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Written Chinese

Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters used to represent the Chinese language. Chinese characters do not constitute a compact syllabary. Rather, the writing system is logosyllabic; the characters themselves are composed of parts that may represent physical objects, abstract notions, or pronunciation. Literacy requires the memorization of a great number of characters: educated Chinese know about 4,000; the large number of Chinese characters has in part led to the adoption of Western alphabets or other complementary systems as auxiliary means of representing Chinese. Various current Chinese characters have been traced back to the late Shang Dynasty about 1200–1050 BC, but the process of creating characters is thought to have begun some centuries earlier. After a period of variation and evolution, Chinese characters were standardized under the Qin Dynasty. Over the millennia, these characters have evolved into well-developed styles of Chinese calligraphy; as the varieties of Chinese diverged, a situation of diglossia developed, with speakers of mutually unintelligible varieties able to communicate through writing using Classical Chinese.

In the early 20th century, Classical Chinese was replaced in this role by written vernacular Chinese, corresponding to the standard spoken language. Although most other varieties of Chinese are not written, there are traditions of written Cantonese, written Shanghainese and written Hokkien, among others; some Chinese characters have been adopted into writing systems of other neighbouring East Asian languages, but are used only in Japanese and to a lesser extent in Korean, as Vietnamese is now written using alphabetic script. Written Chinese is not based on a compact syllabary. Instead, Chinese characters are glyphs whose components may depict objects or represent abstract notions. A character consists of only one component; the best known exposition of Chinese character composition is the Shuowen Jiezi, compiled by Xu Shen around 120 AD. Since Xu Shen did not have access to Chinese characters in their earliest forms, his analysis cannot always be taken as authoritative. Nonetheless, no work has supplanted the Shuowen Jiezi in terms of breadth, it is still relevant to etymological research today.

According to the Shuowen Jiezi, Chinese characters are developed on six basic principles. The first two principles produce simple characters, known as 文 wén: 象形 xiàngxíng: Pictographs, in which the character is a graphical depiction of the object it denotes. Examples: 人 rén "person", 日 rì "sun", 木 mù "tree/wood". 指事 zhǐshì: Indicatives, or ideographs, in which the character represents an abstract notion. Examples: 上 shàng "up", 下 xià "down", 三 sān "three"; the remaining four principles produce complex characters called 字 zì. Of these four, two construct characters from simpler parts: 會意/会意 huìyì: Logical aggregates, in which two or more parts are used for their meaning; this yields a composite meaning, applied to the new character. E.g. 東/东 dōng "east". 形聲/形声 xíngshēng: Phonetic complexes, in which one part—often called the radical—indicates the general semantic category of the character, the other part is another character, used for its phonetic value. Example: 晴 qíng "clear/fair", composed of 日 rì "sun", 青 qīng "blue/green", used for its pronunciation.

In contrast to the popular conception of Chinese as a pictographic or ideographic language, the vast majority of Chinese characters are constructed as either logical aggregates or, more phonetic complexes. In fact, some phonetic complexes were simple pictographs that were augmented by the addition of a semantic root. An example is 炷 zhù "candle", a pictograph 主, a character, now pronounced zhǔ and means "host", or The character 火 huǒ "fire" was added to indicate that the meaning is fire-related; the last two principles do not produce new written forms Instead, they transfer new meanings to existing forms: 轉注/转注 zhuǎnzhù: Transference, in which a character with a simple, concrete meaning takes on an extended, more abstract meaning. Example: 網/网 wǎng "net", a pictograph depicting a fishing net. Over time, it has taken on an extended meaning. 假借 jiǎjiè: Borrowing, in which a character is used, either intentionally or accidentally, for some different purpose. Example: 哥 gē "older brother", written with a character meaning "song/sing", now written 歌 gē.

Once, there was no character for "older brother", so an otherwise unrelated character with the right pronunciation was borrowed for that meaning. Chinese characters are written to fit into a square when composed of two simpler forms written side-by-side or top-to-bottom. In such cases, each form is compressed to fit the entire character into a square. Character components can be further subdivided into strokes; the strokes of Chinese characters f

2016 BGL Luxembourg Open

The 2016 BGL BNP Paribas Luxembourg Open was a women's tennis tournament played on indoor hard courts sponsored by BNP Paribas. It was the 21st edition of the Luxembourg Open, part of the WTA International tournaments category of the 2016 WTA Tour, it was held in Luxembourg City, Luxembourg, on 17–22 October 2016. 1 Qualifiers prize money is the Round of 32 prize money* per team Rankings as of 10 October 2016 The following players received wildcards into the singles main draw: Océane Dodin Mandy Minella Francesca SchiavoneThe following players received entry from the qualifying draw: Lauren Davis Kristýna Plíšková Tereza Smitková Carina Witthöft Before the tournament Anna-Lena Friedsam → replaced by Denisa AllertováDuring the tournament Caroline Wozniacki 1 Rankings as of 10 October 2016 The following pairs received wildcards into the doubles main draw: Julia Boserup / Mandy Minella Hsieh Shu-ying / Hsieh Su-wei Monica Niculescu defeated Petra Kvitová, 6–4, 6–0 Kiki Bertens / Johanna Larsson defeated Monica Niculescu / Patricia Maria Țig, 4–6, 7–5, Official website Women's Tennis Association tournament profil

Welcome to Demon School! Iruma-kun

Welcome to Demon School! Iruma-kun is a Japanese manga series by Osamu Nishi, it has been serialized in Akita Shoten's shōnen manga magazine Weekly Shōnen Champion since March 2017. As of January 8, 2020, the series has been collected in fifteen tankōbon volumes. An anime television series adaptation by Bandai Namco Pictures premiered on October 5, 2019; the story follows Iruma Suzuki, a 14-year-old human boy, sold to a demon by his parents. The demon, known as Sullivan, takes Iruma to the Demon World and adopts him as his grandson, he enrolls Iruma in the Babyls School for Demons where he is the headmaster, where Iruma befriends the demons Alice Asmodeus and Clara Valac. However, Sullivan tells Iruma to never reveal that he is a human, since he will be eaten if anyone finds out. Iruma vows to blend in during his time in the Demon World, although he only stands out due to all the situations and adventures that arise. Iruma Suzuki Voiced by: Ayumu Murase; the words that affect him the most are: "please", "help", "I beg you."

Due to his parents' neglect, he was unable to attend regular school in the human world and had to work a variety of jobs from a young age to support himself. However, his odd jobs led him to be able to dodge anything; this ability gains him the respect and admiration of Alice, who becomes his first friend at Babyls after Iruma dodges all of his attacks. Iruma is very kind, he genuinely enjoys helping people despite any inconvenience it may bring him, he becomes friends with Clara out of genuine care for her, unbeknownst to him, he is respected by his fellow classmates. During the Demon Rank placement exams, his rank was immeasurable due to the rank owl giving him a demon ring instead of a rank badge, so he was placed in the lowest rank: Aleph. Iruma accidentally made his homeroom teacher, his familiar, he is rank daleth. Sullivan Voiced by: Takaya Kuroda, he is one of the three demons in the Demon World who ranks as a Tet and is one of the most powerful and influential demons in society. Thus, he is a possible candidate for the new Demon King since the disappearance of the last Demon King.

Sullivan is the demon that buys and subsequently adopts Iruma as his grandson. He did this so he could fill the void he felt every time he went to a meeting with his fellow Tet ranking friends, who said outstanding things about their own grandchildren. Sullivan is responsible for granting Iruma the ability to read and understand the demon language through magic, he showers him with gifts and attention. In an effort to help Iruma blend in, he placed him along with Clara in the Abnormal Class. Opera Voiced by: Mitsuki Saiga. Opera lives in the same house as Sullivan and Iruma, manages the laundry, cooking and transport for the two of them, they have a master-servant relationship, with Sullivan relying on Opera's abilities and advice to keep him on track and away from distractions. Opera is one of the four demons that know Iruma is a human, with the other three being Sullivan and Amelie, their rank is unknown. Asmodeus Alice Voiced by: Ryōhei Kimura, his rank and power exceed those of most freshmen, he has the ability to wield fire.

He was the valedictorian of the freshman class, with the highest grades on the entrance exam. At first, he begrudgingly played with Clara upon Iruma's request, but also becomes her best friend, he is very calm, but when Iruma is involved, he becomes more emotional fighting with Clara so he can get Iruma's attention. His familiar is a white Gorgon snake who wields fire and his rank is Daleth. Valac Clara Voiced by: Ayaka Asai, she has the ability to make anything she has seen from her pockets, had always bribed other demons with snacks to play with her until she met Iruma. Iruma told Clara he does not need bribes to play with her since he enjoyed her company, which boosts Clara's confidence and she thus becomes best friends with Iruma and Alice, her familiar is a rare indescribable creature and her rank is Gimel. Ameri Azazel Voiced by: Saori Hayami. Although she is dignified and is respected by the student population, she is a girl, secretly a fan of the human world. Due to her love of manga, Ameri was the only demon to suspect that Iruma is a human despite the common belief that humans are a myth in the Demon World.

She secretly confirms her suspicions and becomes friends with Iruma and develops feelings for him, although Iruma is not aware that she knows he is a human. Her rank is the highest of any student. Kallego Naberius Voiced by: Daisuke Ono, he accidentally becomes Iru

Robert L. J. Ellery

Robert Lewis John Ellery was an English-Australian astronomer and public servant who served as Victorian government astronomer for 42 years. Ellery was born in Cranleigh, England, the son of John Ellery, a surgeon, his wife Caroline, née Potter. Ellery was educated at the local grammar school and qualified as a medical practitioner, but he had an early interest in astronomy. Friends at Greenwich Observatory encouraged he had some access to instruments there. Ellery sailed for Victoria in 1851 attracted by the discovery of gold, is stated to have practised as a physician at Williamstown, Victoria. If so it could only have been for a short period, as in 1853 the Victorian government decided to found an astronomical observatory as a service to shipping, whose navigators relied critically on accurate astronomical time for determination of their longitude and appreciated the opportunity to synchronise their chronometers. Ellery had established a reputation as a astronomer and in July 1853 was put in charge of the facility.

The Victorian government observatory was at first on a modest scale, being housed in a small two-roomed cottage at Williamstown, the only instruments were a sextant, an artificial horizon and a marine chronometer. However, by March 1854, a 30-inch transit instrument, a good astronomical clock and a time-ball apparatus had been added, a few meteorological instruments were obtained. Ellery's workload was not heavy, he undertook for a time the duties of storekeeper of the marine depot. In 1856 he began a geodetic survey of Victoria, not completed until 1874. At the beginning of 1858 the government founded another observatory known as the magnetic observatory on Flagstaff Hill, West Melbourne, under a distinguished German scientist, Georg von Neumayer, who had applied for a site in the Domain south of the Yarra without success. Both Ellery and Neumayer found that the sites given them were not suitable for their work, but it was not until 1863 that a move was made to the Domain. Edward John White, an able astronomer, was added to Ellery's staff in May 1860, several valuable catalogues of stars were prepared and published.

Melbourne Observatory played a crucial role in the 1862 determination of the distance from the earth of the sun, which involved close cooperation between Ellery and E. J. Stone of Greenwich. In 1868 a new telescope was sent out from England but the results obtained with it were unsatisfactory. Ellery resolved the issues he had with the telescope by applying his mechanical ability to the problems involved. Ellery had an able assistant in Ebenezer Farie Macgeorge, his surveyor in 1867 when he defined the boundary between South Australia and New South Wales replaced Albert Le Sueur as his observer, serving from 1870 to 1872. In March 1871 he reported to the Royal Society of Victoria that since Le Sueur's polishing of the Great Melbourne Telescope the chief limitation to observation was the atmosphere, not the instrument. At the end of 1890, another telescope arrived and Ellery began a new important piece of work, the preparation of the share allotted to Melbourne of the astrographic chart, he was succeeded by Pietro Baracchi.

In addition to his own work Ellery had much to do with scientific bodies. He was one of the founders of the Royal Society of Victoria and its president from 1866 to 1884, became a trustee of the public library and National Gallery of Victoria in 1882, was for many years a member of the council of the University of Melbourne, he was interested in the volunteer movement and in 1873 organized the Victorian torpedo corps, afterwards the submarine mining engineers. He was in command until 1889. In 1900, Ellery was elected president of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. Ellery was the first president of the Victorian Beekeepers' Club in 1885, edited the Australian Beekeepers' Journal. Early in 1907 Ellery had a paralytic stroke, but recovered well and was in fair health until shortly before his death at Melbourne on 14 January 1908. Ellery wrote many papers for scientific journals; some of the catalogues of stars and other work done under his supervision at the observatory were published, but at the time of his death much remained in manuscript.

He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, London, in 1873, was created C. M. G. in 1889. He was married twice, to daughters of Dr John Shields, he left a daughter. Ellery was awarded the Clarke Medal by the Royal Society of New South Wales in 1889. Mount Ellery in Antarctica was named after him in 1886. Serle, Percival. "Ellery, Robert Lewis John". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. Retrieved 12 October 2008. S. C. B. Gascoigne,'Ellery, Robert Lewis John', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 4, MUP, 1972, pp 135–137. Retrieved 12 October 2008

Malcolm Boyle

Malcolm Boyle was a British organist and composer. He was born in Windsor, as a boy served as a chorister at Eton College, he became an organ pupil of Sir Walter Parratt of Windsor. At age 17 he was appointed choirmaster of Holy Trinity Garrison Church, Windsor. After taking his BMus at Queen's College, Oxford, he became Assistant organist to Sir Walford Davies at St George's, he attended the Royal Academy of Music in London where he had been granted an organ scholarship. In 1932 he became organist of Chester Cathedral; as a divorcee, he was dismissed by the Dean and Chapter when he remarried in 1948. In 1949 he was appointed an Examiner for the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music. In this capacity he travelled to New Zealand, Hong Kong, the West Indies, he was chosen as one of a panel of specially co-opted musical adjudicators from Britain for Expo year in Canada. His anthem "Thou, O God, art praised in Sion" still enjoys a place in the musical repertoire of the Anglican Communion. For many years no published edition was available, the piece only existing in manuscript form, having been written down from memory by Dr George Guest, a chorister at Chester Cathedral under Boyle.

The motet was published by Paraclete Press. Fittingly, it was the introit at Dr. Guest's memorial service. For the last decade of his life he was organist and choirmaster at his local church in Sandiway, Cheshire

Jack Curran (footballer)

John Joseph Curran was an Irish professional footballer who made 180 Football League appearances playing as a full back for Brighton & Hove Albion. He won domestic and representative honours in both Ireland and Wales, was capped five times for Ireland. Curran was born in 1898 in Belfast, he joined Glenavon in 1920, helping the club reach two successive Irish Cup finals and runner-up spot in the 1920–21 Irish League. His performances were rewarded first with selection for the Irish League representative team to play the Football League XI in October 1921 and with a first cap for Ireland, in a 1–1 draw at home to Wales in the 1921–22 British Home Championship, he spent the 1922–23 season with Pontypridd of the Southern League Welsh Section, during which he was capped twice more for his country and played twice for the Welsh League representative team. Returning to Glenavon, he made his last appearance for Ireland in a 2–1 defeat of England at Windsor Park in October 1923Curran signed for Brighton & Hove Albion of the Football League Third Division South in 1925, where he established a full-back partnership with Jack Jenkins that lasted several years.

In December 1930, Curran –, ever-present the previous season and had made nearly 200 senior appearances in total – and prolific goalscorer Hugh Vallance left the club after a "serious misdemeanour". Curran returned to Ireland and joined Linfield, with whom he won the 1930–31 Irish Cup and 1931–32 Irish League