Daniel Moses Barker was an American jazz musician and author from New Orleans. He was a rhythm guitarist for various bands of the day, including Cab Calloway, Lucky Millinder and Benny Carter throughout the 1930s. One of Barker's earliest teachers in New Orleans was fellow banjoist Emanuel Sayles, with whom he recorded. Throughout his career, he played with Jelly Roll Morton, Baby Dodds, James P. Johnson, Sidney Bechet, Mezz Mezzrow, Red Allen, he toured and recorded with his wife, singer Blue Lu Barker. From the 1960s, Barker's work with the Fairview Baptist Church Brass Band was pivotal in ensuring the longevity of jazz in New Orleans, producing generations of new talent, including Wynton and Branford Marsalis who played in the band as youths. Danny Barker was born to a family of musicians in New Orleans in 1909, the grandson of bandleader Isidore Barbarin and nephew of drummers Paul Barbarin and Louis Barbarin, he took up clarinet and drums before switching to a ukulele that his aunt got him, a banjo from his uncle or a trumpeter named Lee Collins.
Barker began his career as a musician in his youth with his streetband the Boozan Kings, toured Mississippi with Little Brother Montgomery. In 1930 he switched to the guitar. On the day of his arrival in New York, his uncle Paul took him to the Rhythm Club, where he saw an inspiring performance by McKinney's Cotton Pickers, it was their first performance in New York as a band. Barker played with several acts when he moved to New York, including Fess Williams, Billy Fowler and the White Brothers, he worked with Buddy Harris in 1933, Albert Nicholas in 1935, Lucky Millinder from 1937 to 1938, Benny Carter in 1938. During his time in New York, he played with West Indian musicians, who mistook him for one of them due to his Creole style of playing. From 1939 to 1946 he recorded with Cab Calloway, started his own group featuring his wife Blue Lu Barker after leaving Calloway. On September 4, 1945 he recorded with Ohio's native jazz pianist, Sir Charles Thompson, saxophonists Dexter Gordon and Charlie Parker.
In 1947 he was performing again with Lucky Millinder, with Bunk Johnson. He returned to working with Al Nicholas in 1948 and in 1949 rejoined efforts with his wife in a group. During the 1950s he was a freelance musician, but did work with his uncle Paul Barbarin from 1954 to 1955. In the mid-1950s he went to California to record again with Albert Nicholas, he performed at the 1960 Newport Jazz Festival with Eubie Blake. In 1963 he was working with Cliff Jackson, in 1964 appeared at the World Fair leading his own group. Sometime in the early 1960s he formed a group. In 1965, Barker returned to New Orleans and took up a position as assistant to the curator of the New Orleans Jazz Museum. In 1970 he founded and led a church-sponsored brass band for young people—the Fairview Baptist Church Marching Band—which became popular. Reverend Andrew Darby, Jr. the Pastor of Fairview Baptist Church commissioned'Brother' Barker to form a Christian band, Barker went throughout the neighborhood of the church enlisting young musicians.
The Fairview band launched the careers of a number of professional musicians who went on to perform in brass band and mainstream jazz contexts, including Leroy Jones, Wynton Marsalis, Branford Marsalis, Kirk Joseph, Nicholas Payton, Shannon Powell, Lucien Barbarin, Dr. Michael White and others; as Joe Torregano—another Fairview band alumnus—described it, "That group saved jazz for a generation in New Orleans." In years the band became known as the Dirty Dozen Brass Band. During that time, he led the French Market Jazz Band. Barker played at many New Orleans venues from the late 1960s through the early 1990s, in addition to touring. During the 1994 Mardi Gras season, Barker reigned as King of Krewe du Vieux, he published an autobiography and many articles on New Orleans and jazz history. Barker had published two books on jazz from the Oxford University Press; the first was Bourbon Street Black, cowritten with Dr. Jack V. Buerkle, in 1973, followed by A Life In Jazz in 1986, he enjoyed painting and was an amateur landscape artist.
Living during a period when segregation was still common practice in the United States, Barker faced many obstacles during his career. Barker suffered from diabetes throughout most of his adult life, was in general poor health, he died of cancer in New Orleans on 13 March 1994 at age 85. Barker is featured posthumously in the 2011 non-fiction film by Darren Hoffman, Tradition is a Temple. Musicians from the documentary speak at length of the profound impact that Barker had on their lives and careers and New Orleans poet Chuck Perkins reads a poem written for and dedicated to his memory. Barker appears in Les Blank's New Orleans documentary Always for Pleasure, including an interview and several performance sequences. Barker appeared in the 1987 American television drama film A Gathering of Old Men, in which he played the role of Chimlee. 1994 - Big Easy Entertainment Awards - Best Traditional Jazz Group for Danny Barker 1993 - Big Easy Entertainment Awards - Lifetime Achievement In Music 1993 - Big Easy Entertainment Awards - Best Traditional Jazz Group for Danny Barker 1991 - National Endowment for the Arts NEA Jazz Masters Award 1991 - Big Easy Entertainment Awards - Best Traditional Jazz Group for Danny Barker 1990 - Big Easy Entertainment Awards - Best Traditional Jazz Group for Danny Barker and the Jazz Hounds 1989 - Big Easy Entertainment Awards - Best Traditional Jazz Group for Danny Barker and the Jazz Hounds with Blue Lu Barker List of people from New Orleans Barker and Alyn Shipton.
A Life in Jazz. New
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a
The Jazz Messengers
The Jazz Messengers were an influential jazz combo that existed for over thirty-five years beginning in the early 1950s as a collective, ending when long-time leader and founding drummer Art Blakey died in 1990. Blakey co-led the group from the outset. "Art Blakey" and "Jazz Messengers" became synonymous over the years, though Blakey did lead non-Messenger recording sessions and played as a sideman for other groups throughout his career. "Yes sir, I'm gonna to stay with the youngsters. When these get too old, I'm gonna get some younger ones. Keeps the mind active." The group evolved into a proving ground for young jazz talent. While veterans re-appeared in the group, by and large, each iteration of the Messengers included a lineup of new young players. Having the Messengers on one's resume was a rite of passage in the jazz world, conveyed immediate bona fides. Many former members of the Jazz Messengers established careers as solo musicians, such as Lee Morgan, Benny Golson, Wayne Shorter, Freddie Hubbard, Bobby Timmons, Curtis Fuller, Cedar Walton, Keith Jarrett, Joanne Brackeen, Woody Shaw, Chuck Mangione, Wynton Marsalis, Branford Marsalis, Terence Blanchard, Donald Harrison and Mulgrew Miller.
Some members, such as bassist Clarence Seay and Gregory Charles Royal, are documented to have played in the Jazz Messengers but did not record with the group. On December 17, 1947, Blakey led a group known as "Art Blakey's Messengers" in his first recording session as a leader, for Blue Note Records; the records were released as 78s at the time and two of the songs were released on the New Sounds 10" LP compilation. This octet included Kenny Dorham, Howard Bowe, Sahib Shihab, Musa Kaleem, Ernest Thompson, Walter Bishop Jr. and LaVerne Barker. Around the same time—in 1947 or 1949—Blakey led a big band called "Seventeen Messengers." The band broke up soon after. The Messengers name went dormant for several years. Blakey and Horace Silver began working together in the early 1950s; some cite the group that included Blakey, Kenny Dorham, Lou Donaldson and Gene Ramey in 1953 as the original Jazz Messengers. On February 21, 1954, a group billed as the "Art Blakey Quintet" produced the live set of records called A Night at Birdland.
The quintet included Clifford Brown, Lou Donaldson and Curly Russell. These records were quite successful, some cite this date as the beginning of the Jazz Messengers. Most date the origin of the Jazz Messengers to 1954, or 1955, when the first recordings credited to the band appeared; the Jazz Messengers formed as a collective, nominally led by Blakey on various dates. Blakey credits Silver with reviving the Messengers name for the group; the other members included Hank Mobley and Doug Watkins. Their first recordings using the Jazz Messengers name were a pair of live dates, recorded at the Café Bohemia in 1955. A pair of earlier recordings from sessions in late 1954 and early 1955—released on Blue Note 10" LPs as the Horace Silver Quintet, vol. 1 and vol. 2—were subsequently reissued as a 12" LP entitled Horace Silver and the Jazz Messengers. In 1956 Dorham was replaced by Donald Byrd; this group released The Jazz Messengers on Columbia Records. In the year, the original group all went their own ways, but Blakey retained the Jazz Messengers name for his future groups.
For a brief period in 1956 Donald Byrd stayed on. It included Kenny Drew, Wilbur Ware, Ira Sullivan playing tenor sax in place of his more familiar trumpet; the only contemporary documentation of this version of the Messengers was two tracks backing up singer Rita Reys on The Cool Voice of Rita Reys on Columbia. Blakey formed a new lineup that would prove to be much more stable; the most notable name, at the time, was Jackie McLean. He was only 25, but had recorded with Miles Davis and Charles Mingus. Bill Hardman, Sam Dockery and Jimmy "Spanky" DeBrest filled out the group, they recorded another record for Columbia: Hard Bop—still under the collective's moniker The Jazz Messengers. They went on to record for several different labels including RCA subsidiary Vik Records, Pacific Jazz, Cadet, Bethlehem and a date on Atlantic featuring Thelonious Monk. Over this time the band's name evolved to include Blakey's name, starting with "The Jazz Messengers, featuring Art Blakey" on Ritual "Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers" on several records, "Art Blakey and his Jazz Messengers" on Cu-Bop.
In 1958 Blakey formed a new lineup with four Philadelphia natives: Lee Morgan, Benny Golson, Bobby Timmons, Jymie Merritt. This marked the beginning of the most fruitful period of the Jazz Messengers, they returned to Blue Note and the first record—entitled Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers—produced their biggest hit: "Moanin'". It featured two more songs which would become Messengers classics, jazz classics as well: "Blues March" and "Along Came Betty" by Benny Golson. Golson left the band in 1959 after a European tour to be replaced by Hank Mobley. Mobley did not accompany the band to a Canadian jazz festival in 1959; this lineup produced several notable recordings, including the second Messenger album, A Night in Tunisia. In 1961 the group expanded to a sextet with the addition of Curtis Fuller; this lineup produced the Art Blakey!!!!! Jazz Messengers!!!!! Album for Impulse! Records. At the end of that summer, Lee Morgan and Bobby Timmons left and were replaced by Freddie Hubbard and Cedar Walton respectively.
This lineup recorded Three Blind Mice for United Artists an
Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv
Franz Joseph Haydn was an Austrian composer of the Classical period. He was instrumental in the development of chamber music such as the piano trio, his contributions to musical form have earned him the epithets "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet". Haydn spent much of his career as a court musician for the wealthy Esterházy family at their remote estate; until the part of his life, this isolated him from other composers and trends in music so that he was, as he put it, "forced to become original". Yet his music circulated and for much of his career he was the most celebrated composer in Europe, he was a friend and mentor of Mozart, a tutor of Beethoven, the older brother of composer Michael Haydn. Joseph Haydn was born in Rohrau, Austria, a village that at that time stood on the border with Hungary, his father was Mathias Haydn, a wheelwright who served as "Marktrichter", an office akin to village mayor. Haydn's mother Maria, née Koller, had worked as a cook in the palace of Count Harrach, the presiding aristocrat of Rohrau.
Neither parent could read music. According to Haydn's reminiscences, his childhood family was musical, sang together and with their neighbours. Haydn's parents had noticed that their son was musically gifted and knew that in Rohrau he would have no chance to obtain serious musical training, it was for this reason that, around the time Haydn turned six, they accepted a proposal from their relative Johann Matthias Frankh, the schoolmaster and choirmaster in Hainburg, that Haydn be apprenticed to Frankh in his home to train as a musician. Haydn therefore went off with Frankh to Hainburg and he never again lived with his parents. Life in the Frankh household was not easy for Haydn, who remembered being hungry and humiliated by the filthy state of his clothing, he began his musical training there, could soon play both harpsichord and violin. The people of Hainburg heard. There is reason to think that Haydn's singing impressed those who heard him, because in 1739 he was brought to the attention of Georg von Reutter, the director of music in St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, who happened to be visiting Hainburg and was looking for new choirboys.
Haydn passed his audition with Reutter, after several months of further training moved to Vienna, where he worked for the next nine years as a chorister. Haydn lived in the Kapellhaus next to the cathedral, along with Reutter, Reutter's family, the other four choirboys, which after 1745 included his younger brother Michael; the choirboys were instructed in Latin and other school subjects as well as voice and keyboard. Reutter was of little help to Haydn in the areas of music theory and composition, giving him only two lessons in his entire time as chorister. However, since St. Stephen's was one of the leading musical centres in Europe, Haydn learned a great deal by serving as a professional musician there. Like Frankh before him, Reutter did not always bother to make sure; as he told his biographer Albert Christoph Dies, Haydn was motivated to sing well, in hopes of gaining more invitations to perform before aristocratic audiences—where the singers were served refreshments. By 1749, Haydn had matured physically to the point that he was no longer able to sing high choral parts.
Empress Maria Theresa herself complained to Reutter about his singing, calling it "crowing". One day, Haydn carried out a prank; this was enough for Reutter: Haydn was first caned summarily dismissed and sent into the streets. He had the good fortune to be taken in by a friend, Johann Michael Spangler, who shared his family's crowded garret room with Haydn for a few months. Haydn began his pursuit of a career as a freelance musician. Haydn struggled at first, working at many different jobs: as a music teacher, as a street serenader, in 1752, as valet–accompanist for the Italian composer Nicola Porpora, from whom he said he learned "the true fundamentals of composition", he was briefly in Count Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz's employ, playing the organ in the Bohemian Chancellery chapel at the Judenplatz. While a chorister, Haydn had not received any systematic training in music composition; as a remedy, he worked his way through the counterpoint exercises in the text Gradus ad Parnassum by Johann Joseph Fux and studied the work of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, whom he acknowledged as an important influence.
As his skills increased, Haydn began to acquire a public reputation, first as the composer of an opera, Der krumme Teufel, "The Limping Devil", written for the comic actor Johann Joseph Felix Kurz, whose stage name was "Bernardon". The work was premiered in 1753, but was soon closed down by the censors due to "offensive remarks". Haydn noticed without annoyance, that works he had given away were being published and sold in local music shops. Between 1754 and 1756 Haydn worked freelance for the court in Vienna, he was among several musicians who were paid for services as supplementary musicians at balls given for the imperial children during carnival season, as supplementary singers in the imperial chapel in Lent and Holy Week. With the increase in his reputation, Haydn obtained aristocratic patronage, crucial for the career of a composer in his day. Countess Thun, having seen one of Haydn's compositions, summoned him and engaged him as her singing an