Heritage Documentation Programs
Heritage Documentation Programs is a division of the U. S. National Park Service responsible for administering the Historic American Buildings Survey, Historic American Engineering Record, Historic American Landscapes Survey; these programs were established to document historic places in the United States. Records consist of measured drawings, archival photographs, written reports, are archived in the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress. In 1933, NPS established the Historic American Buildings Survey following a proposal by Charles E. Peterson, a young landscape architect in the agency, it was founded as a constructive make-work program for architects and photographers left jobless by the Great Depression. Guided by field instructions from Washington, D. C. the first HABS recorders were tasked with documenting a representative sampling of America's architectural heritage. By creating an archive of historic architecture, HABS provided a database of primary source material and documentation for the then-fledgling historic preservation movement.
Earlier private projects included the White Pine Series of Architectural Monographs, many contributors to which joined the HABS program. Notable HABS photographers include Jack Boucher; the Historic American Engineering Record program was founded on January 10, 1969, by NPS and the American Society of Civil Engineers. HAER documents historic mechanical and engineering artifacts. Since the advent of HAER, the combined program is called "HABS/HAER". Today much of the work of HABS/HAER is done by student teams during the summer, or as part of college-credit classwork. Eric DeLony headed HAER from 1971 to 2003. In October 2000, NPS and the American Society of Landscape Architects established a sister program, the Historic American Landscapes Survey, to systematically document historic American landscapes. A predecessor, the Historic American Landscape and Garden Project, recorded historic Massachusetts gardens between 1935 and 1940; that project was funded by the Works Progress Administration, but was administered by HABS, which supervised the collection of records.
The permanent collection of HABS/HAER/HALS are housed at the Library of Congress, established in 1790 as the replacement reference library of the United States Congress. It has since been expanded to serve as the National Library of the United States. S. publishers are required to deposit a copy of every copyrighted and published work, book monograph and magazine. As a branch of the United States Government, its created works are in the public domain in the US. Many images and documents are available through the Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, including proposed and existing structures. Jack Boucher, former HABS/HAER photographer Jet Lowe, former HAER photographer National Register of Historic Places Notes Further reading "HAER: 30 Years of Recording Our Technological Heritage". IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology. 25. 1999. JSTOR i40043493. "Documenting Complexity: The Historic American Engineering Record and America's Technological History". IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology.
23. 1997. JSTOR i4004348. Lindley, John; the Georgia Collection: Historic American Buildings Survey. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-0613-4. Witcher, T. R.. "Fifty Years of Preservation: The Historic American Engineering Record". Civil Engineering. National Park Service−NPS: official Heritage Documentation Programs website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Chiricahua National Monument
Chiricahua National Monument is a unit of the National Park System located in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona. The monument was established on April 18, 1924, to protect its extensive hoodoos and balancing rocks; the Faraway Ranch, owned at one time by Swedish immigrants Neil and Emma Erickson, is preserved within the monument. A visitor center is located two miles from the entrance to Chiricahua National Monument; the visitor center has exhibits relating to the geology, natural history, cultural history of the area. A park ranger is available to provide visitors with information. 17 mi of trails lead hikers through various ecosystems of meadows and rock formations. The visitor center has a free shuttle; the shuttle takes hikers to the Echo Massai Point trailheads. Hikers return to the visitor center by following the designated trails. Located 36 miles southeast of Willcox, the monument preserves the remains of an immense volcanic eruption that shook the region about 27 million years ago.
The thick, white-hot ash spewed forth from the nearby Turkey Creek Caldera and hardened into rhyolitic tuff, laying down 2,000 ft of siliceous, dark volcanic ash and pumice. The volcanic material eroded into the natural rock formations of the present monument. In 2008, the Chiricahua National Monument Historic Designed Landscape, covering 80% of the national monument, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. On January 13, 1980, Paul Fugate, a National Park Service naturalist and law enforcement ranger, disappeared after leaving the monument headquarters while in uniform, to check trails leading to the acquired Faraway Ranch. An acquaintance claimed to have seen him that afternoon, slumped between two men in a pickup truck. Despite an extensive search of the rugged 17 sq mi monument area by authorities and search and rescue teams, no trace of him has been found. Arizona portal List of national monuments of the United States Media related to Chiricahua National Monument at Wikimedia Commons Chiricahua National Monument - National Park Service
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
Fort Bowie was a 19th-century outpost of the United States Army located in southeastern Arizona near the present day town of Willcox, Arizona. The remaining buildings and site are now protected as Fort Bowie National Historic Site. Fort Bowie was established by the California Volunteers in 1862 after a series of engagements between the California Column and the Chiricahua Apaches; the most violent of, the Battle of Apache Pass in July 1862. The fort was named in honor of Colonel George Washington Bowie commander of the 5th Regiment California Volunteer Infantry who first established the fort; the first Fort Bowie resembled a temporary camp rather than a permanent army post. In 1868, a second, more substantial Fort Bowie was built which included adobe barracks, corrals, a trading post, a hospital; the second Fort Bowie was built on a plateau about 500 yards to the east of the first site. For more than 30 years Fort Bowie and Apache Pass were the focal point of military operations culminating in the surrender of Geronimo in 1886 and the banishment of the Chiricahuas to Florida and Alabama.
The fort was abandoned in 1894. Two engagements between the United States Army and the Chiricahua led to the construction of Fort Bowie in 1862; the first engagement, known as the Bascom Affair, took place in January 1861 when a band of Apaches raided the ranch of John Ward. Ward mistakenly believed that Cochise and the Chiricahua Apaches were responsible for the raid and demanded that the military take action against Cochise to recover property stolen during the raid; the next month, the army responded to Ward's request by sending Lieutenant George Nicholas Bascom and fifty-four men to Apache Pass to confront Cochise. Bascom managed to capture Cochise and threatened to hold him hostage until Ward's property was returned but the Apache leader managed to escape. Sporadic fighting between Cochise's warriors and Army troops would continue for years to come; the second major engagement was the Battle of Apache Pass, fought from July 15 to July 16, 1862. A Union regiment under Brigadier General James Henry Carleton was ambushed by a band of Apaches while en route from California to New Mexico where they were to confront Confederate troops.
This battle led to the eventual establishment of Fort Bowie in order to protect Apache Pass and an important source of water, Apache Spring. Construction on the first Fort Bowie began in 1862 but this resembled a temporary camp rather than a permanent military fort. In 1868, a second, more substantial Fort Bowie was built on a plateau about 500 yards to the east. For more than 30 years Fort Bowie and Apache Pass were the focal point of military operations culminating in the surrender of Geronimo in 1886 and the banishment of the Chiricahuas to Florida and Alabama; the fort was abandoned in 1894. Major Theodore H. Coult July 27, 1862 - September 1862 Captain Hugh L. Hinds September 1862 - May, 1863 Company G, 5th California Infantry. July 27, 1862 - January 1863 Company E, 5th California Infantry. January 1863 - May, 1863 Company K, 5th California Infantry. May, 1864 - September, 1864? Company L, 1st California Cavalry. June, 1865 - January, 1866? Company L, 1st California Cavalry. March, 1866 - April, 1866 The Fort Bowie and Apache Pass site was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1960.
The remains of Fort Bowie are preserved, as are the adobe walls of various post buildings and the ruins of a Butterfield Stage Station. The site is located on the unpaved Apache Pass Road which can be accessed from Interstate 10 near Bowie, Arizona or from Arizona Highway 186 just north of the entrance to Chiricahua National Monument. Access to the ruins of Fort Bowie and the visitor center is via a 1.5-mile foot trail which begins at a parking area along Apache Pass Road. This trail to the old fort passes other historic sites such as Apache Spring, Siphon Canyon, the ruins of the Butterfield Stage Stop and Bascom's Camp. In 1958 a Western entitled Fort Bowie was made; the film charted one of the disputes between the US Cavalry based at the Apaches. Douglas C. McChristian, Fort Bowie, Arizona: Combat Post of the Southwest, 1858-1894, University of Oklahoma Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-8061-3781-0 American Southwest, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Park Map of Fort Bowie National Historitc Site National Park Service: Fort Bowie National Historitc Site Historic American Buildings Survey No.
AZ-63, "Fort Bowie, Boiwe vicinity, Cochise County, AZ" HABS No. AZ-63-A, "Fort Bowie, Cavalry Barracks" HABS No. AZ-63-B, "Fort Bowie, Corrals" HABS No. AZ-63-C, "Fort Bowie, Infantry Barracks" HABS No. AZ-63-D, "Fort Bowie, Commanding Officer's Quarters" HABS No. AZ-63-E, "Fort Bowie, Guardhouse" HABS No. AZ-63-F, "Fort Bowie, Schoolhouse" HABS No. AZ-63-G, "Fort Bowie, New Hospital" HABS No. AZ-63-H, "Fort Bowie, Sutler's Store" HABS No. AZ-63-I, "Fort Bowie, Magazine" HABS No. AZ-63-J, "Fort Bowie, Stage Station" Photos of the Fort Bowie, Stage Station from Our Oasis, Fort Bowie and Apache Pass. Note differences between these photos and the old B/W photo purported to be the stage station; that old photo looks like some ruins of the Old Fort Bowie on the hill between the cemetery and the second site of Fort Bowie
Saguaro National Park
Saguaro National Park is an American national park in Pima County, southeastern Arizona. The 92,000-acre park consists of two separate areas—the Tucson Mountain District about 10 miles west of the city of Tucson and the Rincon Mountain District about 10 miles east of the city—that preserve Sonoran Desert landscapes and flora, including the giant saguaro cactus; the volcanic rocks on the surface of the Tucson Mountain District differ from the surface rocks of the Rincon Mountain District. Uplifted and eroded, the Rincon Mountains are higher and wetter than the Tucson Mountains; the Rincons, as one of the Madrean Sky Islands between the southern Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico, support high biodiversity and are home to many plants and animals that do not live in the Tucson Mountain District. Earlier residents of and visitors to the lands in and around the park before its creation included the Hohokam, Tohono O'odham, Spanish explorers, miners and ranchers. In 1933, President Herbert Hoover, using the power of the Antiquities Act, established the original park, Saguaro National Monument, in the Rincon Mountains.
In 1961, President John F. Kennedy added the Tucson Mountain District to the monument and renamed the original tract the Rincon Mountain District. Congress combined the Tucson Mountain District and the Rincon Mountain District to form the national park in 1994. Popular activities in the park include hiking on its 165 miles of trails and sightseeing along paved roads near its two visitor centers. Both districts allow horseback riding on selected roads and trails; the Rincon Mountain District offers limited wilderness camping, but there is no overnight camping in the Tucson Mountain District. The park gets its name from the saguaro, a large cactus, native to the Sonoran Desert and that does not grow elsewhere. Rincón—as in Rincon Mountains, Rincon Creek, Rincon Valley—is Spanish for corner, refers to the shape of the mountain range and its footprint; the name Tucson derives from meaning dark spring or brown spring. Tank or Tanque refers to a small artificial pool behind a dam that traps runoff in an existing natural depression.
Madrean derives from Madre in Sierra Madre. The park consists of two separate parcels, the Tucson Mountain District to the west of Tucson and the Rincon Mountain District to the east; each parcel comes within about 10 miles of the center of the city. Their total combined area in 2016 was 91,716 acres; the Tucson Mountain District covers about 25,000 acres, while the much larger Rincon Mountain District accounts for the balance of about 67,000 acres. About 71,000 acres of the park, including large fractions of both districts, is designated wilderness. Interstate 10, the major highway nearest to the park, passes through Tucson. Tucson Mountain Park abuts the south side of the Tucson Mountain District, to its west lies the Avra Valley; the Rincon Mountain Wilderness, a separate protected area of about 37,000 acres in the Coronado National Forest, abuts the Rincon Mountain District on the east and southeast, while the Rincon Valley lies south of the western part of the Rincon Mountain District. Both districts conserve tracts of the Sonoran Desert, including ranges of significant hills, the Tucson Mountains in the west and the Rincon Mountains in the east.
Elevations in the Tucson Mountain District range from 2,180 to 4,687 feet, the summit of Wasson Peak. The Tucson Mountain District receives an average of about 10 inches of precipitation a year. Elevations within the Rincon Mountain District vary from 2,670 to 8,666 feet at the summit of Mica Mountain, where annual rain and snow totals average 30 inches. Precipitation in both districts falls during two brief seasons, in December and January as steady light rains and in July and August as brief violent rains accompanied by lightning and sometimes by dust storms and flash floods; some moisture at the highest elevations in the Rincons falls as snow in winter. Between October and April, daytime temperatures reach 70 to 80 °F, nighttime temperatures may drop below freezing. During the warmest season, May through September, daily high temperatures average more than 100 °F. Studies of the effects of climate change on the park show that its annual mean temperature rose from about 63 °F in 1900 to about 67 °F in 2010.
Saguaro National Park lies within the watershed of the north-flowing Santa Cruz River, dry. Rincon Creek in the southern part of the Rincon Mountain District, free-flowing for at least part of the year, has the largest riparian zone in the park; the creek is a tributary of Pantano Wash, which crosses Tucson from southeast to northwest to meet Tanque Verde Wash. The two washes form the Rillito River, another dry wash, an east–west tributary of the Santa Cruz River; the washes in both districts are dry but are subject at times to flash floods. Smaller riparian zones are found near tinajas in the Rincon Mountain District; the largest of the springs is at Manning Camp, high in the Rincons. Saguaro National Park's oldest rocks, the Pinal Schist, pre-date the formation of the contemporary Basin and Range Province, of which the p
In the Southwestern United States, the term Pueblo refers to communities of Native Americans, both in the present and in ancient times. The first Spanish explorers of the Southwest used this term to describe the communities housed in apartment structures built of stone, adobe mud, other local material; these structures were multi-storied buildings surrounding an open plaza. The rooms were accessible only through ladders lowered by the inhabitants, thus protecting them from break-ins and unwanted guests. Larger pueblos were occupied by hundreds to thousands of Pueblo people. Various federally recognized tribes have traditionally resided in pueblos of such design; the word pueblo is the Spanish word for "town" or "village". It comes from the Latin root word populus meaning "people". On the central Spanish meseta the unit of settlement is the pueblo; the demands of agrarian routine and the need for defense, the simple desire for human society in the vast solitude of, dictated that it should be so.
Nowadays the pueblo might have a population running into thousands. Doubtless they were much smaller in the early middle ages, but we should not be far wrong if we think of them as having had populations of some hundreds. Of the federally recognized Native American communities in the Southwest, those designated by the King of Spain as pueblo at the time Spain ceded territory to the United States, after the American Revolutionary War, are recognized as Pueblo by the Bureau of Indian Affairs; some of the pueblos came under jurisdiction of the United States, in its view, by its treaty with Mexico, which had gained rule over territory in the Southwest ceded by Spain after Mexican independence. There are 21 federally recognized Pueblos, their official federal names are as follows: Pre-Columbian towns and villages in the Southwest, such as Acoma, were located in defensible positions, for example, on high steep mesas. Anthropologists and official documents refer to ancient residents of the area as pueblo cultures.
For example, the National Park Service states, "The Late Puebloan cultures built the large, integrated villages found by the Spaniards when they began to move into the area." The people of some pueblos, such as Taos Pueblo, still inhabit centuries-old adobe pueblo buildings. Contemporary residents maintain other homes outside the historic pueblos. Adobe and light construction methods resembling adobe now dominate architecture at the many pueblos of the area, in nearby towns or cities, in much of the American Southwest. In addition to contemporary pueblos, numerous ruins of archeological interest are located throughout the Southwest; some are of recent origin. Others are of prehistoric origin, such as the cliff dwellings and other habitations of the Ancient Pueblo peoples or "Anasazi", who emerged as a people around the 12th century BCE and began to construct their pueblos about AD 750–900. Pueblos portal Ancient dwellings of Pueblo peoples Ancient Pueblo peoples Cuisine of the Southwestern United States New Mexican cuisine New Mexico music Pueblo Revolt Pueblo music The SMU-in-Taos Research Publications collection contains nine anthropological and archaeological monographs and edited volumes representing decades of research on Pueblo Indian sites near Taos, New Mexico, including Papers on Taos archaeology, Taos Archeology, Picuris Pueblo through time: eight centuries of change in a northern Rio Grande pueblo and Excavations at Pot Creek Pueblo