Daren Township is a mountain indigenous township in Taitung County, Taiwan. The main population is the Paiwan people of the Taiwanese aborigines. Area: 306.4454 km2 Population: 3,721 people The township comprises six villages: Anshuo, Senyong, Sinhua and Tuban. Dawu Keteleeria Nature Preservation Area Jinshueiying National Trail Nantian Coast Water Park Tjuwabal Paiwan Culture and Art Community The South-Link Highway passes through Daren Township, intersecting Highway 26 at Ansuo. Darun Township Office
Townships are the third-level administrative subdivisions of counties of Taiwan, along with county-controlled cities. After World War II, the townships were established from the following conversions on the Japanese administrative divisions: Although local laws do not enforce strict standards for classifying them urban townships have a larger population and more business and industry than rural townships, but not to the extent of county-controlled cities. Under townships, there is still the village as the basic level of administration; as of 2017, there are 184 townships in Taiwan, including 38 urban townships, 122 rural townships and 24 mountain indigenous townships. Penghu and Lienchiang are the only two counties. Township names are now transliterated using the Hanyu Pinyin romanization system without tone marks. Note that the county names do not use Hanyu Pinyin or special case such as Lukang. Colors indicate the common language status of Formosan languages, Hakka or Matsu dialect within each division.
County County-controlled city
Pe̍h-ōe-jī is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min Chinese Taiwanese Hokkien and Amoy Hokkien. Developed by Western missionaries working among the Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia in the 19th century and refined by missionaries working in Xiamen and Tainan, it uses a modified Latin alphabet and some diacritics to represent the spoken language. After initial success in Fujian, POJ became most widespread in Taiwan and, in the mid-20th century, there were over 100,000 people literate in POJ. A large amount of printed material and secular, has been produced in the script, including Taiwan's first newspaper, the Taiwan Church News. During Taiwan under Japanese rule, the use of Pe̍h-ōe-jī was suppressed and it faced further countermeasures during the Kuomintang martial law period. In Fujian, use declined after the establishment of the People's Republic of China and in the early 21st century the system was not in general use there. Taiwanese Christians, non-native learners of Southern Min, native-speaker enthusiasts in Taiwan are among those that continue to use Pe̍h-ōe-jī.
Full native computer support was developed in 2004, users can now call on fonts, input methods, extensive online dictionaries. Rival writing systems have evolved, there is ongoing debate within the Taiwanese mother tongue movement as to which system should be used. Versions of pe̍h-ōe-jī have been devised for other Chinese varieties, including Hakka and Teochew Southern Min. In the 2006, the Taiwanese Romanization System was developed based on pe̍h-ōe-jī for official use to write Hokkien phonetically; the name pe̍h-ōe-jī means "vernacular writing", written characters representing everyday spoken language. The name vernacular writing could be applied to many kinds of writing and character-based, but the term pe̍h-ōe-jī is restricted to the Southern Min romanization system developed by Presbyterian missionaries in the 19th century; the missionaries who invented and refined the system used, instead of the name pe̍h-ōe-jī, various other terms, such as "Romanized Amoy Vernacular" and "Romanized Amoy Colloquial."
The origins of the system and its extensive use in the Christian community have led to it being known by some modern writers as "Church Romanization" and is abbreviated in POJ itself to Kàu-lô. There is some debate on. Objections to "pe̍h-ōe-jī" are that it can refer to more than one system and that both literary and colloquial register Southern Min appear in the system and so describing it as "vernacular" writing might be inaccurate. Objections to "Church Romanization" are that some secular writing use it. One commentator observes that POJ "today is disassociated from its former religious purposes." The term "romanization" is disliked by some, who see it as belittling the status of pe̍h-ōe-jī by identifying it as a supplementary phonetic system instead of a fully-fledged orthography. Sources disagree on which of the two is more used; the history of Peh-oe-ji has been influenced by official attitudes towards the Southern Min vernaculars and the Christian organizations that propagated it. Early documents point to the purpose of the creation of POJ as being pedagogical in nature allied to educating Christian converts.
The first people to use a romanized script to write Southern Min were Spanish missionaries in Manila in the 16th century. However, it was used as a teaching aid for Spanish learners of Southern Min, seems not to have had any influence on the development of pe̍h-ōe-jī. In the early 19th century, China was closed to Christian missionaries, who instead proselytized to overseas Chinese communities in South East Asia; the earliest origins of the system are found in a small vocabulary first printed in 1820 by Walter Henry Medhurst, who went on to publish the Dictionary of the Hok-këèn Dialect of the Chinese Language, According to the Reading and Colloquial Idioms in 1832. This dictionary represents the first major reference work in POJ, although the romanization within was quite different from the modern system, has been dubbed Early Church Romanization by one scholar of the subject. Medhurst, stationed in Malacca, was influenced by Robert Morrison's romanization of Mandarin Chinese, but had to innovate in several areas to reflect major differences between Mandarin and Southern Min.
Several important developments occurred in Medhurst's work the application of consistent tone markings. Medhurst was convinced that accurate representation and reproduction of the tonal structure of Southern Min was vital to comprehension: Respecting these tones of the Chinese language, some difference of opinion has been obtained, while some have considered them of first importance, others have paid them little or no intention; the author inclines decidedly to the former opinion. The system expounded by Medhurst influenced dictionary compilers with regard to tonal notation and initials, but both his complicated vowel system and his emphasis on the literary register of Southern Min were dropped by writers. Following on from Medhurst's work, Samuel Wells Williams became the chief proponent of major changes in the orthography devised by Morrison and ada
Kinmen or Quemoy Kinmen County, is two groups of islands governed by the Republic of China and located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The county consists of the Kinmen Islands and the Wuqiu Islands more than 110 kilometres to the northeast, it is one of two counties under the streamlined Fujian Province of the Republic of China. The Kinmen Islands are located only about two kilometres east of the mainland city of Xiamen, their strategic position has reflected the significant change of Cross-Strait relations from a battlefront to a trading point between China and Taiwan. Due to the ongoing issue of the political status of Taiwan, the People's Republic of China has continuously claimed Kinmen County as part of its own Fujian Province, claiming the Kinmen Islands as a Jinmen County of Quanzhou prefecture-level city, claiming the Wuqiu Islands as part of Xiuyu District in Putian prefecture-level city. Kinmen was given its name in 1387 when the Hongwu Emperor of China's Ming dynasty appointed a military officer to administer the island and protect it from wokou attacks.
The name is pronounced Jīnmén in the official Standard Chinese but some of the various names used in English for the islands derive from other Chinese varieties. Quemoy is the name for the island in English and in many European languages and the island's name in postal romanization, it began as a Portuguese transcription of the Zhangzhou Hokkien pronunciation of the name, Kim-mûi. This form of the islands' name was used exclusively in English until the late 20th century and is still used in current English-language contexts that involve historical coverage. For example, current works that deal with the First and Second Taiwan Strait Crises when the islands received prominent worldwide news coverage as "Quemoy" still use this form. In addition, the former National Kinmen Institute of Technology was renamed National Quemoy University in 2010. Kinmen scholar Wei Jian-feng advocates the use of "Quemoy" to better connect the island to "international society or achieve more recognition in the world".
Kinmen is a more recent transcription based on the general rules of the postal romanization system. With some exceptions, this form is used in most current English-language contexts on Kinmen and in Taiwan as a whole. Entities such as the county government, the islands' airport, the national park use this spelling. Chin-men is the Wade–Giles romanization form of the island's name and appears on some maps using that as their standard. Jinmen is the hanyu pinyin form of the island's name used in sources from the People's Republic of China; the Kinmen County Government and ROC central government have adopted Hanyu Pinyin as their standard romanization, such as for names of townships within Kinmen County, but this does not apply to the name of Kinmen itself. People began settling down in Kinmen during the Tang Dynasty, changing the original name from Wuzhou to Kinmen. During the Ming Dynasty, more migrants came to settle down in Kinmen. Koxinga used Kinmen as a base to liberate Kinmen and Penghu from the Dutch.
He cut down trees to build his navy, resulting in massive deforestation that made Kinmen vulnerable to soil erosion. The Prince of Lu, a member of the Southern Ming Dynasty, resisted the invading Manchu Qing Dynasty forces. In 1651, he fled to Kinmen, which the Qing dynasty took in 1663. After the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912, Kinmen became part of Fukien Province. Japan did however occupy Kinmen during the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in October 1949, it was claimed by both the ROC and PRC; the People's Liberation Army extensively shelled the island during the First and Second Taiwan Strait crises in 1954–1955 and 1958 respectively. In 1954, the United States considered responding by using nuclear weapons against the PRC. Kinmen was a military reserve, which led to the tragedy of 1987 Lieyu massacre; the island was returned to the civilian government in the mid-1990s, after which travel to and from it was allowed.
Direct travel between mainland China and Kinmen re-opened in January 2001 under the mini Three Links, there has been extensive tourism development on the island in anticipation of mainland tourists. Direct travel was suspended in 2003 as a result of the SARS outbreak, but has since resumed. Many Taiwanese businessmen use the link through Kinmen to enter the Chinese mainland, seeing it as cheaper and easier than entering through Hong Kong. However, this changed following the 2005 Pan-Blue visits to mainland China and the 2008 presidential and legislative victories of the KMT, that allowed easier Cross-Strait relations. Kinmen has experienced a considerable economic boom as businessmen relocate to the island for easier access to the vast markets of the PRC. On 30 June 2014, Dadan Island and Erdan Island were handed over from the military to civilians, represented by Kinmen County Government. Since 1 January 2015, tourists from Mainland China could directly apply the Exit and Entry Permit upon arrival in Kinmen.
This privilege applies to Penghu and Matsu Islands as means to boost tourism in the outlying islands of Taiwan. The people of Kinmen see themselves as Kinmenese, Mínnánrén, or Chinese, but not so much as Taiwanese; the strong Chinese identity was forged during the period of the ROC's military confrontation with the People's Republic of China when Kinmen was under military administration. In the 1980s, as the militarization decreased and martial law wa
The Matsu Islands are a minor archipelago of 36 islands and islets in the East China Sea administered as Lienchiang County under streamlined Fujian Province, Republic of China. It is the smallest county in the ROC free area. Only a small area of what is Lienchiang County is under the control of the ROC; the People's Republic of China administers the part of the historical county on mainland China as Lianjiang County, which claims the entire archipelago to be its Mazu Township. The ROC controls two other archipelagos along the coast of Fujian, namely the Kinmen Islands and the Wuqiu Islands, which together make up Kinmen County; the Lienchiang name is derived from the original Lianjiang County of Fujian province in Mainland China. In April 2003, the county government started considering changing the name to Matsu County to avoid confusion with the county of the same name on the mainland; some local people opposed the name change because they felt it reflected the pro-independence viewpoint of the Democratic Progressive Party.
Mainlanders from Fujian and Zhejiang started migrating to the islands during the Yuan Dynasty. Most of the people on Matsu came from Houguan; the popular net fishing industry had established the base for development of Fuao settlement and industrial development of the region over several hundred years. Some crewmen of Zheng He temporarily stayed on the islands. During the early Qing Dynasty, pirates gathered here and the residents left temporarily. In contrast with Taiwan and Penghu, the Matsu Islands were not ceded to the Japanese Empire via the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895. Neither were they occupied by Japanese troops during World War II because they were not important militarily. Due to its strategic location for the only route for spice road, the British established the Dongyong Lighthouse in Dongyin Island in 1912 to facilitate ships navigation. In 1911, the Qing Dynasty was toppled after the Xinhai Revolution on 10 October 1911 and the Republic of China was established on 1 January 1912.
Matsu Islands was subsequently governed under the administration of Fukien Province of the ROC. On 1 August 1927, the Nanchang Uprising broke out between the ruling Nationalist Party of China and Communist Party of China which marked the beginning of Chinese Civil War. After years of war, the CPC managed to take over mainland China from KMT and established the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949 which covers the Lianjiang County of Fujian; the KMT subsequently retreated from mainland China to Taiwan in end of 1949. After their retreat, the KMT retained the offshore part from the original Lianjiang County located on Matsu Islands, all of Kinmen County. In July 1958 the PRC began massing forces opposite the two islands and began bombarding them on 23 August, triggering the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis. On 4 September 1958, the PRC announced the extension of its territorial waters by 20 kilometres to include the two islands. However, after talks were held between the USA and PRC in Warsaw, Poland that month, a ceasefire was agreed and the status quo reaffirmed.
The phrase "Quemoy and Matsu" became part of American political language in the 1960 U. S. presidential election. During the debates, both candidates, Vice-President Richard Nixon and Senator John F. Kennedy, pledged to use American forces if necessary to protect Taiwan from invasion by the PRC, which the United States did not recognize as a legitimate government, but the two candidates had different opinions about whether to use American forces to protect Taiwan's forward positions and Matsu, also. In fact, Senator Kennedy stated that these islands - as little as 9 kilometres off the coast of China and as much as 170 kilometres from Taiwan - were strategically indefensible and were not essential to the defense of Taiwan. On the contrary, Vice-President Nixon maintained that since Quemoy and Matsu were in the "area of freedom," they should not be surrendered to the Communists as a matter of "principle."Self governance of the county resumed in 1992 after the normalization of the political warfare with the mainland and the abolishment of Battle Field Administration on 7 November 1992.
Afterwards, the local constructions progressed tremendously. In 1999, the islands were designated under Matsu National Scenic Area Administration. In January 2001, direct cargo and passenger shipping started between Matsu and Fujian Province of the PRC. Since 1 January 2015, tourists from mainland China could directly apply the Exit and Entry Permit upon arrival in Matsu Islands; this privilege applies to Penghu and Kinmen as means to boost tourism in the outlying islands of Taiwan. The Matsu Islands comprise 19 islands and islets, which include five major islands, which are Nangan and Xiju, Beigan and Dongyin. Minor islands include Liang, Gaodeng and Xiaoqiu, which are all belong to the Beigan Township. Dongyin is the northernmost and Dongjyu is the southernmost. Dongyin is 100 nautical miles from Keelung, Taiwan, 180 to the Penghu islands, over 10 nautical miles from the Chinese Mainland; the soil is not ideal for farming. The highest point is on 298 metres. Areas: Nangan: 10.43 km2 Beigan: 8.86 km2 Dongyin: 4.35 km2 Juguang islands: see Juguang Average annual temperature is 18.6 °C, with the average low being at 13 °C and average high at 29 °C.
The daily temperature varies during day a
Taiping Island, better known internationally as Itu Aba, known by various other names, is the largest of the occurring Spratly Islands in the South China Sea. The island is elliptical in shape being 1.4 kilometres in length and 0.4 kilometres in width, with an area of 46 hectares. It is located on the northern edge of the Tizard Bank; the runway of the Taiping Island Airport is the most prominent feature on the island, running its entire length. The island is administered as part of Qijin, Kaohsiung, it is claimed by the People's Republic of China, the Philippines and Vietnam. In 2016, in the ruling by an arbitral tribunal in the Permanent Court of Arbitration, in the case brought by the Philippines against China, the tribunal classified Itu Aba as a "rock" under United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Both Taiwan and PRC/China rejected this ruling; the adjacent unoccupied Zhongzhou Reef is under the control of Taiwan. In 1946 the Republic of China named it Taiping Island in honor of a Nationalist Chinese Navy warship which sailed to the island when Japan surrendered after the Second World War.
The name Taiping Island is used in Beijing. The island was called Huángshānmǎ Jiāo and Huángshānmǎ Zhì by Chinese fishermen. Outside of China and Taiwan, a common name for the island is Itu Aba, in use prior to 1946. Two different etymological origins have been proposed for this name: that it is a Malay expression meaning "What's that?". Some nonpartisan sources including U. S. government publications continue to use "Itu Aba" as the primary designator of the land feature with "Taiping" in parentheses. The Vietnamese name for the island is Ba Binh and the Filipino name is Ligao, meaning "lost" or "wild" island. During the Japanese occupation of the island 1939–45, the name Nagashima was used. From before the 1870s the island was used by fishermen from Hainan, they had a semi-permanent settlement. Supplies were shipped from Hainan to island in exchange for turtle shells. China first asserted sovereignty in the modern sense to the South China Sea’s island when it formally objected to France’s efforts to incorporate Itu Aba and other islands and rocks into French Indochina during the 1884 – 1885 Sino-French war.
The 1887 boundary convention signed between France and China places the Spratly and Paracel islands under Chinese rule. Chinese maps since have shown China’s claims, first as a solid and as a dotted line. At first, France recognized Chinese sovereignty of Spratly and Paracel islands, in exchange for Chinese recognition of Vietnam as a French territory. In 1932, a year after the Japanese formally invaded northeast China, France formally claimed both the Paracel and Spratly Islands. China and Japan both protested. In 1933, France seized the Paracels and Spratlys, announced their annexation, formally included them in French Indochina, built a couple of weather stations on them, but did not disturb the numerous Chinese fishermen it found there. In 1938 Japan took the islands from France, garrisoned them, built a submarine base at Itu Aba Island. In 1941, the Japanese Empire made the Paracel and Spratly islands part of Taiwan under its rule. In 1945, in accordance with the Cairo and Potsdam Declarations and with American help, the armed forces of the Republic of China government at Nanjing accepted the surrender of the Japanese garrisons in Taiwan, including the Paracel and Spratly Islands.
Nanjing declared both archipelagoes to be part of Guangdong Province. It was administratively attached to the municipality of Takao in the Japanese colony of Taiwan. On 6 November 1946, the ROC government sent four warships to the South China Sea to secure islands within the region, commanded by Lin Zun and Yao Ruyu: ROCS Chung-Yeh, ROCS Yung-hsing, ROCS Tai-ping and ROCS Chung-chien; the warships headed towards the Spratly and Paracel island groups. On 12 December the two ships led by Lin Zun, ROCS Tai-ping and ROCS Chung-Yeh, arrived at Taiping Island. In commemoration of the island being secured, the island was chosen to be named after the ROCS Tai-ping warship, thus a stone stele reading "Taiping island" was erected on a breakwater tip southwest of the island; the other three ships had their names used: Woody Island was named Yongxing Island, Triton Island was named Zhongjian Island, Thitu Island was named Zhongye Island. After being secured by Nationalist China, the island was placed under the administration of China's Guangdong Province.
When the Chinese Communists gained control of mainland China, the defeated Nationalists retreated to Taiwan, but retained control of the Taiping garrison. Japan renounced its control and transferred the island to the trusteeship of the Allied Powers within the San Francisco Peace Treaty on September 8, 1951. A different interpretation is that Japan renounced its sovereignty and transferred the island to the Republic of China under the provisions of the Taipei Peace Treaty. In 1952, a Philippine civil
Port of Taichung
The Port of Taichung Taichung Port, is a port located in Wuqi District, Taiwan. It is the second-largest port in Taiwan after Kaohsiung Port and operated by Taiwan International Ports Corporation, Taiwan's state-owned harbor management company; the port covers an area of 3,793 ha, includes industrial and business ports. It is 12.5 km - 2.5 to 4.5 km wide. It can accommodate vessels of up to 60,000 tons, in June 2000 earned an ISO-9001 rating; the port still has hundreds of hectares left of undeveloped space. The harbor is located 110 nautical miles from Keelung Port and 120 nautical miles from Kaohsiung Port. In 2010, the harbor surpassed Keelung Port to become the second-largest port in Taiwan. Total investment has topped NT$457.5 billion by 59 companies, while thirty firms have established operations within its free-trade zone. Compared to 2010, total cargo processed has grown 21% while containers handled grew 13.92%. The port has seen growing luxury car shipments in 2010, indicating signs of economic recovery for the island.
In August 1968, preliminary research into a new port started. By July 1969, it was decided to make Taichung Port into a new international port, with construction starting on 1 February 1971; the port first opened on 31 October 1976. The port was part of the Ten Major Construction Projects proposed by Premier Chiang Ching-kuo; the port can be reached by rail, or road. TRA Taichung Harbor Line Provincial Highway No. 12 Provincial Highway No. 17 Provincial Highway No. 61 Taichung Airport Port of Keelung Port of Kaohsiung Transportation in Taiwan