Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the Western United States. The state is the 10th largest by area, the least populous, the second most sparsely populated state in the country. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, on the west by Idaho and Montana; the state population was estimated at 577,737 in 2018, less than 31 of the most populous U. S. cities including Denver in neighboring Colorado. Cheyenne is the state capital and the most populous city, with an estimated population of 63,957 in 2018; the western two-thirds of the state is covered by the mountain ranges and rangelands of the Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie called the High Plains. Half of the land in Wyoming is owned by the U. S. government, leading Wyoming to rank sixth by area and fifth by proportion of a state's land owned by the federal government. Federal lands include two national parks—Grand Teton and Yellowstone—two national recreation areas, two national monuments, several national forests, historic sites, fish hatcheries, wildlife refuges.
Original inhabitants of the region include the Crow, Arapaho and Shoshone. Southwestern Wyoming was claimed by the Spanish Empire and Mexican territory until it was ceded to the United States in 1848 at the end of the Mexican–American War; the region acquired the name Wyoming when a bill was introduced to the U. S. Congress in 1865 to provide a "temporary government for the territory of Wyoming"; the name was used earlier for the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania, is derived from the Munsee word xwé:wamənk, meaning "at the big river flat". The main drivers of Wyoming's economy are mineral extraction—mostly coal, natural gas, trona—and tourism. Agricultural commodities include livestock, sugar beets and wool; the climate is semi-arid and continental and windier than the rest of the U. S. with greater temperature extremes. Wyoming has been a politically conservative state since the 1950s, with the Republican Party candidate winning every presidential election except that of 1964. Wyoming's climate is semi-arid and continental, is drier and windier in comparison to most of the United States with greater temperature extremes.
Much of this is due to the topography of the state. Summers in Wyoming are warm with July high temperatures averaging between 85 and 95 °F in most of the state. With increasing elevation, this average drops with locations above 9,000 feet averaging around 70 °F. Summer nights throughout the state are characterized by a rapid cooldown with the hottest locations averaging in the 50–60 °F range at night. In most of the state, most of the precipitation tends to fall in early summer. Winters are cold, but are variable with periods of sometimes extreme cold interspersed between mild periods, with Chinook winds providing unusually warm temperatures in some locations. Wyoming is a dry state with much of the land receiving less than 10 inches of rainfall per year. Precipitation depends on elevation with lower areas in the Big Horn Basin averaging 5–8 inches; the lower areas in the North and on the eastern plains average around 10–12 inches, making the climate there semi-arid. Some mountain areas do receive a good amount of precipitation, 20 inches or more, much of it as snow, sometimes 200 inches or more annually.
The state's highest recorded temperature is 114 °F at Basin on July 12, 1900 and the lowest recorded temperature is −66 °F at Riverside on February 9, 1933. The number of thunderstorm days vary across the state with the southeastern plains of the state having the most days of thunderstorm activity. Thunderstorm activity in the state is highest during early summer; the southeastern corner of the state is the most vulnerable part of the state to tornado activity. Moving away from that point and westwards, the incidence of tornadoes drops with the west part of the state showing little vulnerability. Tornadoes, where they occur, tend to be small and brief, unlike some of those that occur farther east; as specified in the designating legislation for the Territory of Wyoming, Wyoming's borders are lines of latitude 41°N and 45°N, longitude 104°3'W and 111°3'W —a geodesic quadrangle. Wyoming is one of only three states to have borders defined by only "straight" lines. Due to surveying inaccuracies during the 19th century, Wyoming's legal border deviates from the true latitude and longitude lines by up to half of a mile in some spots in the mountainous region along the 45th parallel.
Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, on the west by Idaho. It is the tenth largest state in the United States in total area, containing 97,814 square miles and is made up of 23 counties. From the north border to the south border it is 276 miles; the Great Plains meet the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming. The state is a great plateau broken by many mountain ranges. Surface elevations range from the summit of Gannett Peak in the Wind River Mountain Range, at 13,804 feet, to the Belle Fourche River valley in the state's northeast corner, at 3,125 feet. In the northwest are the Absaroka, Owl Creek, Gros
John Calvert, was an English brewer and politician who sat in the House of Commons for 48 years between 1754 and 1802. Calvert was born on 6 May 1726 the son of Felix Calvert of Albury Hall and his wife Mary Calvert daughter of Felix Calvert of Nine Ashes, Hertfordshire, his second cousin; the Calvert family were London brewers who owned the Peacock Brewhouse in Whitecross Street and the Hour Glass brewhouse in Thames Street. Calvert was returned as Member of Parliament for Wendover by Lord Verney in a by-election on 25 February 1754 and was re-elected in the 1754 general election, his father died on 29 April 1755 and he inherited a partnership in the family business at the Peacock Brewery, Whitecross Street which he ran for many years. In 1761 Calvert was returned unopposed as MP for Hertford and again in 1774, he lost his seat at Hertford in the 1780 general election but was returned by Lord Weymouth as MP for Tamworth in a by-election of November 1780. In 1784 he was returned again at Hertford.
He was elected there again in 1790 and headed the poll in 1796. He retired at the 1802 general election Calvert died on 22 February 1804, he had married Elizabeth Hulse, daughter of Sir Edward Hulse, 1st Baronet on 8 September 1757 and had 2 sons. He was succeeded by his son John
Colin Young is a singer known for being a member of the British soul band The Foundations. In the mid-1960s, he decided to stay, he was a former bookkeeper who prior to joining The Foundations was lead singer of a group called Joe E. Young & The Tonicks. Young joined The Foundations after two members, lead singer Clem Curtis and tenor saxophonist Mike Elliott left in 1968, he replaced Clem Curtis as lead singer and went on to sing on two more of The Foundations' big hits, "Build Me Up Buttercup" and "In the Bad Bad Old Days". He stayed with The Foundations until their break up in late 1970. In the mid-1970s, while Clem Curtis and The Foundations were on the road after having reformed The Foundations, there was another Foundations line-up, led by Colin Young, who were on the road at the same time and were playing the same material; this led to court action that resulted in Clem Curtis being allowed to bill his group as either The Foundations or Clem Curtis & The Foundations. Young was allowed to bill himself as The New Foundations.
In the mid-1970s, Young and his group released a lone 45 on the Pye label, "Something for My Baby" / "I Need Your Love". In the 1980s, as the lead singer of UK group Mercy, Mercy, he had a hit with "It Must Be Heaven". In 1999, a version of The Foundations was reformed that included Colin Young, Alan Warner, Steve Bingham, Gary Moberly, Tony Laidlaw and Sam Kelly Steve Dixon; this version of the group was formed due to the popularity of the film There's Something About Mary and the interest created resulting from the 1968 hit "Build Me Up Buttercup" being featured in the film. Some time Young left this version of the group and was replaced by Hue Montgomery. In 2003 Young recorded an updated version of "Build Me Up Buttercup" backed by a choir of policemen from the Surrey police force; the proceeds from the sale of the CD go to Milly's Fund, a trust set up in memory of murdered school girl Milly Dowler. The song was a favourite of hers. In 2010, Young appeared in Channel 4's Come Dine With Me, where he performed a song for dinner party guests.
The performance was well received, but only one guest recognised him as he was number one in the year of her birth. 7" singles Colin Young – "Any Time at All" / "You're No Good" – UNI 55286 – 1971 New Foundations – "Something for My Baby" / "I Need Your Love" – PYE 45533 – 1975 Mercy, Mercy – "It Must Be Heaven" / "It Must Be Heaven" – Island Records – 106 996 – 198412 singles Mercy, Mercy – "It Must Be Heaven" / "It Must Be Heaven" – Ensign Records – 12ENY 515 – 1984 Mercy, Mercy – "What Are We Gonna Do About It" / – Ensign Records – 12ENY 522 DJ – 1985CD singles Colin Young & The Offbeats, For Milly's Fund – "Build Me Up Buttercup" / "Buttercup Too" / "No Man Is An Island" – Ripe Music RIPEMCD1 – 2003 Colin Young and The Come Dine With Me Crew – "Woman, Get Back To the Kitchen!" – Dave Lamb Records DLCD1 – 2010 45cat.com