Columbia Wright's Ferry, is a borough in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 28 miles southeast of Harrisburg on the east bank of the Susquehanna River, across from Wrightsville and York County and just south of U. S. Route 30; the settlement was founded in 1726 by Colonial English Quakers from Chester County led by entrepreneur and evangelist John Wright. Establishment of the eponymous Wright's Ferry, the first commercial Susquehanna crossing in the region, inflamed territorial conflict with neighboring Maryland but brought growth and prosperity to the small town, just a few votes shy of becoming the new United States' capital. Though besieged for a short while by Civil War destruction, Columbia remained a lively center of transport and industry throughout the 19th century, once serving as a terminus of the Pennsylvania Canal. However, the Great Depression and 20th-century changes in economy and technology sent the borough into decline, it is notable today as the site of one of the world's few museums devoted to horology.
The area around present-day Columbia was populated by Native American tribes, most notably the Susquehannocks, who migrated to the area between 1575 and 1600 after separating from the Iroquois Confederacy. They established villages just south of Columbia, in what is now Washington Boro, as well as claiming at least hunting lands as far south as Maryland and Northern Virginia. Captain John Smith reported on the Susquehannock in glowing superlatives when a traveling group visited Jamestown, Virginia; the French ran across them in the area around Buffalo visiting the Wenro, suggesting their numbers were far greater. The Province of Maryland fought a declared war for nearly a decade, signing a peace in 1632, against the Susquehannock Confederation who were allied to New Sweden and furnishing fire arms to the Susquehannocks in exchange for furs; the American Heritage Book of Indians reports the tribe occupied the entire Susquehanna Drainage Basin from the divide with the Mohawk River in lower New York State and part of the west side of the Chesapeake Bay in the Province of Virginia, while noting the confederation numbered between 10-20,000 in the mid-1660s when they came close to wiping out two Nations of the Iroquois.
An virulent epidemic struck the Susquehannock towns during 1668 or 1669 and is believed to have lasted or recurred or morphed to plagues of other disease killing up to 90% of the Amerindian nations people. By 1671-1672 they were beset on all sides—with attacks from colonial settlers, raids from the weakened Iroquois and the long subjugated Lenape band occupying the Poconos and Lehigh Valley. In that decade, Pennsylvania and New York all claimed the Susquehannock lands of the Wyoming Valley, where the remnants of the nation were to recoil into a few scant under populated towns. In 1678, the Governor of New York would sign a treaty with the League of the Iroquois requiring them to take in the Susquehannocks; the Iroquoian cultures universally supporting adoption, absorbed the people. Small bands moved west across the Susquehanna to new villages such as Conestoga Town and some are believed to have trekked through the gaps of the Allegheny to the empty lands beyond the Alleghenies mingling there with other Iroquoian peoples such as the Seneca and Erie peoples forming the new clans and towns as the Mingo people whose small bands known to be present in Western Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio in the early 1800s.
In 1724, John Wright, an English Quaker, traveled to the Columbia area to explore the land and proselytize to a Native American tribe, the Shawnee, who had established a settlement along Shawnee Creek. Wright built a log cabin nearby on a tract of land first granted to George Beale by William Penn in 1699, stayed for more than a year; the area was known as Shawanatown. When Wright returned in 1726 with companions Robert Barber and Samuel Blunston, they began developing the area, Wright building a house about a hundred yards from the edge of the Susquehanna River in the area of today's South Second and Union Streets. Susanna Wright built Wright's Ferry Mansion, the oldest existing house in Columbia, dating 1738, she live in this house with her brother James, his wife Rhoda, the first of their many children. The home is located at Second and Cherry Streets. Robert Barber constructed a sawmill in 1727 and built a home near the river on the Washington Boro Pike, along what is now Route 441; the home still stands, across from the Columbia Wastewater Treatment Plant, is the second oldest in the borough.
Samuel Blunston constructed a mansion called Bellmont atop the hill next to North Second Street, near Chestnut Street, at the location of the present-day Rotary Park Playground. Upon his death, Blunston willed the mansion to Susanna Wright, she lived there visiting brother James, ministering to the Native Americans, raising silkworms for the local silk industry, until her death in 1784 at the age of 87. The residence was demolished in the late 1920s to allow for construction of the Veterans’ Memorial Bridge. In 1729, after Wright had petitioned William Penn's son to create a new county, the provincial government took land from Chester County to establish Lancaster County, the fourth county in Pennsylvania. County residents – Indians and colonists alike – traveled to Wright's home to file papers and claims, seek government assistance and redress of issues, register land deeds; the area was attractive to Pennsylvania Dutch settlers. During this
A militia is an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or members of a warrior nobility class. Unable to hold ground against regular forces, it is common for militias to be used for aiding regular troops by skirmishing, holding fortifications, or irregular warfare, instead of being used in offensive campaigns by themselves. Militia are limited by local civilian laws to serve only in their home region, to serve only for a limited time. With the emergence of professional forces during the Renaissance, Western European militias wilted; the civic humanist ideal of the militia was spread through Europe by the writings of Niccolò Machiavelli Beginning in the late 20th century, some militias act as professional forces, while still being "part-time" or "on-call" organizations. For instance, the members of some U.
S. Army National Guard units are considered professional soldiers, as they are trained to maintain the same standards as their "full-time" counterparts. Militias thus can be paramilitary, depending on the instance; some of the contexts in which the term "militia" is used include: Forces engaged in defense activity or service, to protect a community, its territory and laws. The entire able-bodied population of a community, county, or state, available to be called to arms. A subset of these who may be penalized for failing to respond to a call-up. A subset of these who respond to a call-up, regardless of legal obligation. A private, non-government force, not directly supported or sanctioned by its government. An irregular armed force enabling its leader to exercise military and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state. An official reserve army, composed of citizen soldiers. Called by various names in different countries, such as the Army Reserve, National Guard, or state defense forces.
The national police forces in several former communist states such as the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries, but in the non-aligned SFR Yugoslavia. The term was inherited in other former CIS countries, where they are known as militsiya. In France the equivalent term "Milice" has become tainted due to its use by notorious collaborators with Nazi Germany. A select militia is composed of a small, non-representative portion of the population politicized. Militia derives from Latin roots: miles /miːles/: soldier -itia /iːtia/: a state, quality or condition of being militia /mil:iːtia/: Military serviceThe word militia dates back to ancient Rome, more to at least 1590 when it was recorded in a book by Sir John Smythe, Certain Discourses Military with the meanings: a military force, it should be noted that the term is used by several countries with the meaning of "defense activity" indicating it is taken directly from Latin. In the early 1800s Buenos Aires, by the capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, was attacked during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata.
As regular military forces were insufficient to counter the British attackers, Santiago de Liniers drafted all males in the city capable of bearing arms into the military. These recruits included the criollo peoples, who ranked low down in the social hierarchy, as well as some slaves. With these reinforcements, the British armies were twice defeated; the militias became a strong factor in the politics of the city afterwards, as a springboard from which the criollos could manifest their political ambitions. They were a key element in the success of the May Revolution, which deposed the Spanish viceroy and began the Argentine War of Independence. A decree by Mariano Moreno derogated the system of promotions involving criollos, allowing instead their promotion on military merit; the Argentine Civil War was waged by militias again, as both federalists and unitarians drafted common people into their ranks as part of ongoing conflicts. These irregular armies were organized at a provincial level, assembled as leagues depending on political pacts.
This system had declined by the 1870s due to the establishment of the modern Argentine Army, drafted for the Paraguayan War by President Bartolome Mitre. Provincial militias were outlawed and decimated by the new army throughout the presidential terms of Mitre, Sarmiento and Roca. Armenian militia, or fedayi played a major role in the independence of various Armenian states, including Western Armenia, the First Republic of Armenia, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh. Armenian militia played a role in the Georgia-Abkhazia War of 1992–1993. In the Colony of New South Wales Governor Lachlan Macquarie proposed a colonial militia but the idea was rejected. Governor Ralph Darling felt. A military volunteer movement attracted wide
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
York County, Pennsylvania
York County is a county in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 434,972, its county seat is York. The county was created on August 19, 1749, from part of Lancaster County and named either after the Duke of York, an early patron of the Penn family, or for the city and shire of York in England. York County comprises the York-Hanover, Pennsylvania Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Harrisburg-York-Lebanon, Pennsylvania Combined Statistical Area, it is in a large fertile agricultural region in South Central Pennsylvania. Based on the Articles of Confederation having been adopted in York by the Second Continental Congress on November 15, 1777, the local government and business community began referring to York in the 1960s as the first capital of the United States of America; the designation has been debated by historians since. Congress considered York, the borough of Wrightsville, on the eastern side of York County along the Susquehanna River, as a permanent capital of the United States before Washington, D.
C. was selected. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 911 square miles, of which 904 square miles is land and 6.5 square miles is water. The county is bound to its eastern border by the Susquehanna River, its southern border is the Mason -- Dixon line, which separates Maryland. Cumberland County Dauphin County Lancaster County Harford County, Maryland Baltimore County, Maryland Carroll County, Maryland Adams County As of the census of 2000, there were 381,751 people, 148,219 households, 105,531 families residing in the county; the population density was 422 people per square mile. There were 156,720 housing units at an average density of 173 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.76% White, 3.69% African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.86% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.39% from other races, 1.10% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.96% of the population. 42.0% were of German, 12.6% American, 7.7% Irish, 6.4% English and 5.1% Italian ancestry.
94.8% spoke English and 2.9% Spanish as their first language. There were 148,219 households out of which 32.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.30% were married couples living together, 9.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.80% were non-families. 23.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.60% under the age of 18, 7.50% from 18 to 24, 30.30% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 13.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 96.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.80 males. As of 2006, the York-Hanover Metropolitan Statistical Area was the fastest-growing metro area in the Northeast region, was ranked among the fastest-growing in the nation, according to the "2006 Population Estimates for Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas".
The estimates listed York-Hanover as the 95th fastest-growing metro area in the nation, increasing 9.1 percent between 2000 and 2006. York city had a 77.3 percent increase in the number of residents of Hispanic or Latino origin, based on a comparison of the 2000 and 2010 U. S. census results. The city's 30.9 percent Hispanic population is more than that of other places in the area. York County is home to Martin's Potato Chips in Thomasville, Utz Quality Foods, Inc. in Hanover, Snyder's of Hanover in Hanover, Hanover Foods in Hanover, Gibble's Potato Chips in York, Wolfgang Candy in York, The Bon-Ton in York, Dentsply in York, a major manufacturing branch of Harley-Davidson Motor Company. The Central Pennsylvania accent and the Susquehanna dialect are the two most heard speech patterns in the county, however there are numerous Mennonites and other persons of Pennsylvania Dutch descent that inhabit the county, who tend to speak with dialects similar to Pennsylvania Dutch English; the United States Office of Management and Budget has designated York County as the York–Hanover, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area.
The United States Census Bureau ranked the York–Hanover, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area as the 9th most populous in the state of Pennsylvania, 115th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States as of July 1, 2012. The Office of Management and Budget has further designated the York–Hanover Metropolitan Statistical Area as a component of the more extensive Harrisburg–York–Lebanon, PA Combined Statistical Area, the 43rd most populous combined statistical area and the 49th most populous primary statistical area of the United States as of July 1, 2012; as of the 2017 estimates, the CSA's 1.26 million people ranks 5th in the state of Pennsylvania. As of November 2008, there are 299,414 registered voters in York County. Republican: 143,261 Democratic: 112,207 Other Parties: 43,946 Susan Byrnes, Republican Christopher B. Reilly, Republican Doug Hoke, Vice President, Democrat York County School of Technology Lincoln Intermediate Unit region includes: Adams County, Franklin County and York County.
The agency offers school districts, home schooled students and private schools many services including: special education services, combined purchasing, instructional technology services. It runs Summer Academy which offers both art and academic strands designed to meet the individual needs of gifted and high achieving students
A system of roadside signage developed by the Pennsylvania Department of Highways just after the First World War, the iconic Keystone Markers could be found at the entrance to every Pennsylvania town and city. Variations of the marker could be found at highway crossings of creeks, trails, borough lines, other points of interest; the Keystone Markers were products of the height of the “Good Roads" movement that opened highway travel to the masses. The Keystone Markers were the signature project of the Department, the second oldest of its kind in the nation and predecessor to today's PennDOT; the proliferation of the familiar blue-and-yellow, cast iron Keystone Markers popularized Pennsylvania's reputation as the "Keystone State". While Pennsylvania once claimed thousands of Keystone Markers 600 remain; the loss of the Markers prompted Preservation Pennsylvania, the Commonwealth's statewide heritage preservation advocacy organization, to include the Keystone Markers among their most endangered resources in 2011.
Keystone Markers associated with towns are the most common of the survivors. In each municipality where the markers were installed, at least two were put up, one on each end of town along the principal roadway. If a town was at the intersection of two such roadways, there were four signs installed, two on each road. Markers for towns indicated the name of the town, the reason why the town was given that name, the date founded. Many town Keystone Markers indicated the distance to the next town in the upper part of the sign. Thus, each marker for a given town was unique. There are three different varieties of Keystone Markers, each associated with a different kind of use. Front-mount, single-sided sign markers used for towns; these markers have signs. Top-mount, dual-sided sign markers used for streams/creeks/rivers; these have a two-sided sign and mount on top of a specially-designed post that differs from the town marker post. Keystone Variant Markers used for borough lines, points of interest, directions and local roads, etc.
They use the same post as the town markers but have a differently-shaped sign. A non-profit advocacy organization called the Keystone Marker Trust is working with PennDOT and municipalities across the Commonwealth to restore existing Keystone Markers. Grant funding has enabled patterns to be created and the first replica Keystone Markers are slated to be installed in 2012; the co-founders of the trust are attorney and employee of the National Railway Historical Society Nathaniel Guest and historian Greg Prichard. Accurate Damaged or inaccurate Evans, Dean Lee. "Mountville unveils historical markers". Lancaster New Era. Archived from the original on 2013-10-05. Marotta, Mark D.. "Preserving a bit of Pennsylvania history". Pottstown Mercury. Beaugue, John. "PennDOT seeks help restoring Keystone Markers". The Patriot-News. Thomas, Mary Ann. "Keystone Markers give insights about towns but have fallen victim to time, theft or traffic accidents". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
Lancaster County locally, sometimes nicknamed the Garden Spot of America or Pennsylvania Dutch Country, is a county located in the south central part of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 519,445, its county seat is Lancaster. Lancaster County comprises the Lancaster, Metropolitan Statistical Area and is a part of Philadelphia's Designated Media Market; the County of Lancaster is a popular tourist destination, with its Amish community a major attraction. The "Dutch" of Pennsylvania Dutch is the English form of Düütsch, the Low German cognate of Standard German Deutsch and Pennsylvania Dutch Deitsch; the ancestors of the Amish began to immigrate to colonial Pennsylvania in the early 18th century to take advantage of the religious freedom offered by William Penn. They were attracted by the area's rich soil and mild climate. Attracted to promises of religious freedom, French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution settled this area in 1710. There were significant numbers of English and Ulster Scots.
The area that became Lancaster County was part of William Penn's 1681 charter. John Kennerly received the first recorded deed from Penn in 1691. Although Matthias Kreider was said to have been in the area as early as 1691, there is no evidence that any Europeans settled in Lancaster County before 1710. Lancaster County was part of Chester County, Pennsylvania until May 10, 1729, when it was organized as colony's fourth county, it was named after the city of Lancaster in the county of Lancashire in England, the native home of John Wright, an early settler. As settlement increased, six other counties were subsequently formed from territory directly taken, in all or in part, from Lancaster County: Berks, Dauphin, Lebanon and York. Many other counties were in turn formed from these six. Indigenous peoples had occupied the areas along the waterways for thousands of years, established varying cultures. Historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter included the Shawnee, Gawanese and Nanticoke peoples, who were from different language families and had distinct cultures.
Among the earliest recorded inhabitants of the Susquehanna River valley were the Iroquoian-speaking Susquehannock, whose name was derived from the Lenape term for "Oyster River People". The English called them the Conestoga, after the name of their principal village, Gan'ochs'a'go'jat'ga, anglicized as "Conestoga." Other places occupied by the Susquehannock were Ka'ot'sch'ie'ra, where present-day Chickisalunga developed, Gasch'guch'sa, now called Conewago Falls, Lancaster County. Other Native tribes, as well as early European settlers, considered the Susquehannock a mighty nation, experts in war and trade, they were beaten only by the combined power of the Five Nation Iroquois Confederacy, after colonial Maryland withdrew its support. After 1675, the Susquehannock were absorbed by the Iroquois. A handful were settled at "New Conestoga," located along the south bank of the Conestoga River in Conestoga Township of the county, they helped staff an Iroquois consulate to the English in Virginia. By the 1720s, the colonists considered the Conestoga Indians as a "civilized" or "friendly tribe," having been converted in large part to Christianity, speaking English as a second language, making brooms and baskets for sale, naming children after their favorite neighbors.
The outbreak of Pontiac's War in the summer of 1763, coupled with the ineffective policies of the provincial government, aroused widespread settler suspicion and hatred against all Indians in the frontier counties, without distinguishing among hostile and friendly peoples. On December 14, 1763, the Paxton Boys, led by Matthew Smith and Capt. Lazarus Stewart, attacked Conestoga, killing the six Indians present, burning all the houses. Officials sheltered the tribe's fourteen survivors in protective custody in the county jail, but the Paxton Boys returned on December 27, broke into the jail, massacred the remaining natives; the lack of effective government control and widespread sympathy in the frontier counties for the murderers meant they were never discovered or brought to justice. Pennsylvania had a longstanding dispute with Maryland about the southern border of the province and Lancaster County. Nine years of armed clashes accompanied the Maryland-Pennsylvania boundary dispute, which began soon after the 1730 establishment of Wright's Ferry across the Susquehanna River.
Lord Baltimore believed. This was the town of Willow Street, Pennsylvania; this line of demarcation would have resulted in Philadelphia's being included in Maryland. New settlers began to cross the Susquehanna. In 1730, the Wright's Ferry services were licensed and begun. Starting in mid-1730, Thomas Cresap, acting as an agent of Lord Baltimore, began confiscating the newly settled farms near present-day Peach Bottom and Columbia, Pennsylvania. Believing he controlled this land under his grant, Lord Baltimore wanted the income from the lands, he believed he had a defensible claim established on the west bank of the Susquehanna since 1721, that his demesne and grant
Wars of the Roses
The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, associated with a red rose, the House of York, whose symbol was a white rose. The wars eliminated the male lines of both families; the conflict lasted through many sporadic episodes between 1455 and 1487, but there was related fighting before and after this period between the parties. The power struggle ignited around social and financial troubles following the Hundred Years' War, unfolding the structural problems of feudalism, combined with the mental infirmity and weak rule of King Henry VI which revived interest in Richard of York's claim to the throne. Historians disagree on. With the Duke of York's death in 1460, the claim transferred to Edward. After a series of Yorkist victories from January–February 1461, Edward claimed the throne on March 4, 1461, the last serious Lancastrian resistance ended at decisive Battle of Towton.
Edward was thus unopposed as the first Yorkist king of England, as Edward IV. Resistance smoldered in the North until 1464, but the early part of his reign remained peaceful. A new phase of the wars broke out in 1469 after The Earl of Warwick, the most powerful noble in the country, withdrew his support for Edward and threw it behind the Lancastrian cause. Fortunes changed many times as the Yorkist and Lancastrian forces exchanged victories throughout 1469–1470; when Edward fled to Flanders in 1470, Henry VI was re-installed as king on 3 October 1470, but his resumption of rule was short lived, he was deposed again following the defeat of his forces at the Battle of Tewkesbury, on 21 May 1471, Edward entered London unopposed, resumed the throne, had Henry killed that same day. With all significant Lancastrian leaders now banished or killed, Edward ruled unopposed until his sudden death in 1483, his son reigned for 78 days as Edward V, but was deposed by his uncle, who became Richard III. The ascension of Richard III occurred under a cloud of controversy, shortly after assuming the throne, the wars sparked anew with Buckingham's rebellion, as many die-hard Yorkists abandoned Richard to join Lancastrians.
While the rebellions lacked much central coordination, in the chaos the exiled Henry Tudor, son of Henry VI's half-brother Edmund Earl of Richmond, the leader of the Lancastrian cause, returned to the country from exile in Brittany at the head of an army of combined Breton and English forces. Richard avoided direct conflict with Henry until the Battle of Bosworth Field on 22 August 1485. After Richard III was killed and his forces defeated at Bosworth Field, Henry assumed the throne as Henry VII and married Elizabeth of York, the eldest daughter and heir of Edward IV, thereby uniting the two claims; the House of Tudor ruled the Kingdom of England until 1603, with the death of Elizabeth I, granddaughter of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Shortly after Henry took the throne, the Earl of Lincoln, a Yorkist sympathizer, put forward Lambert Simnel as an imposter Richard of York, younger brother of Edward V. Lincoln's forces were defeated, he was killed at the Battle of Stoke Field on 16 June 1487, bringing a close to the Wars of the Roses.
The name "Wars of the Roses" refers to the heraldic badges associated with two rival branches of the same royal house, the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster. Wars of the Roses came into common use in the 19th century after the publication in 1829 of Anne of Geierstein by Sir Walter Scott. Scott based the name on a scene in William Shakespeare's play Henry VI, Part 1, set in the gardens of the Temple Church, where a number of noblemen and a lawyer pick red or white roses to show their loyalty to the Lancastrian or Yorkist faction respectively, it is suggested by literary critics that Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland has strong allegorical references to the conflict with York represented by the White Queen and Lancaster represented by the Red Queen. The Yorkist faction used the symbol of the white rose from early in the conflict, but the Lancastrian red rose was introduced only after the victory of Henry Tudor at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485, when it was combined with the Yorkist white rose to form the Tudor rose, which symbolised the union of the two houses.
Owing to nobles holding multiple titles, more than one badge was used: Edward IV, for example, used both his sun in splendour as Earl of March, but his father's falcon and fetterlock as Duke of York. Badges were not always distinct. Most, but not all, of the participants in the wars wore livery badges associated with their immediate lords or patrons under the prevailing system of bastard feudalism. Another example: Henry Tudor's forces at Bosworth fought under the banner of a red dragon while the Yorkist army used Richard III's personal device of a white boar. Although the names of the rival houses derive from the cities of York and Lancaster, the corresponding duchy and dukedom had little to do with these cities; the lands and offices attached to the Duchy of Lancaster were in Gloucestershire, North Wales, in Yorkshire, while the estates and castles of the Duke of York were spread throughout England and Wales, many in the We