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Wuthering Heights

Wuthering Heights is a novel by Emily Brontë published in 1847 under her pseudonym "Ellis Bell". Brontë's only finished novel, it was written between October 1845 and June 1846. Wuthering Heights and Anne Brontë's Agnes Grey were accepted by publisher Thomas Newby before the success of their sister Charlotte's novel Jane Eyre. After Emily's death, Charlotte edited the manuscript of Wuthering Heights and arranged for the edited version to be published as a posthumous second edition in 1850. Although Wuthering Heights is now a classic of English literature, contemporaneous reviews were polarised; the novel explores the effects of envy, nostalgia and resentment. The English poet and painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti, although an admirer of the book, referred to it as "A fiend of a book – an incredible monster The action is laid in hell, – only it seems places and people have English names there."Wuthering Heights contains elements of gothic fiction, the moorland setting is a significant aspect of the drama.

The novel has inspired many adaptations, including film and television dramatisations. In 1801, Lockwood, a wealthy young man from the south of England, seeking peace and recuperation, rents Thrushcross Grange in Yorkshire, he visits his landlord, who lives in a remote moorland farmhouse, Wuthering Heights. There, Lockwood finds an odd assemblage: Heathcliff, who seems to be a gentleman, but whose manners are uncouth. Snowed in, Lockwood is grudgingly allowed to stay the night and is shown to a bedchamber, where he notices books and graffiti left by a former inhabitant named Catherine, he falls asleep and has a nightmare in which he sees the ghostly Catherine trying and begging to enter through the window. He cries out in fear. Lockwood is convinced. Heathcliff, believing Lockwood to be right, examines the window and opens it, hoping to allow Catherine's spirit to enter; when nothing happens, Heathcliff shows Lockwood to his own bedroom and returns to keep watch at the window. At sunrise, Heathcliff escorts Lockwood back to Thrushcross Grange.

After his visit to the Heights, Lockwood becomes ill and is confined to his bed for some length of time. The Grange housekeeper, Ellen Dean, looking after him, tells him the story of the family at the Heights during his convalescence, it is thirty years earlier. The owner of Wuthering Heights is Mr. Earnshaw, who lives there with his son Hindley and younger daughter Catherine, as well as with young Nelly Dean, the same age as Hindley and is his servant and foster sister. On a trip to Liverpool, Earnshaw encounters a homeless boy, described as a "dark-skinned gypsy in aspect.” He adopts the boy and, as he refuses to divulge his real name, Earnshaw names him Heathcliff. Hindley feels that Heathcliff has supplanted him in his father's affections and becomes bitterly jealous. Catherine and Heathcliff spend hours each day playing on the moors, they grow close. Hindley is sent to university. Three years Earnshaw dies, Hindley becomes the landowner, he returns to live there with Frances. He allows Heathcliff to stay, but only as a servant, mistreats him.

A few months after Hindley's return and Catherine walk to Thrushcross Grange to spy on Edgar Linton and his sister, who live there. After being discovered, they try to run away. Catherine is injured by the Lintons' dog and taken into the house to recuperate, while Heathcliff is sent home. Catherine stays with the Lintons, who are landed gentry, for several months and is influenced by their elegant appearance and genteel manners; when she returns to Wuthering Heights, her clothing and manners are more ladylike, she laughs at Heathcliff's unkempt appearance. The next day, knowing that the Lintons are to visit, upon Nelly's advice, tries to dress up in an effort to impress Catherine, but he and Edgar get into an argument, Hindley humiliates Heathcliff by locking him in the attic. Catherine tries to comfort Heathcliff; the following year, Frances Earnshaw gives birth to a son, named Hareton, but she dies of consumption a few months later. Hindley descends into drunkenness. Two more years pass, Catherine and Edgar Linton have become friends, while she grows more distant from Heathcliff.

Edgar visits Catherine while Hindley is away, they declare themselves lovers soon afterwards. Catherine confesses to Nelly that Edgar has proposed marriage and she has accepted, although her love for Edgar is not comparable to her love for Heathcliff, whom she cannot marry because of his low social status and lack of education, she hopes to use her position as Edgar's wife to raise Heathcliff's standing. Heathcliff overhears her say that it would "degrade" her to marry him, he runs away and disappears without a trace. Distraught over Heathcliff's departure, Catherine makes herself ill. Nelly and Edgar begin to pander to her every whim to prevent her from becoming ill again. Three years pass. Edgar and Catherine marry and go to live together at Thrushcross Grange, where Catherine enjoys being "lady of the manor". Six months Heathcliff returns, now a wealthy gentlem

Viljo Revell

Viljo Gabriel Revell was a Finnish architect of the functionalist school. In Finland he is best known in Helsinki. Internationally, Revell is best known for designing the New City Hall of Toronto, Canada. Revell spelt Rewell, was born in Vaasa in 1910, graduated from Vaasan Lyseo in 1928, he graduated as an architect from the Helsinki University of Technology in 1937. He made his architectural breakthrough the year he graduated when he, together with fellow students Heimo Riihimäki and Niilo Kokko, won the architectural competition for the design of the Lasipalatsi, intended as a temporary building comprising shops and cinema, but which became one of the landmarks of Finnish "white functionalist" architecture, his next major work was the so-called Teollisuuskeskus, comprising offices, roof-terrace restaurant and ground-floor shops, situated on Helsinki's south harbour seafront. The building was based on a competition winning proposal, made together with architect Keijo Petäjä, was completed in 1952 in time for the Helsinki Olympic Games.

Revell’s international breakthrough came with winning the 1956–58 architectural competition for the design of the Toronto City Hall, which he designed together with fellow Finnish architects Heikki Castrén, Bengt Lundsten, Seppo Valjus. The building was completed in 1965, the year following Revell’s premature death. Revell married Maire Myntti in 1941, he served as naval artillery officer in World War II, he was one of the survivors of the sinking of the Finnish Navy flagship, the coastal defence ship Ilmarinen in 1941. In 1943, at a time when post-war reconstruction was an important topic of discussion, along with Alvar Aalto, Aarne Ervi and Kaj Englund, was one of the instigators of the Finnish Building Information File, the Finnish version of a building standards file, to assist in standardization of building practices and component sizes; the work was financed by the Finnish Association of Architects, under the name of the Standardization Institute. As part of the research the group had contacts with a similar organisation in Germany, run by architect Ernst Neufert.

In June 1943, while the war was still going on, Aalto and Revell, together with architects Jussi Paatela and Esko Suhonen, travelled to Germany at the invite of Neufert to witness the German building standardization efforts, including the construction of government buildings designed by Albert Speer for the Nazi government. 1935 Lasipalatsi Helsinki with Niilo Kokko, Olavi Laisaari and Heimo Riihimäki 1939 Hallintalo House office building, Vaasa 1948 Palace Hotel Helsinki with Heikki Castrén 1953 Tower block in Tapiola, Espoo 1953/1954–1956, 1960 Kudeneule knitwear factory, Hanko 1957 Villa Didrichsen Didrichsen Art Museum. New wing 1964. Kuusisaari, Helsinki 1960 City-Center office building, Helsinki with Heikki Castrén 1961 Finnish Ministry of Defence, Helsinki. 1962 Office block in Vaasa now called the "Rewell Center" 1962 Watertower in Tapiola, Espoo - disk shaped tank similar to Toronto City Hall's council chamber structure 1966 New City Hall of Toronto, Canada. Media related to Viljo Revell at Wikimedia Commons Viljo Revell 1910–1964

Awn hair

Awn hairs are the intermediate hairs in a mammal's coat. They are longer than the down hairs, they protect the down hairs underneath. Most of the visible coat is made of this kind of hair. Among rabbits, each guard hair is surrounded by a number of awn hairs; the awn hairs are shorter, have a flat tip. They are wavy and have a thinner cortex. Clustered around each awn hair are two more hair types, the awn wool and underwool. Marsupials have only awn hair. Awn hair is known as grannenhaare. Awn hairs are distally thicker in comparison to down hair and have a shift in the shape towards the top of the hair. There is another version of awn hair, known as grannenflaumhaare or down awn hair, thin and crimped like underfur towards the proximal end of the hair, while the thickened distal end resembles the corresponding part of a guard hair. Coat for a general discussion of coats Coat for details about dog coats Fur Guard hair Down hair


MOD and TOD are recording formats for use in digital tapeless camcorders. The formats are comparable to XDCAM EX, HDV and AVCHD. MOD and TOD are informal names of tapeless video formats used by JVC, Panasonic and Canon in some models of digital camcorders. Format names correspond to extensions of video files. Neither JVC nor Panasonic, who pioneered the format, explained the meaning of the file extensions, the formats were never given an official name; some think that TOD stands for "Transport stream on disk". MOD is used for standard definition video files, while TOD is used for high definition files; the first camcorders that used MOD format appeared in 2003. JVC introduced the Everio GZ-MG30. Panasonic unveiled the SDR-S100; the encoding scheme, data rate, frame rate and frame size matched parameters of DVD-video. In January 2007 JVC announced its first high definition tapeless consumer camcorder, the Everio GZ-HD7, which recorded 1080i MPEG-2 video to either a built-in hard disk drive or an SD memory card.

Data rates, frame sizes and frame rate were comparable to 1080-line HDV video. Panasonic has never released a consumer high definition camcorder. Instead, Panasonic joined Sony to develop AVCHD. In January 2008 Canon unveiled a family of tapeless standard definition consumer camcorders: the FS100, FS10 and FS11. All these camcorders record in MOD format. Both MOD and TOD are file-based formats. Directory structure and naming convention are identical except for extensions of media files; each file has a sequential name with last three characters comprising a hexadecimal number, which allows for 4096 unique file names. Standard definition video is stored in MPEG program stream container files with MOD extension. High definition video is stored in MPEG transport stream container files with TOD extension. Despite the file structure being unique to this video recording format, the location for still images follows the standard agreed upon by many still camera manufacturers. Standard definition video can be recorded in 16:9 formats.

Some video decoders do not interpret the aspect ratio information in the media file header so 16:9 video may appear squeezed horizontally when viewed. Software, shipped with camcorders is capable of processing the aspect ratio information aided by the metadata stored in MOI files. There are third-party tools for modifying the wide-screen aspect ratio information in the media file header so that it satisfies decoders which would otherwise fail to interpret this information in an unmodified MOD file; some tools such as MediaInfo can report the aspect ratio of widescreen MOD files, but media players may or may not display them depending on the capabilities of the video decoder that they are utilizing at the time. MOD video can be viewed on a computer with a player, capable of reproducing MPEG-2 video; this video can be authored for watching on a DVD player without recompression, because it is compliant with DVD-video standard. TOD format can not be directly played on consumer video equipment. Media files must be packaged into distribution formats like HD DVD or Blu-ray Disc, using authoring software.

One of TOD recording modes, "1440CBR", has the same frame size, aspect ratio and frame rate as 1080i HDV, can be loosely called "HDV on disk". While many camcorders that produce the MOD and TOD formats include Windows and/or Mac conversion software to run on your computer, there are other tools available for free to do the same work. Transport stream files can be converted into program stream files without recompressing the video itself. For example, FFmpeg, a free program, performs the conversion on Windows and Linux systems with the following command $ ffmpeg -i myClip. TOD -vcodec copy -acodec copy myClip.mpgA similar command is used for MOD files: $ ffmpeg -f mpeg -i myClip. MOD -vcodec copy -acodec mp2 -ab 192k myClip.mpgThis is no longer necessary if the free and open source VLC media player is used, and, at least on Linux, the process is automated, such that connecting the camera to the PC via USB invokes the file manager and the intuitive action of selecting a TOD file invokes VLC to play the file, or allows a simple copy and paste to transfer the file to the PC.

VLC is available for Windows. JVC was the only supporter of TOD format. In 2008 JVC released several hybrid TOD/AVCHD consumer models, some AVCHD only models. Consumer high definition camcorders offered by JVC from 2009 onwards record only in AVCHD format. Professional JVC tapeless. Like TOD, XDCAM EX employs MPEG-2 HD video encoding scheme. Unlike TOD, XDCAM EX uses MP4 container; as of 2011, MOD format is still being used in standard definition camcorders manufactured by JVC, Panasonic and Canon. Sony employs MPEG-2 video encoding and Program Stream container in its standard definition camcorders too, but the directory structure is different from MOD, the media files have conventional MPG extension. MOD and TOD formats do not allow recording progressive-scan video, neither at "film" rates nor at "reality" rates; this limitation makes MOD and TOD formats suboptimal for online video viewing, because most video hosting websites stream progressive-scan video. On another hand, AVCHD allows recording progressive-scan high-definition video at both "film" and "reality" rates.

2004: GZ-MC100, G

Sauvaire Intermet

Sauvaire Intermet was a 17th-century French musician and composer. From Tarascon, Sauvaire is the son of Giraud Antermet, baptized on 30 November 1573 in the Sainte-Marthe church of Tarascon, he was appointed a clerk. In 1590, Sauvaire Intermet was appointed music master of the Church of St. Trophime, Arles until 1595, when he seems to have moved to Avignon where he was benefiting from the chapter of Saint-Agricol. An act of 25 March 1599 qualifies him as mestre de chapelle de la Reyne de France Louise de Lorraine-Vaudemont, widow of Henri III and retired at Chenonceaux, he was able at that time to meet masters of the King's Chamber. On 24 August 1599, he was received canon in the chapter of Saint-Agricol of Avignon and took on the role of Kapellmeister, his career in this church lasted several decades. On 1 May 1619 he became auditor of the accounts of the chapter of Saint-Agricol, which obliged him to be replaced, his career at Saint-Agricol suffered some interruptions at Saint-Just de Narbonne in 1613-1614 and around 1616 at Saint-Sauveur of Aix-en-Provence from March to August 1629.

After his return from Aix-en-Provence in 1629 he returned to Avignon as a music master, on 30 October 1629 as an auditor of the accounts. In addition to these engagements, Intermet was at the disposal of the City for royal entrances and other major events. For a musician, the city of Avignon was a choice position, situated in the pontifical possessions and thus subject to Italian influences; the Jesuits were present there, with a novitiate and an important college, strengthened during the prohibition of the order in France between the end of 1594 and 1603. Avignon was in fact an advanced position of pontifical influence in France and a Jesuit stronghold surrounded by lands dominated by Protestantism. Here, Intermet was Kapellmeister, official musician of the city and county of Avignon, in charge of the musical animation of ceremonies and royal entrances, also master of music at the Jesuit College; this triple status had given him a significant preeminence over the other Avignon musicians, if not Provençal, since he settled there for a period of about fifty years long for a chapel master.

Archival records show him adding a band of violins to his singers to reinforce the music during solemn celebrations or major processions. Several relations mention him as the leader of the music during major celebrations, as in November 1600 at the entrance of Marie de Médicis for which he gathered the singers of all the chapels of Avignon, or at the end of July 1622 during the feasts of the canonization of Ignatius of Loyola and François Xavier, he intervened in November 1622 at the entrance of Louis XIII in Avignon. Intermet was active for the brotherhoods of craftsmen or penitents located in the chapel of the Jesuit College, he was asked to direct their services in music or to compose hymns for them, as evidenced by a document from 1647 concerning the congregation of taffeta craftsmen. In Avignon, he had to be in contact with a few characters who were now more famous than he was: the Jesuit Athanasius Kircher, the master musician Annibal Gantez, or Nicolas Saboly, famous composers of carols.

Intermet made a first will on 3 January 1625. He planned on this occasion an annual mass of some donations. A new will was made on 8 February 1645, which provided for his burial in Avignon or Tarascon according to the place where he died, he appointed his nephew Michel Intermet as his executor and died shortly after 16 October 1657, aged 84. François Béraud, organist at Saint-Agricol since 1654, succeeded Intermet as music master, his work is lost or fragmented and therefore difficult to appreciate. 4 songs in French, 4 v. in Ms. Bayle, c. 1597. Canticles pour l'entrée de Marie de Médicis, 1600. Là ça qui veut voir un dieu enfant 4v? Chicago NL: Case MS 5136 Quand l'œil de Jesus je voy 4-8v Chicago NL: Case MS 5136 Noëls 2v, anonymous and by Intermet, Avignon Ms. 1250 and Ms. 1181, copied ca. 1653-1664. Cantiques spirituels à l'usage de la Congrégation des jeunes artisans érigée à Avignon (Lyon: Antoine Molin, 1653, lost. Intermet may have contributed to music adapted to the Hymnes et cantiques by Michel Coyssard.

Missa pro defunctis, 1613, mentioned by Robert 1966. Missa pour les Minimes, mentioned in 1965. Missa 8 v In devotione, lost. Missa 6 v, both mentioned by Dufourcq 1958. Most of his known motets are preserved in five separate parts, remnants of a set of twelve discovered in the H. M. Brown Collection in Chicago, to which can be added an isolated part from another collection of the same origin; these motets are written on various psalms, prayers, repons and antiphons. Among the latter, most concern the liturgy on Holy Saturdays. For the rest, the centonisation process is used, with verses extracted from, among other things, the following verses John 6, Ecclesiastes; this collection contains seven motets to the praise of great Jesuit figures: Ignatius Loyola, François Xavier and François Borgia. The dates found in this collection mention the years 1622, 1623 and 1624.

Heath Calhoun

Heath Calhoun is an American alpine skier and veteran of the United States Army. A double-leg amputee due to injuries received in the Iraq War, Calhoun uses a sit-ski in competitions. Born in Bristol, Calhoun, a native of Grundy, graduated from Grundy Senior High School in 1997. After earning an associate's degree from Southwest Virginia Community College in 1999, he joined the U. S. Army, as his father and grandfather had done. Upon his enlistment, he was sent to Fort Benning, where he completed infantry and Ranger training, he was sent to serve in Iraq as a squad leader in the 101st Airborne Division. While riding in a convoy, his Humvee was struck by a rocket-propelled grenade; the explosion killed one soldier and damaged Calhoun's legs, necessitating the amputation of both limbs above the knee. He spent the next nine months recuperating at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Five months after his injury, Calhoun tried skiing for the first time at a sports clinic in Aspen, Colorado. In 2008, he moved to Aspen to begin training for international alpine skiing competitions.

At the 2009 U. S. Adaptive Alpine National Championships, he took second place in the sit-ski slalom and first in the sit-ski super G, he was selected for the U. S. alpine skiing team at the 2010 Winter Paralympics in British Columbia, Canada. Calhoun is a spokesperson for Hanger Prosthetics and Orthotics, he is involved with the Amputee Coalition of America as a peer counselor. Calhoun, who lives in Clarksville, has three children; the 2010 NASCAR spring race at Richmond International Raceway has been named the "Heath Calhoun 400" in his honor, following a contest in which fans were asked to nominate and vote for military members who had performed a "selfless act". Heath Calhoun at the United States Olympic & Paralympic Committee Results for Heath Calhoun from the International Paralympic Committee