In common law, a writ is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction. Warrants, prerogative writs, subpoenas are common types of writ, but many forms exist and have existed. In its earliest form, a writ was a written order made by the English monarch to a specified person to undertake a specified action. An early usage survives in the United Kingdom and Australia in a writ of election, a written order issued on behalf of the monarch to local officials to hold a general election. Writs were used by the medieval English kings to summon persons to Parliament, whose advice was considered valuable or who were influential, who were thereby deemed to have been created "barons by writ"; the writ was a unique development of the Anglo-Saxon monarchy and consisted of a brief administrative order, authenticated by a seal. Written in the vernacular, they made a land grant or conveyed instructions to a local court. In the beginning, writs were the document issued by the King's Chancellor against a landowner whose vassal complained to the King about an injustice, after a first summon by the sheriff to comply had been deemed fruitless.
William the Conqueror took over the system unchanged, but was to extend it in two ways: first, writs became framed in Latin, not Anglo-Saxon. Writs of instruction continued to develop under his immediate successors, but it was not until Henry the Second that writs became available for purchase by private individuals seeking justice, thus initiating a vast expansion in their role within the common law. Writs could take two main forms, open for all to read, and'letters close' for one or more specified individuals alone; the development of writs as a means of commencing a court action was a form of "off-the-shelf" justice designed to enable the English law courts to process lawsuits by allocating each form of complaint into a standard category which could be dealt with by standard procedures. The complainant applied to the court for the writ most relevant to his complaint to be sent to the wrongdoer, which ordered him under royal authority to attend a royal court to answer for his actions; the development was part of the establishment of a Court of Common Pleas, for dealing with made complaints by subjects of the crown, for example: "someone has damaged my property".
The previous system of justice at the royal court of Chancery was tailor-made to suit each case and was thus time-consuming. Thus the obtaining of a writ became necessary, in most cases, to have a case heard in one of the Royal Courts, such as the King's Bench or Common Pleas; some franchise courts in the Counties Palatine, had their own system of writs which reflected or anticipated the common law writs. The writ was "served" on the wrongdoer and acted as a command that he should appear at a specified time and date before the court specified in the writ, or it might command some other act on the part of the recipient. Where a plaintiff wished to have a case heard by a local court, or by an Eyre if one happened to be visiting the County, there would be no need to obtain a writ. Actions in local courts could be started by an informal complaint. However, if a plaintiff wished to avail himself of Royal — and by implication superior — justice in one of the King's courts he would need a writ, a command of the King, to enable him to do this.
For common law, recourse to the King's courts was unusual, something for which a plaintiff would have to pay. For most Royal Courts, the writ would have been purchased from the Chancery, although the court of the Exchequer, being, in essence, another government department, was able to issue its own writs. While writs were exceptional, or at least non-routine devices, Maitland suggests that by the time of King Henry II, the use of writs had become a regular part of the system of royal justice in England. At first, new writs were drafted to fit each new situation, although in practice the clerks of the Chancery would use wording from issued writs, with suitable adjustments taken from reference books containing collections of forms of writ, much as in modern times lawyers use fixed precedents or boilerplate, rather than re-inventing the wording of a new legal document; the problem with this approach was that a plaintiff's rights and available forms of action at his disposal, would be defined, in most cases limited, by the limited variety of writs available to him.
Thus the power to create new writs was akin to the power to create new rights, a form of extra-parliamentary legislation. Moreover, a writ, if one could be found fitting the plaintiff's case, provided the legal means to remove the dispute from the jurisdiction of the local court controlled by a lesser noble, instead have it heard by the King's judges; the nobility thus saw the creation of new writs as an erosion of their influence. Over time, opposition to the creation of new writs by the Chancery increased. For example, in 1256 a court was asked to quash a writ as "novel, unheard of, against reason". In 1258, the Kin
George Merrill was the lifelong partner of English poet and LGBT activist Edward Carpenter. Merrill, a working-class young man, raised in the slums of Sheffield, had no formal education, he met Edward Carpenter on a train in 1891, moved into Carpenter's home at Millthorpe outside Sheffield in 1898. His arrival was commemorated by Carpenter in the poem Hafiz to the Cupbearer; the two lived as a couple for thirty years, until Merrill died. Carpenter was buried beside Merrill; the relationship between Carpenter and Merrill formed the motivation for E. M. Forster's novel Maurice, the character of the gamekeeper Alec Scudder was in part modelled after George Merrill. George Merrill's biographic sketch at Find a Grave Edward Carpenter, George Merrill, a true history, & study in psychology. Transcription of the unpublished typescript. Edward Carpenter, My days and dreams, being autobiographical notes, Allen & Unwin, 1916, chapter 9
St. George’s School is a state-approved, international school located in Germany. St George's is a private school and teaches the English National Curriculum and the IB Diploma Programme after Key Stage 4. Pupils are aged between 2 and 18. St. George’s is a coeducational and non-denominational school, run independently from local or state financial support. School uniform is compulsory with the aim of improving discipline, reducing social exclusion and strengthening the identity of the school, it has schools in three German cities: Duisburg-Düsseldorf and Munich. St. George’s School Cologne was the first British boarding school in Germany. St. George’s School Cologne is the oldest school, founded in 1985; the school has been an International Baccalaureate World School since April 2006, offers the IB Diploma Programme. Students achieved an average score of 34 points in 2017. St. George's has established two further schools, St. George's School Duisburg-Düsseldorf and St. George's School Munich; the Aachen location closed in July 2016.