Joseph A. Wright
Joseph Albert Wright was the tenth governor of the U. S. state of Indiana from December 5, 1849 to January 12, 1857, most noted for his opposition to banking. His positions created a rift between him and the Indiana General Assembly who overrode all of his anti-banking vetoes, he responded by launching legal challenges to the acts, but was ruled against by the Indiana Supreme Court. The state's second constitutional convention was held during 1850–1851 in which the current Constitution of Indiana was drafted, he gave speeches around the state urging its adoption. He was opposed throughout his term by Senator Jesse D. Bright, the leader of the state Democratic Party. After his term as governor, he was appointed to serve as United States Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Prussia where he served until the outbreak of the American Civil War. Although he was a Democrat, he was pro-Union during the war, was elected to serve as a United States Senator, filling the term of Copperhead Jesse D. Bright, expelled from the Senate for disloyalty.
Following the war he was reappointed to his ambassadorial post where he remained until his death in Berlin, Prussia. Joseph Albert Wright was born in Washington, Pennsylvania on April 17, 1810 the son of John and Rachel Seaman Wright, he moved with his family to Indiana in 1820, where he attended public school. His father was a bricklayer, worked as one of the laborers who built the first halls of Indiana State Seminary, he was the brother of future Iowa Senator George G. Wright, his father died when he was fourteen, his family become impoverished. Wright worked as a janitor, bell ringer, occasional bricklayer, in order to pay for his schooling and provide income for his family. Living in Bloomington, he was able to attend the seminary while living at home, making the education affordable for him. Many of his classmates were from wealthier families, he earned money by selling them nuts and fruits he picked in the forest around his home. Wright received a classical education, learning Latin, he decided to become a lawyer.
He studied law in the office of Craven Hester, one of southern Indiana's leading judges and political figures, was admitted to the bar in 1829. He moved to Rockville where he opened a law practice where he met Louisa Cook, the daughter of a wealthy local farmer, she was an ardent Methodist who converted Wright before the couple married on November 30, 1831. The couple had a son, but Louisa's poor health and several bouts with malaria prevented her from having more children, leading them to adopt a daughter in 1832. Wright became active in the Methodist Church and an outspoken advocate of Sunday School and religious study in public schools. Much of his early support came from the church and many of his campaign rallies were held in Methodist churches. Through his law office, Wright became a friend of state representative William Perkins Bryant. In 1832, Bryant moved to Kentucky, leaving his seat vacant, urged Wright to take it. With his support, Wright was elected and served as Park County's representative to the Indiana House of Representatives, serving a one-year term.
During the term he supported the charter for the Bank of Indiana, an unpopular act in his district, he was defeated in his reelection bid. In 1836, supporting internal improvements, he was elected to serve a second term, he left the General Assembly to become the prosecuting attorney of the Indiana 1st circuit in 1838, but found he did not like the constant traveling and resigned the following year. He ran for the Indiana State Senate in 1839; the campaign was hard fought, occurring in the same year that the Indiana Territory's popular former governor, William Henry Harrison, became President of the United States. Wright ran in a "bitter and strenuous" campaign. In one of his opponents tracts, Wright was referred to as the "Infidel Dog who dares to open his God-deyfing lips" against Harrison. Wright narrowly won the election by 171 votes; the election caused a great deal of personal animosity between the Whig party. After the 1840 legislative session, Wright reopened his law office with a new partner, congressman Tilghman A. Howard, a friend of the governor and President Andrew Jackson.
At Tilghman's suggestion he ran for Congress in 1843 in his Whig dominated district and won election narrowly, by only three votes. In Congress he opposed the expansion of slavery, but opposed abolition in favor of colonization and gradual emancipation, he was defeated in his 1845 reelection campaign by 171 votes. He was again defeated in a close election, his popularity in a Whig district further helped his standing in the party. He had been a supporter of the independence of the Republic of Texas while in Congress and was appointed by President James Polk to serve as the United States Commissioner to Texas in 1845, a diplomatic post he held throughout the Mexican–American War until the annexation of Texas. In 1849, Wright backed Whitcomb in his failed bid for the United States Senate against pro-slavery state Democrat leader Jesse D. Bright. Wright considered Bright to be his greatest foe, on every occasion possible attempted to thwart his political success. For his loyalty, Whitcomb guaranteed Wright's nomination for governor in the state's 1849 Democrat Convention where Whitcomb presided.
The state party had a major divide on the internal improvement projects. Whitcomb tried to accommodate both side by taking the anti-slavery position and the anti-internal-
Hardin County, Iowa
Hardin County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,534; the county seat is Eldora. The county was named in honor of Col. John J. Hardin, of Illinois, killed in the Mexican–American War. Hardin County was formed in 1851, it was named after Colonel John J. Hardin. In its history the county has had three courthouses; the first was a small wood framed building. The second courthouse was a two-story building and stood on the site of the current office of the county sheriff; the third and present courthouse was constructed in 1892 and opened on September 19, 1893. The structure was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981. Hardin County, along with Story County, was a primary filming location for the 1996 movie Twister, starring Bill Paxton and Helen Hunt. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 570 square miles, of which 569 square miles is land and 0.7 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 20 U. S. Highway 65 Iowa Highway 57 Iowa Highway 175 Franklin County Butler County Grundy County Marshall County Story County Hamilton County The 2010 census recorded a population of 17,534 in the county, with a population density of 30.8014/sq mi.
There were 8,224 housing units, of which 7,296 were occupied. As of the census of 2000, there were 18,812 people, 7,628 households, 5,087 families residing in the county; the population density was 33 people per square mile. There were 8,318 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.14% White, 0.62% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.24% from other races, 0.50% from two or more races. 2.42% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,628 households out of which 29.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.10% were married couples living together, 6.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.30% were non-families. 29.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.70% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 23.80% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, 20.70% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 95.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,429, the median income for a family was $41,891. Males had a median income of $30,515 versus $21,068 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,537. About 5.50% of families and 8.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.90% of those under age 18 and 6.20% of those age 65 or over. Garden City Cleves Gifford The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Hardin County.† county seat For most of its history, Hardin County has supported the Republican Party in presidential elections, with only five of the party's candidates failing to win the county in the period from 1896 to 1984. From 1988 on, it has become more of a swing county, albeit with a strong Republican lean that has become more pronounced in the second millennium; the only Democrat since 1996 to win the county has been Barack Obama in 2008, winning by only 78 votes.
Donald Trump produced the county's strongest Republican presidential victory since 1952 in 2016, winning by a margin of nearly 30 percent. Homer D. Calkins Ellsworth Community College Folkert Mound Group National Register of Historic Places listings in Hardin County, Iowa Hardin County Courthouse Official Website of Hardin County Hardin County Development Council's website Welcome to Hardin County, Iowa, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary
Webster County, Iowa
Webster County is a county in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 38,013; the county seat is Fort Dodge. The county was established in January one of 43 counties established by a legislative package; this county was named after Daniel Webster, an American statesman noted for his moving oratory. Webster County comprises IA Micropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 718 square miles, of which 716 square miles is land and 2.8 square miles is water. US Highway 20 -- runs east -- west through Moorland and Coalville. US Highway 169 -- runs south to Harcourt, it runs 4 miles east turns south to exit the county. Iowa Highway 7 – enters western Webster County running east from Manson, it runs east to its terminus at US Highway 169 at Fort Dodge. Iowa Highway 175 – enters southeastern Webster County, running west from Stratford, it runs south -- north to its connection to US Highway 169 at 4 miles east of Harcourt. Iowa Highway 144 – enters southern Webster County near its midpoint.
It runs north to its connection to Iowa Highway 175 at 3 miles west of Harcourt. The Fort Dodge Regional Airport is located just north of Fort Dodge, it is a general aviation airport, with some commercial service provided by Air Choice One. Daily direct flights are operated to Lambert-St. Louis International Airport and Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport, with connecting service through Mason City to Chicago O'Hare International Airport. Boone County Calhoun County Greene County Hamilton County Humboldt County Pocahontas County Wright County The 2010 census recorded a population of 38,013 in the county, with a population density of 53.1479/sq mi. There were 17,035 housing units, of which 15,580 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 40,235 people, 15,878 households, 10,304 families residing in the county. The population density was 56 people per square mile. There were 16,969 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.39% White, 3.39% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.10% from other races, 1.15% from two or more races.
2.35% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,878 households out of which 30.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.80% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.10% were non-families. 30.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.50% under the age of 18, 11.10% from 18 to 24, 25.50% from 25 to 44, 21.60% from 45 to 64, 17.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 100.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,334, the median income for a family was $43,772. Males had a median income of $31,047 versus $23,042 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,857.
About 6.70% of families and 10.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.30% of those under age 18 and 7.00% of those age 65 or over. Coalville The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Webster County.† county seat Robert Schliske, member of the Wyoming House of Representatives, 1971-1975, born in Webster County In recent presidential elections, Webster County had a strong Democratic lean, voting for the party's candidate in every election from 1984 to 2012. In 2016 however, the county swung hard to vote for Republican Donald Trump by a wide margin, a nearly 27 point swing compared to 2012. Webster County Courthouse National Register of Historic Places listings in Webster County, Iowa Webster County government's website Webster County map 1895 Webster County Fair Website
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti