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Motive (law)

A motive is the cause that moves people to induce a certain action. In criminal law, motive in itself is not an element of any given crime. However, a motive is not required to reach a verdict. Motives are used in other aspects of a specific case, for instance, when police are investigating; the law technically distinguishes between intent. "Intent" in criminal law is synonymous with Mens rea, which means the mental state shows liability, enforced by law as an element of a crime. "Motive" describes instead the reasons in the accused's background and station in life that are supposed to have induced the crime. Motives are broken down into three categories. There are two objections to motive; the first is volitional objection, the argument that the person cannot manage his or her own motives and therefore cannot be punished for them. The second objection is neutrality objection; this is based on the idea that our society has contrasting political opinions and therefore a government’s preference should be limited.

There are four different ways a defendant's motive can be pertinent to his or her criminal liability. Motive can be inculpatory or exculpatory or only inculpatory or exculpatory; when one has acted with a specific motive, lawful behavior becomes illegal, this is when motive is inculpatory. If illegal activity with a particular motive does not hold a defendant responsible that motive is exculpatory; when a motive supplies inadequate defense to a crime, the motive is exculpatory. When a motive says the kind of infraction for which the defendant is responsible, the motive is inculpatory. Means and opportunity

William John Maxwell

William John Maxwell was a United States Navy officer who served as the 18th Naval Governor of Guam. He entered the United States Naval Academy in 1874, but was not commissioned as an ensign until 1883, he served aboard many ships before becoming one of the inaugural members of the General Board of the United States Navy. Afterward, he commanded both USS USS Florida. After becoming governor in 1914, Maxwell instituted a number of reforms, including establishing the Bank of Guam and the Guam Insular Patrol Force, he reorganized the tax system and stressed the building and improvement of new roads. His plans to give Guamanians United States citizenship was rejected by then-Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Guam became the center an international relations incident when the German SMS Cormoran made port there asking for coal at a time when the United States remained neutral in World War I. Maxwell refused to break neutrality by providing fuel and supplies, forcing the ship to stay in port for the next two years.

Maxwell attracted controversy during his term when he approved the first execution on the island since the US takeover. A lower-ranking officer, William P. Cronan, placed Maxwell on the sick list, despite his protest, removed him from power, taking the office himself; the Navy launched an inquiry into the appropriateness and motives of the dismissal, but nonetheless, declared healthy by mainland doctors, was reassigned to the Naval War College. Maxwell was appointed to the United States Naval Academy on June 8, 1874. On March 3, 1883, he was commissioned as an ensign junior grade, an ensign on June 26, 1884, he served aboard the training ship USS Jamestown from 1883 to 1885. On July 4, 1893, he was promoted to Lieutenant. From July 1890 to March 1891, he served aboard the USS Dolphin, before becoming the Assistant to the Inspector of the 5th Lighthouse District in July 1892. In 1900, Maxwell began his assignment aboard USS Isla de Cuba. In 1905, as a Lieutenant Commander, he served as Chief Engineer on USS Maryland's commissioning crew.

In 1910 as a Commander, he served as one of the first members of the General Board of the United States Navy. On November 12, 1911, he left Hampton Roads, Virginia commanding USS Mississippi, after being placed in command two days before, he continued in this position until 1912. In 1913, he commanded USS Florida. Maxwell served as Naval Governor of Guam from March 28, 1914 to April 29, 1916. During his term, a typhoon hit in the summer of 1914, leaving a shortage of corn crops; as governor, he established a number of some still in existence. These organizations include the Guam Insular Patrol Force, the civilian predecessor to the Guam Police Department, as well as the Bank of Guam, he stressed road building. The bank helped many islanders obtain loans to open small businesses, he served as the first chairman of the Guamanian chapter of the American Red Cross and organized its first fundraising drive. In 1914, Maxwell proposed granting United States citizenship to the people of Guam. However, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy, rejected the plan, claiming that making Guamanians citizens was not in the best interest of the country.

He asked that Guam be made an open port of trade to all ships, believing this would reduce the local's dependence on government assistance for food. In December 1914, Maxwell found himself at the center of a diplomatic incident when the German Empire ship SMS Cormoran stopped in Guam to resupply on coal. Maxwell, under orders to maintain American neutrality in the begun World War I, refused the ship supplies, instead forcing it to voluntarily inter itself at the island for the next two years. Near the end of his term, Maxwell began coming into conflict with the islanders, he attracted some controversy when he outlawed public whistling, hoping to curtail mischievous local boys from whistling an incorrect cadence as sailors marched. He attracted larger anger when he ordered the first execution on the island since the United States had assumed control of it. On April 29, 1916, William P. Cronan relieved Maxwell after involuntarily placing him on the sick list. However, upon transportation to the mainland United States, he was found to be healthy and reassigned to the Naval War College.

The Navy launched an inquiry, led by Captain William R. Shoemaker, into the events surrounding Maxwell's dismissal and placement on the list by an officer of a lower rank, it was alleged that Cronan aide to the governor, disagreed with several of Maxwell's policies and used improper and unprofessional methods to oust him and take the position for himself. The Maxwell School, named after the governor, was built in Santa Rita, Guam in the early 1930s, but does not exist today

Lorelei Mahoney

Lorelei Mahoney is an American musician and actress turned screenwriter who has played roles in major films such as Hollywood & Wine and She's Out of My League as well as starring in numerous music videos, documentaries relating her music career, network television shows. She is the writer of the Irish film Leno's Last Kiss. Lorelei Mahoney was born in 1984 to Pamela Ammerman and Billy Jo Charbonneaux; when she was 9, her mother was murdered and she ended up in foster care. She was adopted by Lisa Montgomery, becoming the adopted granddaughter of Grand Ole Opry preacher and actress Dottie Snow-Tubb, the former daughter-in-law of country music legend Hank Snow, the great-granddaughter of radio legends Smoky Swan and Radio Dot. In 2009, Lorelei was involved in a devastating car accident which left her with a mild traumatic brain injury, she has since made a full recovery. Mahoney's career began as a child in the mid-1980s with minor roles on Sesame Street, she had appearances on You Can't Do That on Television.

In the 1990s she had limited roles including the Ozzfest video documentary and in the television series Are You Afraid of the Dark?. Mahoney's current career took off in the 2000s when she landed roles in hit movies such as Hollywood & Wine and She's Out of My League, she wrote and starred in her own film entitled Leno's Last Kiss and had several appearances in the television series Valentine. From 1998 to 2002, Lorelei stopped acting to pursue a music career, she first began with the hardcore band Cronus Rising and became their manager. It was at that time that she met Mikey Murder from the band Murder Maim Kill and got back into acting, it was after a concert in New Jersey where she was asked to stay behind by a director shooting a horror film. Lorelei returned to acting after her extra role in that film. Mahoney is rumored to be a strong believer in the paranormal and astrology and lives in Pennsylvania due to its “haunted history.” She is the honorary co-chair of the Dover Paranormal Society, located 20 minutes from Gettysburg.

Mahoney is the owner of a photography company in Philadelphia, called Kavanaugh Photography as a tribute to her grandmother. Mahoney holds dual citizenship between Ireland and The United States. Mahoney married Edwin Gunn in 2004. Mahoney is partnered with Jared L. Shenigo, a professional artist and video-game streamer, but has been involved with other celebrities, including Mike Murder and Sully Erna. Official Website

Ice rink

An ice rink is a frozen body of water and/or hardened chemicals where people can ice skate or play winter sports. Besides recreational ice skating, some of its uses include ice hockey, rink bandy, broomball, speed skating, figure skating, ice stock sport and curling as well as exhibitions and ice shows. There are two types of rinks in prevalent use today: natural, where freezing occurs from cold ambient temperatures, artificial, where a coolant produces cold temperatures in the surface below the water, causing the water to freeze. There are synthetic ice rinks where skating surfaces are made out of plastics. Rink, a Scottish word meaning ` course', was used as the name of a place; the name uses. Early attempts at the construction of artificial ice rinks were first made in the'rink mania' of 1841–44; as the technology for the maintenance of natural ice did not exist, these early rinks used a substitute consisting of a mixture of hog's lard and various salts. An item in the 8 May 1844 issue of Eliakim Littell's Living Age headed "The Glaciarium" reported that "This establishment, removed to Grafton street East' Tottenham Court Road, was opened on Monday afternoon.

The area of artificial ice is convenient for such as may be desirous of engaging in the graceful and manly pastime of skating". By 1844, these venues fell out of fashion, as customers grew tired of the'smelly' ice substitute, it was only thirty years that refrigeration technology developed to the point that natural ice could be feasibly used in the rink; the world's first mechanically frozen ice rink was the Glaciarium, opened by John Gamgee in a tent in a small building just off the Kings Road in Chelsea, London, on 7 January 1876. In March, it moved to a permanent venue at 379 Kings Road, where a rink measuring 40 by 24 feet was established; the rink was based with layers of earth, cow hair and timber planks. Atop these were laid oval copper pipes carrying a solution of glycerine with ether, nitrogen peroxide and water; the pipes were covered by water and the solution was pumped through, freezing the water into ice. Gamgee discovered the process while attempting to develop a method to freeze meat for import from Australia and New Zealand, patented it as early as 1870.

Gamgee operated the rink on a membership-only basis and attempted to attract a wealthy clientele, experienced in open-air ice skating during winters in the Alps. He installed an orchestra gallery, which could be used by spectators, decorated the walls with views of the Swiss Alps; the rink proved a success, Gamgee opened two further rinks in the year: at Rusholme in Manchester and the "Floating Glaciarium" at Charing Cross in London, this last larger at 115 by 25 feet. The Southport Glaciarium opened in 1879. In Germany, the first ice skating rink opened in 1882 in Frankfurt during a patent exhibition, it operated for two months. Ten years a larger rink was permanently installed on the same site; the oldest indoor artificial ice rink still in use is the one in Boston's Matthews Arena, on the campus of Northeastern University. Many ice rinks consist of, or are found on, open bodies of water such as lakes, ponds and sometimes rivers. Rinks can be made in cold climates by enclosing a level area of ground, filling it with water, letting it freeze.

Snow may be packed to use as a containment material. A famous example of this type of rink is the Rideau Canal Skateway in Ottawa, Canada, estimated at 1,782,000 square feet and 7.8 kilometres long, equivalent to 90 Olympic size skating rinks. The rink is prepared by letting the canal water freeze; the rink is resurfaced nightly by cleaning the ice of snow and flooding it with water from below the ice. The rink is recognized as the "world's largest frozen ice rink" by the Guinness Book of World Records because "its entire length receives daily maintenance such as sweeping, ice thickness checks and there are toilet and recreational facilities along its entire length"; the longest ice skating trail can be found in Invermere, British Columbia, Canada, on Lake Windermere Whiteway. The frozen trail measures 29.98 kilometres. In any climate, an arena ice surface can be installed in a properly built space; this consists of a bed of sand or a slab of concrete, through which pipes run. The pipes carry a chilled fluid which can lower the temperature of the slab so that water placed atop will freeze.

This method is known as'artificial ice' to differentiate from ice rinks made by freezing water in a cold climate, indoors or outdoors, although both types are of frozen water. A more proper technical term is'mechanically frozen' ice. A famous example of this type of rink is the outdoor rink at Rockefeller Center in New York. Modern rinks have a specific procedure for preparing the surface. With the pipes cold, a thin layer of water is sprayed on the concrete to seal and level it; this thin layer is painted pale blue for better contrast.

S/MIME

S/MIME is a standard for public key encryption and signing of MIME data. S/MIME is on an IETF standards track and defined in a number of documents, most RFC 3369, 3370, 3850 and 3851, it was developed by RSA Data Security and the original specification used the IETF MIME specification with the de facto industry standard PKCS#7 secure message format. Change control to S/MIME has since been vested in the IETF and the specification is now layered on Cryptographic Message Syntax, an IETF specification, identical in most respects with PKCS #7. S/MIME functionality is built into the majority of modern email software and interoperates between them. Since it is built on CMS, MIME can hold an advanced electronic signature. S/MIME provides the following cryptographic security services for electronic messaging applications: Authentication Message integrity Non-repudiation of origin Privacy Data security S/MIME specifies the MIME type application/pkcs7-mime for data enveloping where the whole MIME entity to be enveloped is encrypted and packed into an object which subsequently is inserted into an application/pkcs7-mime MIME entity.

Before S/MIME can be used in any of the above applications, one must obtain and install an individual key/certificate either from one's in-house certificate authority or from a public CA. The accepted best practice is to use separate private keys for signature and for encryption, as this permits escrow of the encryption key without compromise to the non-repudiation property of the signature key. Encryption requires having the destination party's certificate on store. While it is technically possible to send a message encrypted without having one's own certificate to digitally sign, in practice, the S/MIME clients will require the user to install their own certificate before they allow encrypting to others; this is necessary so the message can be encrypted for both and sender, a copy of the message can be kept and be readable for the sender. A typical basic personal certificate verifies the owner's "identity" only insofar as it declares that the sender is the owner of the "From:" email address in the sense that the sender can receive email sent to that address, so proves that an email received did come from the "From:" address given.

It does not verify the person's business name. If a sender wishes to enable email recipients to verify the sender's identity in the sense that a received certificate name carries the sender's name or an organization's name, the sender needs to obtain a certificate from a CA who carries out a more in-depth identity verification process, this involves making inquiries about the would-be certificate holder. For more detail on authentication, see digital signature. Depending on the policy of the CA, the certificate and all its contents may be posted publicly for reference and verification; this makes the name and email address available for all to see and search for. Other CAs only post serial numbers and revocation status, which does not include any of the personal information; the latter, at a minimum, is mandatory to uphold the integrity of the public key infrastructure. Unrestricted use Actalis WISeID MeSince Only for personal use CAcert Fossa. Me S/MIME is sometimes considered not properly suited for use via webmail clients.

Though support can be hacked into a browser, some security practices require the private key to be kept accessible to the user but inaccessible from the webmail server, complicating the key advantage of webmail: providing ubiquitous accessibility. This issue is not specific to S/MIME: other secure methods of signing webmail may require a browser to execute code to produce the signature. Seen from the view of security this is a more secure solution. S/MIME is tailored for end-to-end security. Logically it is not possible to have a third party inspecting email for malware and have secure end-to-end communications. Encryption will not only encrypt the messages, but the malware, thus if mail is not scanned for malware anywhere but at the end points, such as a company's gateway, encryption will defeat the detector and deliver the malware. The only solution to this is to perform malware scanning on end user stations after decryption. Other solutions do not provide end-to-end trust as they require keys to be shared by a third party for the purpose of detecting malware.

Examples of this type of compromise are: Solutions which store private keys on the gateway server so decryption can occur prior to the gateway malware scan. These unencrypted messages are delivered to end users. Solutions which store private keys on malware scanners so that it can inspect messages content, the encrypted message is relayed to its destination. Due to the requirement of a certificate for implementation, not all users can take advantage of S/MIME, as some may wish to encrypt a message, with a public/private key pair for example, without the involvement or administrative overhead of certificates. Any message that an S/MIME email client stores en