click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Wrecking (shipwreck)

Wrecking is the practice of taking valuables from a shipwreck which has foundered or run aground close to shore. An unregulated activity of opportunity in coastal communities, wrecking has been subjected to increasing regulation and evolved into what is now known as marine salvage. Wrecking is no longer economically significant. However, as as the 19th century in some parts of the world, it was the mainstay of otherwise economically marginal coastal communities. A traditional legendary trope is that wreckers deliberately decoying ships on to coasts use tricks false lights, so that they run ashore for easy plundering. While this has been depicted in many stories and legends, there is no clear evidence that this has happened. There are legends. John Viele, retired U. S. Navy officer and author of a history of wrecking in the Florida Keys, states that such tricks would not work, he points out that mariners interpret a light as indicating land, so avoid them if they cannot identify them. Moreover, oil lanterns cannot be seen far over water at night, unless they are large, fitted with mirrors or lenses, mounted at a great height.

In hundreds of admiralty court cases heard in Key West, Florida, no captain of a wrecked ship charged that he had been led astray by a false light. A Bahamian wrecker, when asked if he and his crewmates made beacons on shore or showed their lights to warn ships away from the land at night, is reported to have said, "No, no. Legend maintains that the town of Nags Head, North Carolina takes its name from wreckers or "bankers" deploying false lights; the toponymic legend states that in the 18th century, wreckers would hang lanterns from the necks of mules and walk the animals slowly up and down the beach. The alleged intent was to fool mariners into believing that the slow-moving lights were ships drifting at rest or at anchor, prompting the ships to change course and subsequently run aground. In 1860, a writer for Harper’s New Monthly Magazine corroborated the story of the "bankers" who gave Nags Head its name; as soon as the Spanish began sending home the treasures they found in the New World, some of the treasure was lost in shipwrecks.

By the 1540s Indians along the coast of Florida, where many of the Spanish treasure ships wrecked, were diving on the wrecks and recovering significant amounts of gold and silver. By that time the Spanish had been using first Indians and Africans to dive for pearls around the islands near present-day Venezuela; the Spanish began using these divers to recover treasure from shipwrecks. The Spanish kept salvage ships with crews of African divers on-call in major ports around the Caribbean, ready to sail as soon as word of a wreck was received. In the course of the 16th through the 18th centuries the Spanish recovered more than 100,000,000 pesos worth of treasure by such means. Spanish salvage efforts had varying success. Although the Spanish carried out salvage operations on the wrecks of the 1715 Treasure Fleet for four years, they recovered less than half of the treasure recorded as sent on the fleet. On the other hand, the Spanish recovered more treasure from the 1733 treasure fleet than had been registered on it.

In the 16th and 17th centuries Spanish ships returning to Spain from the Caribbean rode the Gulf Stream to Cape Canaveral and aimed for Bermuda. Raising Bermuda was essential to Spanish ships for verifying their position before setting course for the Azores; as a result, some Spanish ships wrecked on Bermuda. After the English settled on Bermuda in the early 17th century, they took up "wracking" on Bermuda, extended their search for wrecks to all of the Caribbean. In the 17th century the center for English "wracking" in the Caribbean shifted to Port Royal in Jamaica. William Phips went there to recruit the divers he used to salvage treasure from a Spanish wreck on the north shore of Hispaniola, where he recovered the largest amount of treasure from a single wreck before the 20th century. Wrecking was an important activity in the Bahamas from its first settlement in 1648. A company of religious dissidents from Bermuda, the Eleutheran Adventurers, established a colony on Eleutheria, their governing document, the Articles and Orders, included regulations of wrecking, providing that any salvaged ordnance would be held in common for the defense of the colony, all other salvaged goods would be delivered to designated agents, "made fit for sale" and sold, with one-third of the proceeds going to the wreckers.

While the Eleutheran Adventurers were farmers, seamen from Bermuda began settling on New Providence in the 1660s, attracted by ambergris and salt. There were vessels dedicated to wrecking from this time, but wrecking was a secondary occupation for most men; these seamen, who called themselves "wrackers" or "wreckers", pursued wrecking aggressively, regarding all salvage as their property. They were rumored to have killed people, they drove Spanish salvors away from Spanish wrecks, took goods that the Spanish had salvaged. Spain regarded the Bahamian wreckers as pirates, retaliated by attacking the wreckers' ships, kidnapping farmers from New Providence, burning the capital, Charles Town; the Bahamian government exerted control over the wreckers. The wreckers were required to carry salvaged goods to Nassau. However, goods useful on a ship or in a wrecker's home were diverted with a blind eye turned b

Nick Brennan

Nick Brennan is a British cartoonist who works for D. C. Thomson & Co. Ltd, he started drawing for the company in 1993, drawing a revival of Peter Piper from The Dandy, revived from The Magic Comic, but looking nothing like Watkins' creation, instead sporting an Elvis-like hairdo and purple jumper. January 1994 saw his next work Blinky, a revamp of the nephew of Colonel Blink from The Beezer who had first appeared in the merged Beezer and Topper in 1990. In 1997, Brennan drew a comic strip for a vote for The Beano, called "Crazy for Daisy", along with Tim Traveller by Vic Neill, won the vote, followed by another strip, Pinky's Crackpot Circus, in 2004, in 2006, a revival of "Brassneck" and "Noah's Ark"; these last three are all from The Dandy. He used to draw Sneaker for The Dandy. In the 2000s, Brennan ghosted Nicky Nutjob, contributed to the Fun Size Dandy/Fun Size Beano comics. In addition, Brennan was the artist for Billy Whizz in The Beano from autumn 2009 until 2012. Nick Brennan appeared a few times in The Dandy after its October 2010 revamp drawing Watch this Space and Professor Cheese's Olympic Wheezes.

Reprints of Blinky, Pinky's Crackpot Circus and Sneaker were used during 2012. In the final print edition of The Dandy, Brennan drew Blinky, Peter Piper and Pinky's Crackpot Circus. A reprint of Hyde and Shriek was used. In the relaunched Digital Dandy, Brennan produced Blinky and Sneaker with both stories being animated by his wife, Fran. In addition to comic work, Brennan undertakes private and commercial commissions and runs cartoon workshops, such as the Art of Stories Festival at the Eden Project. Brennan's work appears in the 2017 Dandy Annual and he is working on scripts and artwork for the 2018 edition. Official website www.cartoonfun.co.uk

Siún Nic Gearailt

Siún Nic Gearailt is a newsreader with Raidió Teilifís Éireann in Ireland. She presents Nuacht RTÉ and has presented many of RTÉ's English news programmes, including the Six One News, News on Two and Nine O'Clock, she has read the nuacht and English bulletins on RTÉ Radio. A fluent Irish speaker, Nic Gearailt was raised in the Feothanach Gaeltacht region of western County Kerry, her family ran. She speaks fluent German, she worked as a trainee assistant director on the Roger Corman-produced The Unspeakable, she made a cameo appearance in the successful Irish sitcom CU Burn. Nic Gearailt studied German at University College Galway. Following her graduation from UCG in 1995, Nic Gearailt began her broadcasting career with local radio station Clare FM where she worked as researcher and reporter, she worked on a freelance basis for RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta. With the inception of TnaG in 1996, Nic Gearailt was among the first group of journalists to work for the new Irish language television station.

The Kerry native reported extensively throughout the west of Ireland and further afield, covering the Omagh bombing, reporting from Frankfurt and Berlin prior to the introduction of the new European currency, the euro, on the work of Irish missionary priests and nuns from Nigeria. She co-presented the Inauguration of Mary McAleese as the 8th President of Ireland from Dublin Castle with fellow broadcaster Tomás Ó Ceallaigh for the station. In 2003 she was asked by RTÉ to present a bilingual current affairs programme - Seachtain - a weekly on-location broadcast focusing on regional issues. Shortly afterwards she was appointed Anchor of Nuacht RTÉ, she continued to present Seachtain for a number of years. In 2006 she began to present various other radio and television news bulletins for the national broadcaster and has presented all the main news bulletins including Six One, News on Two and Nine O'Clock since then. More she presented a special live tribute to the writer and musician Maidhc Dainín Ó Sé following his death in 2013.

In 2015 Nic Gearailt presented Nuacht RTÉ from Westminster during the British General Election. In the lead-up to the 2016 Irish General Election, she presented live outside broadcasts from Galway and Taoiseach Enda Kenny's constituency of Mayo for Nuacht RTÉ. Nic Gearailt held off the challenge from Mícheál Ó Muircheartaigh, RTÉ's Mr GAA, to win the inaugural RTÉ Personalities' GAA Prediction League title. Nic Gearailt has been voted Kerry Woman of the Year by RSVP readers and was voted as one of the RTÉ Guide's Top 5 most liked presenters, she acts as cultural events from time to time. Nic Gearailt married her fellow news presenter Ailbhe Ó Monacháin in December 2007, they separated in 2014

List of highways numbered 47

The following highways are numbered 47: Asian Highway 47 E47 European route E47 Alberta Highway 47 Ontario Highway 47 Saskatchewan Highway 47 A47 autoroute National Highway 47 Road 47 Highway 47 Route 47 National Route 47 New Zealand State Highway 47 British A47 Alabama State Route 47 Arkansas Highway 47 California State Route 47 Colorado State Highway 47 Connecticut Route 47 Florida State Road 47 Georgia State Route 47 Idaho State Highway 47 Illinois Route 47 Indiana State Road 47 Iowa 47 K-47 Kentucky Route 47 Louisiana Highway 47 Louisiana State Route 47 Maryland Route 47 Maryland Route 47A Massachusetts Route 47 M-47 Minnesota State Highway 47 County Road 47 Mississippi Highway 47 Missouri Route 47 Montana Highway 47 Nebraska Highway 47 Nebraska Spur 47A Nevada State Route 47 New Hampshire Route 47 New Jersey Route 47 County Route 47 County Route 47 New Mexico State Road 47 New York State Route 47 County Route 47 County Route 47 County Route 47 County Route 47 County Route 47 County Route 47 County Route 47 County Route 47 County Route 47 County Route 47 County Route 47 County Route 47 County Route 47 County Route 47 County Route 47 County Route 47 North Carolina Highway 47 North Dakota Highway 47 Ohio State Route 47 Oklahoma State Highway 47 Oklahoma State Highway 47A Oregon Route 47 Pennsylvania Route 47 South Carolina Highway 47 South Dakota Highway 47 South Dakota Highway 47W Tennessee State Route 47 Texas State Highway 47 Texas State Highway Loop 47 Farm to Market Road 47 Texas Park Road 47 Utah State Route 47 Virginia State Route 47 Virginia State Route 47 Virginia State Route 47 West Virginia Route 47 West Virginia Route 47 Wisconsin Highway 47Territories Puerto Rico Highway 47 A47

Administrative divisions of Saratov Oblast

Towns under the federal government management: Shikhany Urban-type settlements under the federal government management: Svetly Cities and towns under the oblast's jurisdiction: Saratov city districts: Frunzensky Kirovsky Leninsky Oktyabrsky Volzhsky Zavodskoy Atkarsk Balakovo with 1 okrug under the city's jurisdiction. Balashov Engels Urban-type settlements under the city's jurisdiction: Privolzhsky with 1 okrug under the city's jurisdiction. Khvalynsk Krasnoarmeysk Marks Petrovsk Pugachyov Rtishchevo Volsk Districts: Alexandrovo-Gaysky with 8 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Arkadaksky Towns under the district's jurisdiction: Arkadak with 16 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Atkarsky with 20 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Balakovsky with 24 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Balashovsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Pinerovka with 22 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Baltaysky with 9 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Bazarno-Karabulaksky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Bazarny Karabulak Svobodny with 21 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Dergachyovsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Dergachi with 17 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Dukhovnitsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Dukhovnitskoye with 14 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Engelssky with 20 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Fyodorovsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Mokrous with 17 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Ivanteyevsky with 12 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Kalininsky Towns under the district's jurisdiction: Kalininsk with 23 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Khvalynsky with 14 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Krasnoarmeysky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Kamensky with 17 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Krasnokutsky Towns under the district's jurisdiction: Krasny Kut with 18 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Krasnopartizansky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Gorny with 14 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Lysogorsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Lysye Gory with 15 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Marksovsky with 27 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Novoburassky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Novye Burasy with 14 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Novouzensky Towns under the district's jurisdiction: Novouzensk with 11 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Ozinsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Ozinki with 13 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Perelyubsky with 13 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Petrovsky with 21 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Pitersky with 13 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Pugachyovsky with 22 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Romanovsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Romanovka with 10 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Rovensky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Rovnoye with 7 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Rtishchevsky with 23 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Samoylovsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Samoylovka with 13 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Saratovsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Krasny Oktyabr Krasny Tekstilshchik Sokolovy with 15 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Sovetsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Pushkino Sovetskoye Stepnoye with 6 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Tatishchevsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Tatishchevo with 19 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Turkovsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Turki with 12 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Volsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Cherkasskoye Sennoy with 20 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Voskresensky with 11 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Yekaterinovsky Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction: Yekaterinovka with 19 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction. Yershovsky Towns under the district's jurisdiction: Yershov with 26 okrugs under the district's jurisdiction

Robots (2005 video game)

Robots is a platform video game released in 2005 by Eurocom to coincide with the film of the same name. A robot named Rodney Copperbottom decides to leave his home at Rivet Town and head to Robot City to realize his dream of working for his childhood hero, Bigweld, he makes. At the city, he goes to Bigweld's factory, but realizes that Bigweld is mysteriously absent, finds out that the factory is being run by a robot by the name of Phineas T. Ratchet, who hatches an evil plan to create more futuristic robots like himself and destroying old robots made out of scrap. Rodney meets a gang of colorful outmodes called the Rusties, who are affected from the change Ratchet has made. A robot named Jack Hammer tells Rodney that there are many scrap parts in the sewers of Robot City and that Rodney can go collect the scrap in order to keep the Rusties alive. After doing so, Rodney and the Rusties go to Bigweld's Mansion to find Bigweld. Bigweld agrees to help Rodney and the Rusties, sets off with Rodney to stop Ratchet and save all robot-kind.

Jess Harnell - Rodney Copperbottom Jansen Panettiere - Young Rodney Copperbottom, additional voices Stanley Tucci - Herb Copperbottom Dee Bradley Baker - Tim, Electroblast inventor, chop shop guard, additional voices Alan Rosenberg - Jack Hammer Michael Gough - Bigweld, additional voices Jim Meskimen - Phineas T. Ratchet Grey DeLisle - Cappy Harland Williams - Lugnut Kath Soucie - Piper Pinwheeler Jennifer Coolidge - Aunt Fanny Frank Welker - Wonderbot This game features Rodney Copperbottom as the playable main character; the player can play as the Wonderbot in certain areas, Bigweld in the chase scene. Rodney can invent different devices by collecting a certain amount of blueprints scattered throughout the environment. In the beginning of the game, he repairs his personal companion, he obtains the Scrap Launcher from Herb Copperbottom, a weapon which uses Scrap as ammo, found in the worlds of the game, a wrench, used as a melee weapon. More weapons are acquired throughout the course of the game.

Scrap is used to purchase items at vendors, including the Maxi-Scrap 500 and Maxi-Scrap 1000 which upgrades his Scrap capacity from 200 to 500 and 1000 the Refine-O-Max which doubles the value of Scrap, four mutually exclusive upgrades to his Scrap Launcher which can be replaced at any time. While in Robot City he obtains the Magnabeam from Jack Hammer, which uses energy which must be refilled by going on recharge circles, can be used as a weapon; the game received mixed reviews, with a score of 53 on Metacritic for the PlayStation 2. Robots at MobyGames Robots at MobyGames