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Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base and census-designated place just east of Dayton, Ohio, in Greene and Montgomery counties. It includes both Wright and Patterson Fields, which were Wilbur Wright Field and Fairfield Aviation General Supply Depot. Patterson Field is 16 kilometres northeast of Dayton; the host unit at Wright-Patterson AFB is the 88th Air Base Wing, assigned to the Air Force Life Cycle Management Center and Air Force Materiel Command. The 88 ABW operates the airfield, maintains all infrastructure and provides security, medical, personnel, finance, air traffic control, weather forecasting, public affairs and chaplain services for more than 60 associate units; the base's origins begin with the establishment of Wilbur Wright Field on 22 May and McCook Field in November 1917, both established by the Aviation Section, U. S. Signal Corps as World War I installations. McCook was used for aviation experiments. Wright was used as a flying field. McCook's functions were transferred to Wright Field when it was closed in October 1927.

Wright-Patterson AFB was established in 1948 as a merger of Wright Fields. In 1995, negotiations to end the Bosnian War were held at the base, resulting in the Dayton Agreement that ended the war; the 88th Air Base Wing is commanded by Col. Thomas Sherman Its Command Chief Master Sergeant is Chief Master Sergeant Steve Arbona; the base had a total of 27,406 military and contract employees in 2010. The Greene County portion of the base is a census-designated place, with a resident population of 1,821 at the 2010 census. Prehistoric Indian mounds of the Adena culture at Wright-Patterson are along P Street and, at the Wright Brothers Memorial, a hilltop mound group. Aircraft operations on land now part of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base began in 1904–1905 when Wilbur and Orville Wright used an 84-acre plot of Huffman Prairie for experimental test flights with the Wright Flyer III, their flight exhibition company and the Wright Company School of Aviation returned 1910–1916 to use the flying field.

World War I transfers of land that became WPAFB include 2,075-acre along the Mad River leased to the Army by the Miami Conservancy District, the adjacent 40 acres purchased by the Army from the District for the Fairfield Aviation General Supply Depot, a 254-acre complex for McCook Field just north of downtown Dayton between Keowee Street and the Great Miami River. In 1918, Wilbur Wright Field agreed to let McCook Field use hangar and shop space as well as its enlisted mechanics to assemble and maintain airplanes and engines under the direction of Chief of Air Service Mason Patrick. After World War I, 347 German aircraft were brought to the United States—some were incorporated into the Army Aeronautical Museum; the training school at Wilbur Wright Field was discontinued. Wilbur Wright Field and the depot merged; the Patterson family formed the Dayton Air Service Committee, Inc which held a campaign that raised $425,000 in two days and purchased 4,520.47 acres northeast of Dayton, including Wilbur Wright Field and the Huffman Prairie Flying Field.

In 1924, the Committee presented the deeds to president Calvin Coolidge for the construction of a new aviation engineering center. The entire acreage was designated Wright Field, which had units such as the Headquarters, 5th Division Air Service, its 88th Observation Squadron and 7th Photo Section. New facilities were built 1925–27 on the portion of Wright Field west of Huffman Dam to house all of the McCook Field functions being relocated. Wright Field was "formally dedicated" on 12 October 1927 when "the Materiel Division moved from McCook Field to the new site" At the time of the dedication expenditures of $5 million had been involved in the new facility after 18 months work, with the total amount expected to rise to between $7 and $8 million; the ceremonies included the John L. Mitchell Trophy Race and Orville Wright raising the flag over the new engineering center. On 1 July 1931, the portion of Wright Field east of Huffman Dam was redesignated "Patterson Field" in honor of Lieutenant Frank Stuart Patterson.

Lt. Patterson was the son of co-founder of National Cash Register. 1Lt Patterson was killed shortly before the end of World War I when his plane crashed at Wright Field when he and observer 2Lt LeRoy Swan, both of the 137th Aero Squadron, were killed in the crash of their de Havilland DH.4 after its wings collapsed during a dive while firing at ground targets with a new synchronized-through–the–propeller machine gun. Patterson's grave and memorial arch is at Woodland Aborateum in Dayton, Ohio; the area's World War II Army Air Fields had employment increase from 3,700 in December 1939 to over 50,000 at the war's peak. Wright Field grew from 30 buildings to a 2,064-acre facility with some 300 buildings and the Air Corps' first modern paved runways

Dried vine fruit

Dried vine fruit is a term given to all the varieties of dried grape produced. The need for this term came from the fact that the United Kingdom is the only country in the European Union which differentiates dried vine fruit into different types. On mainland Europe, they are all called raisins, whereas in the UK they are differentiated into raisins and currants. In this instance the term currant refers to the Zante currant, not the fruit of the Ribes genus; the sultana was brought to Europe from the Ottoman Empire, is known for its golden colour and delicate, sweet flavour. "Golden raisins" are a Californian attempt to replicate the sultana industrially. They are made from the same variety, treated with sulfur dioxide, flame dried to give them their characteristic colour. A particular variety of seedless grape, the Black Corinth, is sun dried to produce Zante currants, which are much smaller than other vine fruit, darker in colour and have a tart, tangy flavour. Several varieties of raisins are only available at ethnic grocers.

Green raisins are produced in Iran. Dried grapes in a variety of colors and sizes are produced in India

Structure of the Pakistan Army

The structure of the Pakistan Army is based on two distinct themes: operational and administrative. Operationally the Army is divided into nine corps and two corps-level formations with areas of responsibility ranging from the mountainous regions of the north to the desert and coastal regions of the south. Administratively it is divided in several regiments; the General Headquarters of the Army is located in Rawalpindi in Punjab province. It is planned to be moved to the capital city of Islamabad nearby; the Chief of the Army Staff called the Commander in Chief, is challenged with the responsibility of commanding the Pakistani Army. The COAS operates near Islamabad; the Principal Staff Officers assisting him in his duties at the Lieutenant General level include: The Military Operations and Intelligence Directorates function under the Chief of General Staff. A major reorganization in GHQ was done in September 2008 under General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, when two new PSO positions were introduced: the Inspector General Arms and the Inspector General Communications and IT, thus raising the number of PSO's to eight.

The headquarters function includes the Judge Advocate General, the Comptroller of Civilian Personnel, the Chief of the Corps of Engineers, head of Military Engineering Service, all of them report to the Chief of the Army Staff. Corps: A Corps in the Pakistani Army consists of two or more Divisions and is commanded by a Lieutenant General; the Pakistani Army has 9 Corps and two corps-level formations. The Army Air Defence Command, responsible for covering Army formations defence against hostile air forces and the other one is The Army Strategic Force Command, responsible for bearing the national strategic and nuclear assets was a Division equivalent formation, but raised to the status of a Corps. Division: Each division is commanded by a Major General, holds three Brigades including infantry, artillery and communications units in addition to logistics support to sustain independent action. Except for the Divisions operating in the mountains, all the Divisions have at least one armoured unit, some have more depending upon their functionality.

The most major of all ground force. Such a division would hold three infantry brigades. There are 19 Infantry Divisions, 1 Special Operations Elite Combat Para Infantry Division, two Mechanized Infantry divisions, two Armoured Divisions, 1 Engineers Division, 2 Artillery Divisions in the Pakistani Army. Brigade: A Brigade is under the command of a Brigadier and comprises three or more Battalions of different units depending on its functionality. An independent brigade would be one that consists of an artillery unit, an infantry unit, an armour unit and logistics to support its actions; such a brigade is under direct command of a corps. Battalion: Each battalion is commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel and has 600 to 900 soldiers under his command; this number varies depending on the functionality of the battalion. A battalion comprises either three batteries or four companies each under the command of a major and consisting of individual subunits called sections. There are two corps-level formations located at various garrisons all over Pakistan.

There are seven Independent Mechanized Infantry Brigades, eight Independent Armoured brigades, 4 Artillery Brigades, nine Engineer brigades. These include 105 Air Defence Independent Brigade Group in XXXI Corps, 111 Independent Infantry Brigade at Rawalpindi with X Corps, 212 Infantry Brigade at Lahore with IV Corps and 105 Independent Infantry Brigade under V Corps. Nine independent signal brigade groups are present. Eastern Command was a Corps level formation in the former East Pakistan consisting of 14th, 9th and 16th Infantry Divisions, these three divisions were re-raised after the 1971 war and still exist today. 36th adhoc Div. and 39th adhoc Div. were raised to command the Paramilitary troops and a few loyal battalions. Were reinforced with a couple of other battalions each, they were not re-raised after the war. The Pakistani Army is divided into two main branches; the Army's infantry force includes two Special forces Brigades with 5 Battalions, The Pakistan Armoured Corps includes eight Armoured Reconnaissance regiments, while the Air Defence includes three Strategic Defence and 18 Self Propelled Regiments *The President's Bodyguard formed at independence from members of the Governor General's Bodyguard, itself successor to the Governor's Troop of Moghals raised in 1773*5th Horse is the successor to the 1st Sikh Irregular Cavalry, the 2nd Sikh Irregular Cavalry, both raised in 1857*6th Lancers is the successor to The Rohilkhand Horse rais