald Dahl in early 1942, whose experiences in the RAF he had heard about, and encouraged him to write about them. According to Dahls autobiographical Lucky Break, Forester asked Dahl about his experiences as a fighter pilot and this prompted Dahl to write his first story, A Piece of Cake. He is best known for the 12-book Horatio Hornblower series, depicting a Royal Navy officer during the Napoleonic wars and he began the series with Hornblower fairly high in rank in the first novel, published in 1937. The last completed novel was published in 1962, with demand for more stories, Forester filled in Hornblowers life story, in effect. Several of his works were filmed, including The African Queen, Forester is credited as story writer for several movies not based on his published fiction, including Commandos Strike at Dawn. He wrote several volumes of stories set during the Second World War.
Those in The Nightmare were based on events in Nazi Germany, stories in The Man in the Yellow Raft followed the career of the destroyer USS Boon, while many of those in Gold from Crete followed the destroyer HMS Apache. His non-fiction seafaring works include The Age of Fighting Sail, an account of the sea battles between Great Britain and the United States in the War of 1812, in addition to his novels of seafaring life, Forester published two crime novels and two childrens books. Poo-Poo and the Dragons was created as a series of stories told to his younger son George to encourage him to finish his meals, George had mild food allergies that kept him feeling unwell, and he needed encouragement to eat. The Barbary Pirates is a history of early 19th-century pirates. C. S. Forester appeared as a contestant on the TV quiz program You Bet Your Life, hosted by Groucho Marx, in an episode telecast on 1 November 1956. A lost novel of Foresters, The Pursued, was discovered in 2003 and he married Kathleen Belcher in 1926 and they had two sons and George Forester
John Maynard Keynes
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes CB FBA, was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments. His ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as Keynesian economics and he instead argued that aggregate demand determined the overall level of economic activity and that inadequate aggregate demand could lead to prolonged periods of high unemployment. According to Keynesian economics, state intervention was necessary to moderate boom, Keynes advocated the use of fiscal and monetary policies to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions and depressions. He and other economists had disputed the ability of government to regulate the business cycle favorably with fiscal policy. When Time magazine included Keynes among its Most Important People of the Century in 1999, the Economist has described Keynes as Britains most famous 20th-century economist. In addition to being an economist, Keynes was a servant, a director of the Bank of England.
John Maynard Keynes was born in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire and his father, John Neville Keynes, was an economist and a lecturer in moral sciences at the University of Cambridge and his mother Florence Ada Keynes a local social reformer. Keynes was the first born, and was followed by two more children – Margaret Neville Keynes in 1885 and Geoffrey Keynes in 1887, Geoffrey became a surgeon and Margaret married the Nobel Prize-winning physiologist Archibald Hill. According to the economist and biographer Robert Skidelsky, Keyness parents were loving and they remained in the same house throughout their lives, where the children were always welcome to return. Keyness mother made her childrens interests her own, and according to Skidelsky, because she could grow up with her children, they never outgrew home. In January 1889, at the age of five and a half and he quickly showed a talent for arithmetic, but his health was poor leading to several long absences. He was tutored at home by a governess, Beatrice Mackintosh, in January 1892, at eight and a half, he started as a day pupil at St Faiths preparatory school.
By 1894, Keynes was top of his class and excelling at mathematics, in 1896, St Faiths headmaster, Ralph Goodchild, wrote that Keynes was head and shoulders above all the other boys in the school and was confident that Keynes could get a scholarship to Eton. In 1897, Keynes won a scholarship to Eton College, where he displayed talent in a range of subjects, particularly mathematics, classics. At Eton, Keynes experienced the first love of his life in Dan Macmillan, despite his middle-class background, Keynes mixed easily with upper-class pupils. In 1902 Keynes left Eton for Kings College, after receiving a scholarship for this to read mathematics, Alfred Marshall begged Keynes to become an economist, although Keyness own inclinations drew him towards philosophy – especially the ethical system of G. E. Moore. Keynes joined the Pitt Club and was an member of the semi-secretive Cambridge Apostles society. Like many members, Keynes retained a bond to the club after graduating, before leaving Cambridge, Keynes became the President of the Cambridge Union Society and Cambridge University Liberal Club
Adam Sedgwick was one of the founders of modern geology. He proposed the Devonian period of the geological timescale, based on work which he did on Welsh rock strata, he proposed the Cambrian period in 1835, in a joint publication in which Roderick Murchison proposed the Silurian period. Sedgwick was born in Dent, the child of an Anglican vicar. He was educated at Sedbergh School and Trinity College, Cambridge and he studied mathematics and theology, and obtained his BA from the University of Cambridge in 1808 and his MA in 1811. His academic mentors at Cambridge were Thomas Jones and John Dawson and he became a Fellow of Trinity College and Woodwardian Professor of Geology at Cambridge from 1818, holding the chair until his death in 1873. An 1851 portrait of Sedgwick by William Boxall hangs in Trinitys collection, Sedgwick studied the geology of the British Isles and Europe. He founded the system for the classification of Cambrian rocks and with Roderick Murchison worked out the order of the Carboniferous and these studies were mostly carried out in the 1830s.
The investigations into the Devonian meant that Sedgwick was involved with Murchison in a debate with Henry De la Beche. Sedgwick investigated the phenomena of metamorphism and concretion, and was the first to distinguish clearly between stratification and slaty cleavage and he was elected to Fellow of the Royal Society on 1 February 1821. In 1844, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts, Sedgwick was an owner of slaves in plantations in Jamaica and was awarded £3783 in compensation for 174 slaves, following the abolition of slavery by the British government. The Church of England, by no means a fundamentalist or evangelical church, during Sedgwicks life there developed something of a chasm between the conservative high church believers and the liberal wing. After simmering for years, the publication of Essays and Reviews by liberal churchmen in 1860 pinpointed the differences. In all this, whose science and faith were intertwined in a natural theology, was definitely on the conservative side and he told the February 1830 meeting of the Geological Society of London, No opinion can be heretical, but that which is not true.
Conflicting falsehoods we can comprehend, but truths can never war against each other, I affirm, that we have nothing to fear from the results of our enquiries, provided they be followed in the laborious but secure road of honest induction. In this way we may rest assured that we shall never arrive at conclusions opposed to any truth, either physical or moral, Sedgwicks subsequent investigations and discussions with continental geologists persuaded him that this was problematic. In early 1827, after spending weeks in Paris, he visited geological features in the Scottish Highlands with Roderick Murchison. He wrote If I have been converted in part from the diluvian theory. it was. by my own gradual improved experience, perhaps I may date my change of mind from our journey in the Highlands, where there are so many indications of local diluvial operations. Humboldt ridiculed beyond measure when I met him in Paris and he strongly believed that species of organisms originated in a succession of Divine creative acts throughout the long expanse of history
William Henry Bragg
The mineral Braggite is named after him and his son. Bragg was born at Westward near Wigton, the son of Robert John Bragg, a merchant marine officer and farmer, and his wife Mary née Wood, a clergymans daughter. When Bragg was seven years old, his mother died, and he was raised by his uncle, named William Bragg, at Market Harborough, Leicestershire. He was educated at the Grammar School there, at King Williams College on the Isle of Man and, having won an exhibition and he graduated in 1884 as third wrangler, and in 1885 was awarded a first class honours in the mathematical tripos. In 1885, at the age of 23, Bragg was appointed Elder Professor of Mathematics and Experimental Physics in the University of Adelaide, and started work there early in 1886. Being a skilled mathematician, at time he had limited knowledge of physics. Bragg was an able and popular lecturer, he encouraged the formation of the student union, and he met Gwendoline née Todd, a skilled water-colour painter, whom he married in 1889.
Their first son, William Lawrence, was born in North Adelaide in 1890, Braggs interest in physics developed, particularly in the field of electromagnetism. In 1895 he was visited by Ernest Rutherford, en route from New Zealand to Cambridge, Bragg had a keen interest in the new discovery of Wilhelm Röntgen. On 29 May 1896 at Adelaide, Bragg demonstrated before a meeting of local doctors the application of “X-rays to reveal structures that were otherwise invisible”. Samuel Barbour, senior chemist of F. H. Faulding & Co. an Adelaide pharmaceutical manufacturer, supplied the necessary apparatus in the form of a Crookes tube, a glass discharge tube. The tube had been obtained at Leeds, where Barbour visited the firm of Reynolds and Branson, Barbour returned to Adelaide in April 1896. The tube was attached to a coil and a battery borrowed from Sir Charles Todd. The induction coil was utilized to produce the electric spark necessary for Bragg, Bragg availed himself as a test subject, in the manner of Röntgen and allowed an X-ray photograph to be taken of his hand.
The image of the fingers in his hand revealed “an old injury to one of his fingers sustained when using the turnip chopping machine on his father’s farm in Cumbria” and he gave a public demonstration of Marconis wireless in 1897. This idea was followed up in a brilliant series of researches which and this paper was the origin of his first book Studies in Radioactivity. Soon after the delivery of his 1904 address, some radium bromide was made available to Bragg for experimentation, at the end of 1908 Bragg returned to England. During his 23 years in Australia he had seen the number of students at the University of Adelaide almost quadruple, Bragg occupied the Cavendish chair of physics in the University of Leeds from 1909
Kevin Mark Buzzard is a British mathematician and currently a Professor of Pure Mathematics at Imperial College London. He specialises in algebraic number theory and he obtained a B. A. degree in Mathematics at Trinity College, where he was Senior Wrangler, and went on to complete the C. A. S. M. He completed his dissertation, entitled The levels of modular representations and he took a lectureship at Imperial College London in 1998, a readership in 2002, and was appointed to a professorship in 2004. He was awarded a Whitehead Prize by the London Mathematical Society in 2002 for his work in number theory. While attending the Royal Grammar School, High Wycombe he competed in the International Mathematical Olympiad, where he won a medal in 1986. He was notably advisor to the musician Dan Snaith, who records as Caribou, Kevin Buzzards professional webpage Kevin Buzzards personal webpage Kevin Buzzards results