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Wurundjeri

The Wurundjeri are an Aboriginal Australian nation of the Woiwurrung language group, in the Kulin alliance. They occupied the Birrarung Valley before British colonisation of the area, around the present location of Melbourne; the "Wurundjeri" are the people who occupy one tribal territory, while "Woiwurrung" is the language group shared by the other tribal territory groups and clans within the Woiwurrung territory. The term Wurundjeri is used to describe the Woiwurrung people as a whole, although it was only one of a number of Woiwurrung peoples; the Wurundjeri Tribe Land and Compensation Cultural Heritage Council was established in 1985 by some descendants of the Wurundjeri people. According to the early Australian ethnographer Alfred William Howitt, the name Wurundjeri, in his transcription Urunjeri, refers to a species of eucalypt, Eucalyptus viminalis, otherwise known as the manna or white gum, common along Birrarung; some modern reports of Wurundjeri traditional lore state that their ethnonym combines a word, meaning Manna Gum and djeri, a species of grub found in the tree, take the word therefore to mean "Witchetty Grub People".

Wurundjeri people speak Woiwurrung. Norman Tindale estimated Wurundjeri lands as extending over 4,800 square miles; these took in the areas of the Yarra and Saltwater rivers around Melbourne, ran north as far as Mount Disappointment, northwest to Macedon and Lancefield. Their eastern borders went as far as Healesville, their southern confines approached Mordialloc and Moe. The earliest European settlers came across a park-like landscape extending inland from Melbourne, consisting of large areas of grassy plains to the north and southwest, with little forest cover, something thought to be testimony of indigenous sheet burning practices to expose the massive number of yam daisies which proliferated in the area; these murnong roots and various tuber lilies formed a major source of starch and carbohydrates. Seasonal changes in the weather, availability of foods and other factors would determine where campsites were located, many near the Birrarung and its tributaries; the Wurundjeri & Gunung Willam Balug Tribes mined diorite at Mount William stone axe quarry, a source of the valued greenstone hatchet heads, which were traded across a wide area as far as New South Wales and Adelaide.

The mine provided a complex network of trading for economic and social exchange among the different Aboriginal nations in Victoria. The quarry had been in use for more than 1,500 years and covered 18 hectares including underground pits of several metres. In February 2008 the site was placed on the Australian National Heritage List for its cultural importance and archeological value. Settlement and dispossession of the Wurundjeri lands began soon after a ceremony in which Wurundjeri leaders conducted a tanderrum ceremony, whose function was to allow outsiders temporary access to the resources of clan lands. John Batman and other whites interpreted this symbolic act, recorded in treaty form, as equivalent to medieval enfeoffment of all Woiwurrong territory. Within a few years settlement began around Pound Bend with Major Charles Newman at Mullum Mullum Creek in 1838, James Anderson on Beal Yallock, now known as Anderson's Creek a year later, their measures to clear the area of aborigines was met with guerrilla skirmishing, led by Jaga Jaga, with the appropriation of cattle and the burning of fields.

They were armed with rifles, esteemed to be excellent marksmen, firing close to Anderson to drive him off as they helped themselves to his potato crop while en route to Yering in 1840. A trap set there by Captain Henry Gibson led to Jaga Jaga's capture and a battle as the Wurundjeri fought unsuccessfully to secure his release. Resistance was broken, settlements throve. One elder, Derrimut stated: You see…all this mine. All along here Derrimut's once. No matter now, me soon tumble down…Why me have no lubra? Why me have no piccaninny? You have all this place. No good have children, no good have lubra. Me tumble down and die soon now. In 1863 the surviving members of the Wurundjeri tribe were given "permissive occupancy" of Coranderrk Station, near Healesville and forcibly resettled. Despite numerous petitions and delegations to the Colonial and Federal Government, the grant of this land in compensation for the country lost was refused. Coranderrk was closed in 1924 and its occupants bar five refusing to leave Country were again moved to Lake Tyers in Gippsland.

All remaining Wurundjeri people are descendants of Bebejan, through his daughter Annie Borate, in turn, her son Robert Wandin. Bebejan was a Ngurungaeta of the Wurundjeri people and was present at John Batman's "treaty" signing in 1835. Joy Murphy Wandin, a Wurundjeri Elder, explains the importance of preserving Wurundjeri culture: In the recent past, Wurundjeri culture was undermined by people being forbidden to "talk culture" and language. Another loss was the loss of children taken from families. Now, some knowledge of the past must be collected from documents. By finding and doing this, Wurundjeri will bring their past to the present and recreate a place of belonging. A "keeping place" should be to keep things for future generations of our people, not a showcase for all, not a resource to earn dollars. I work towards maintaining the Wurundjeri culture for Wurundjeri people into the future. In 1985, the Wurundjeri Tribe Land Compensation and Cultural Heritage Council was established to fulfill statutory roles under Commonwealth and Victorian legislation and to assist in raising awareness of Wurundjeri culture and history within the wider community.

Wurundjeri elders attend events with vis

Hot water storage tank

A hot water storage tank is a water tank used for storing hot water for space heating or domestic use. Water is a convenient heat storage medium because it has a high specific heat capacity; this means, compared to other substances, it can store more heat per unit of weight. Water is low cost. An efficiently insulated tank can retain stored heat for days. Hot water tanks may have electric immersion heaters; some types use an external heat exchanger such as a central heating system, or heated water from another energy source. The most typical, in the domestic context, is a fossil-fuel burner, electric immersion elements, or a district heating scheme. Water heaters for washing, bathing, or laundry have thermostat controls to regulate the temperature, in the range of 40 to 60 °C, are connected to the domestic cold water supply. Where the local water supply has a high content of dissolved minerals such as limestone, heating the water causes the minerals to precipitate in the tank. A tank may develop leaks due to corrosion after only a few years, a problem exacerbated by dissolved oxygen in the water which accelerates corrosion of both tank and fittings.

Hot water storage tanks are wrapped in heat insulation to reduce energy consumption, speed up the heating process, maintain the desired operating temperature. Thicker thermal insulation reduces standby heat loss. Water heaters are available with various insulation ratings but it is possible to add layers of extra insulation on the outside of a water heater to reduce heat loss. In extreme conditions, the heater itself might be wholly enclosed in a specially constructed insulated space; the most available type of water heater insulation is fiberglass, fixed in place with tape or straps or the outer jacket of the water heater. Insulation must not block air combustion gas outflow, where a burner is used. In humid locations, adding insulation to an well-insulated tank may cause condensation leading to rust, mold, or other operational problems so some air flow must be maintained by convection caused by waste heat, but in humid conditions such ventilation may be fan-assisted. Most modern water heaters have applied polyurethane foam insulation.

Where access to the inner tank is a priority the PUF can be applied in encapsulated form, allowing the removal of insulation layer for regular integrity checks and if required, repairs to the water tank. In a solar water heating system, a solar hot water storage tank stores heat from solar thermal collectors; the tank has a built-in heat-exchanger to heat domestic cold water. In mild climates, such as the Mediterranean, the storage tanks are roof-mounted. All such tanks share the same problems as artificially-heated tanks including limestone deposit and corrosion, suffer similar reductions in overall efficiency unless scrupulously maintained. Water heater tanks may be made of stainless steel, or copper. While copper and stainless steel domestic hot water tanks are more commonplace in Europe, carbon steel tanks are more common in the United States, where the periodic check is neglected, the tank develops a leak whereupon the entire appliance is replaced; when neglected, carbon steel tanks tend to last for a few years more than their manufacturer's warranty, 3 to 12 years in the US.

Vitreous-lined tanks are much lower in initial cost, include one or more sacrificial anode rods designed to protect the tank from perforation caused by corrosion made necessary since chlorinated water is corrosive to carbon steel. As it is nearly impossible to apply any protective coating manufacturers may recommend a periodic check of any sacrificial anode, replacing it when necessary; some manufacturers offer an extended warranty kit. Because conventional hot water storage tanks can be expected to leak every 5 to 15 years, high-quality installations will include, most US building/plumbing codes now require, a shallow metal or plastic pan to collect the seepage when it occurs; this method stores heat in a tank by using external heat-exchangers that can be directly tapped or used to power other heat-exchangers. The chief benefit is that by avoiding drawing-off domestic hot water directly, the tank is not continually fed with cold water, which in'hard' water areas reduces the deposit of limescale to whatever is dissolved in the original charge of water plus trivial amounts added to replace losses due to seepage.

An added benefit is reduced oxygen levels in such a closed system, which allows for some relaxation in the requirements for materials used in the hot water storage tank and the closed water circuits, external heat exchangers, associated pipework. While an external heat exchanger system used for domestic hot water will have mineral deposits, descaling agents extend the life of such a system. For an illustration - see referenceAnother method to store heat in a hot water storage tank has many names: Stratified hot water storage tank with closed water circuit, stratified thermal storage, thermocline tank and water stratified tank storage but in all cases the significant difference is that pains are taken to maintain the vertical stratification of the water column, in other words to keep the hot water at the top of the tank while the water at

David Mackintosh (cricketer)

David Stewart Mackintosh is a former Scottish cricketer. Mackintosh was a right-handed batsman. Mackintosh made his debut for Buckinghamshire in the 1971 Minor Counties Championship against Norfolk. Mackintosh played Minor counties cricket for Buckinghamshire from 1971 to 1979, which included 43 Minor Counties Championship matches. In 1972, he made his List A debut against Glamorgan in the Gillette Cup, he played two further List the last coming against Middlesex in the 1975 Gillette Cup. He played a single List A match for Minor Counties South against Hampshire in the 1973 Benson & Hedges Cup. In his four List A matches, he scored 35 runs at a batting average of 8.75, with a high score of 14. Mackintosh made a single first-class appearance for Scotland against Ireland in 1972. In Scotland's first-innings he scored 57 runs before being dismissed by Dermott Monteith. In their second-innings he scored 9 runs before being dismissed by Patrick Hughes, with the match ending in a draw. David Mackintosh at ESPNcricinfo David Mackintosh at CricketArchive