Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Hancock County, Ohio
Hancock County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 74,782, its county seat is Findlay. The county was created in 1820 and organized in 1828, it was named for the first signer of the Declaration of Independence. Hancock County comprises OH Micropolitan Statistical Area. Hancock County was established on January 21, 1828, by the Ohio General Assembly from the southern portions of Wood County. Containing only Findlay Township, the county would add Amanda and Welfare townships in April of that year. Additional townships were laid out as follows: Jackson in 1829. Nearly 24 miles square, Hancock County would lose some of its southeast portion in 1845 to the new Wyandot County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 534 square miles, of which 531 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water. Wood County Seneca County Wyandot County Hardin County Allen County Putnam County Henry County As of the census of 2000, there were 71,295 people, 27,898 households, 19,138 families residing in the county.
The population density was 134 people per square mile. There were 29,785 housing units at an average density of 56 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.14% White, 1.11% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 1.22% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.22% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. 3.07% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 27,898 households out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.40% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.40% were non-families. 26.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.70% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 13.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females there were 94.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $43,856, the median income for a family was $51,490. Males had a median income of $37,139 versus $24,374 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,991. About 5.20% of families and 7.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.80% of those under age 18 and 6.10% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 74,782 people, 30,197 households, 19,884 families residing in the county; the population density was 140.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 33,174 housing units at an average density of 62.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.4% white, 1.7% Asian, 1.5% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 1.4% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.5% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 43.1% were German, 11.0% were Irish, 10.3% were English, 6.6% were American.
Of the 30,197 households, 30.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.3% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.2% were non-families, 27.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.94. The median age was 38.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $49,070 and the median income for a family was $59,600. Males had a median income of $42,479 versus $31,631 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,158. About 8.5% of families and 11.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.2% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over. Findlay Fostoria https://web.archive.org/web/20160715023447/http://www.ohiotownships.org/township-websites National Register of Historic Places listings in Hancock County, Ohio Hancock County Government's website
Ohio's 5th congressional district
Ohio's 5th congressional district is in northwestern and north central Ohio and borders Michigan and Indiana. The district is represented by Republican Bob Latta; the district borders have changed somewhat from the previous redistrict as some of the easternmost counties were redistricted to other districts. From 2003 to 2013 all of Crawford, Fulton, Huron, Putnam, Seneca, Van Wert and Wood Counties were included in this district. Portions of Ashland, Lucas and Wyandot Counties were a part of the 5th District. All or part of twenty-one cities are in the district; the largest municipalities represented in this district include: Findlay, population 41,202 Bowling Green, population 29,636 Perrysburg, population 16,945 Fremont, population 16,734 Defiance, population 17,400 Norwalk, population 16,238 Fostoria, population 13,931 Bucyrus, population 13,224 Galion, population 11,341 Van Wert, population 10,690 Napoleon, population 9,318 Bryan, population 8,333 Wauseon, population 7,091 Upper Sandusky, population 6,533 Rossford, population 6,406 Northwood, population 5,471 Denotes that areas of the city are located in another Congressional District.
The following chart shows historic election results. Bold type indicates victor. Italic type indicates incumbent. Ohio's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Ohio's 5th congressional district special election, 2007 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
English Americans are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or in England. In the 2017 American Community Survey, English Americans are of the total population; the term is distinct from British Americans, which includes not only English Americans but Scottish Americans, Scotch-Irish Americans, Welsh Americans, Cornish Americans and Manx Americans from the whole of the United Kingdom. However, demographers regard this as a serious under count, as the index of inconsistency is high and many if not most Americans from English stock have a tendency to identify as "Americans" or if of mixed European ancestry, identify with a more recent and differentiated ethnic group. In the 1980 Census, over 49 million Americans claimed English ancestry, at the time around 26.34% of the total population and largest reported group which today, would make them the largest ethnic group in the United States. Scotch-Irish Americans are for the most part descendants of Lowland Scots and Northern English settlers who colonized Ireland during the Plantation of Ulster in the 17th century.
In 1982, an opinion poll showed respondents a card listing a number of ethnic groups and asked, "Thinking both of what they have contributed to this country and have gotten from this country, for each one tell me whether you think, on balance, they've been a good or a bad thing for this country." The English were the top ethnic group, with 66% saying they were a good thing for the United States, followed by the Irish at 62%. Ben J. Wattenberg argues that this poll demonstrates a general American bias against Hispanics and other recent immigrant populations; the majority—57%--of the Founding Fathers of the United States were of English extraction. English immigrants in the 19th century, as with other groups, sought economic prosperity, they began migrating in large numbers without 1840s to 1890s. Americans of English heritage are seen, identify, as "American" due to the many historic cultural ties between England and the U. S. and their influence on the country's population. Relative to ethnic groups of other European origins, this may be due to the early establishment of English settlements.
Since 1776, English-Americans have been less to proclaim their heritage in the face of the upsurge of cultural and ethnic pride by African Americans, Irish Americans, Scottish Americans, Italian Americans or other ethnic groups. A leading specialist, Charlotte Erickson, found them to be ethnically "invisible," dismissing the occasional St. George Societies as ephemeral elite clubs that were not in touch with the larger ethnic community. In Canada, by contrast, the English organized far more ethnic activism, as the English competed with the well-organized French and Irish elements. In the United States the Scottish immigrants were much better organized than the English in the 19th century, as are their descendants in the late 20th century; the original 17th century settlers were overwhelmingly English. From the time of the first permanent English presence in the New World until 1900, these immigrants and their descendants outnumbered all others establishing the English cultural pattern as predominant for the American version.
According to the United States Historical Census, the ethnic populations in the British American Colonies of 1700, 1755 and 1775 were: The category'Irish' represents immigrants from Ireland outside the Province of Ulster, the overwhelming majority of whom were Protestant and not ethnically Irish, though from Ireland. The distinction between Scots-Irish and Irish came about in the mid-19th century: prior to this time all Irish persons whatever religion were identified as'Irish.' In 1790 the U. S. conducted its first national population census. The ancestries of the population in 1790 has been estimated by various sources, first in 1932 again in 1980 and 1984 by sampling distinctive surnames in the census and assigning them a country of origin. There is debate over the accuracy between the studies with individual scholars and the Federal Government using different techniques and conclusion for the ethnic composition. A study published in 1909 titled A Century of Population Growth by the Government Census Bureau estimated the English were 83.5% of the white population.
The states with the highest percentage by the same Census Bureau data in 1909 of English ancestry were Connecticut 96.2%, Rhode Island 96.0%, Vermont 95.4%, Massachusetts 95.0%, New Hampshire 94.1%, Maine 93.1%, Virginia 85.0%, Maryland 84.0%, North Carolina 83.1%, South Carolina 82.4%, New York 78.2%, Pennsylvania 59.0%. Another source by Thomas L. Purvis in 1984 estimated that people of English ancestry made up about 47.5% of the total population or 60.9% of the white or European American population. Some 80.7% of the total United States population was of European origin. Around 757,208 were of African descent with 697,624 being slaves. In 1980, 23,748,772 Americans claimed only English ancestry and another 25,849,263 claimed English along with another ethnic ancestry, it must be noted that 13.3 million or 5.9% of the total U. S. population chose to identify as "American" as seen in censuses that followed. Below shows the persons. At a national level the ancestry response rate was high with 90.4% of the total United States population choosing at least
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Crawford County, Ohio
Crawford County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 43,784; the approximate population as of 2014 is 42,480, causing a -3.00% change over the past 4 years, according to the United States Census Bureau. Its county seat is Bucyrus; the county was created in 1820 and organized in 1836. It was named for a soldier during the American Revolution. Crawford County comprises the Bucyrus, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Mansfield-Ashland-Bucyrus, OH Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 403 square miles, of which 402 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles is water. It is the fourth-smallest county in Ohio by total area; the county is drained by the Olentangy Rivers. Seneca County Huron County Richland County Morrow County Marion County Wyandot County As of the census of 2000, there were 46,966 people, 18,957 households, 13,175 families residing in the county; the population density was 117 people per square mile.
There were 20,178 housing units at an average density of 50 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.99% White, 0.59% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.24% from other races, 0.65% from two or more races. 0.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 40.4% were of German, 21.4% American, 8.1% English and 7.8% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 18,957 households out of which 31.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 30.50% were non-families. 26.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.90% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 15.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years.
For every 100 females there were 93.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,227, the median income for a family was $43,169. Males had a median income of $33,319 versus $21,346 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,466. About 7.80% of families and 10.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.70% of those under age 18 and 7.50% of those age 65 or over. According to the United States Census Bureau, women make up about 51.3% of the population, as of 2014. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 43,784 people, 18,099 households, 12,108 families residing in the county; the population density was 109.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 20,167 housing units at an average density of 50.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.2% white, 0.9% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 0.3% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 43.3% were German, 14.3% were Irish, 13.7% were American, 11.0% were English. Of the 18,099 households, 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.1% were non-families, 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age was 41.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,228 and the median income for a family was $49,647. Males had a median income of $40,304 versus $28,118 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,590. About 10.8% of families and 13.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.3% of those under age 18 and 6.2% of those age 65 or over. Prior to 1924, Crawford County was a Democratic county. Since 1924, it has become Republican, only backing Democratic candidates three times since then.
Bucyrus Galion Chatfield Crestline New Washington North Robinson Tiro https://web.archive.org/web/20160715023447/http://www.ohiotownships.org/township-websites Oceola Sulphur Springs National Register of Historic Places listings in Crawford County, Ohio John E. Hopley, History of Crawford County and Ohio: Containing a History of the State of Ohio, from its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time... Chicago: Baskin and Battey, Historical Publishers, 1881. Crawford County travel guide from Wikivoyage Crawford County Government's website
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website