Mullens, West Virginia
Mullens is a city in Wyoming County, West Virginia. The population was 1,559 at the 2010 census. Located in a valley along the Guyandotte River within a mountainous region of southern West Virginia, the town was nearly destroyed by flash flooding in July 2001. While the town has attempted to redevelop with the aid of state and federal recovery money, many local businesses and residents have left the area permanently. Organizations like the Mullens-based Rural Appalachian Improvement League are working to improve conditions across the region. Mullens was incorporated as a town on September 17, 1912 and operated under a charter issued by the Circuit Court of Wyoming County, it was named for A. J. Mullins; the town's original name was spelled with an "i". An Act of the West Virginia Legislature granting a charter to the City of Mullens was passed February 22, 1929; the early growth of the Mullens community came with development of the lumber and coal mining industries. In the early 20th century, coal-mining manager and developer William Nelson Page of Ansted helped open the Winding Gulf Coalfield with plans for the Deepwater Railway, a new short-line railroad.
When Page ran into competitive collusion by the bigger railroads which would have wrecked his project, backed by his silent partner, wealthy industrialist Henry Huttleston Rogers, the plan was expanded in a secretive and massive way to build a line all the way east to the port of Hampton Roads. Completed in 1909, the Virginian Railway established engine terminal and yard facilities near Mullens which employed hundreds of workers during the first half of the 20th century; the VGN was merged with the Norfolk and Western Railway in 1959, both became part of the Norfolk Southern Railway. A caboose museum in Mullens celebrates the history of the railroad in the region; the Mullens Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1993. The nearby Wyco Church was listed in 2010. Mullens is located at 37°35′5″N 81°23′5″W, at the confluence of the Guyandotte River and the Slab Fork. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.85 square miles, of which, 1.80 square miles is land and 0.05 square miles is water.
The climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Mullens has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,559 people, 682 households, 409 families residing in the city. The population density was 866.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 837 housing units at an average density of 465.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.5% White, 2.2% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.2% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.1% of the population. There were 682 households of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.0% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.0% were non-families. 36.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 18% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 3.01. The median age in the city was 41.7 years. 22.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.8% male and 51.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,769 people, 771 households, 502 families residing in the city; the population density was 927.5 people per square mile. There were 904 housing units at an average density of 474.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.03% White, 3.45% African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.96% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.17% of the population. There were 771 households out of which 25.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.9% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.8% were non-families. 32.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.83.
In the city, the population was spread out with 20.0% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, 22.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,742, the median income for a family was $37,438. Males had a median income of $32,197 versus $20,917 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,314. About 11.9% of families and 15.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.5% of those under age 18 and 9.4% of those age 65 or over. Jerome Anderson, basketball player and coach Mike D'Antoni, a former basketball player and current NBA basketball coach Dan D'Antoni, current head men's basketball coach at Marshall University Christy Martin, professional female boxer Paula Jean Swearengin, politician Rick Tolley, Marshall University head football coach killed in the Southern Airways Flight 932 airplane crash Rural Appalachian Improvement League John F. Kennedy in Mullens
McDowell County, West Virginia
McDowell County is a county in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 22,113, its county seat is Welch. McDowell county is the southernmost county in the state, it was created in 1858 by the Virginia General Assembly and named for Virginia Governor James McDowell. It became a part of West Virginia in 1863, when several counties seceded from the state of Virginia during the American Civil War. McDowell County was home of the famous Rocket Boys, who were from Coalwood. McDowell County was formed by an act of the Virginia Legislature on February 20, 1858, from what was included in Tazewell County, Virginia. Five years the Legislature decided to allow county residents to determine where the county seat should be, they chose Perryville, the most populated town. "The "Restored Government" commissioners, in October 1866, located the county seat on a farm near the mouth of Mill Creek, where it remained until it moved to Perryville in 1874." The debate over the location of the county seat continued until 1892.
The town of Welch became the county seat. The county is popularly referred to as the "Free State of McDowell," a name coined by a local newspaper editor to refer to the unusual politics and demographics of the area. Increasing rates of poverty in McDowell County led U. S. President John F. Kennedy to remark in a speech in the city of Welch in May 1963:I don't think any American can be satisfied to find in McDowell County, in West Virginia, 20 or 25 percent of the people of that county out of work, not for 6 weeks or 12 weeks, but for a year, 2, 3, or 4 years. McDowell County, the southernmost county in West Virginia, is located at 37.37°N 81.65°W / 37.37. It is bordered by Virginia, to the south; the Appalachian Mountains determine most of the borders of the county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 535 square miles, of which 533 square miles is land and 1.4 square miles is water. The county is in the shape of a semi circle, with the border following the mountains around the county.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 22,113 people, 9,176 households, 6,196 families residing in the county. The population density was 41.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 11,322 housing units at an average density of 21.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 89.1% white, 9.5% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 0.1% Asian, 0.0% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.4% of the population. The largest ancestry groups were:13.7% Irish, 12.0% German, 11.5% English, 8.0% American, 2.8% Sub-Saharan African, 2.7% Italian, 2.0% Dutch, 1.1% Scotch-Irish Of the 9,176 households, 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.1% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families, 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age was 43.8 years.
The median income for a household in the county was $22,154 and the median income for a family was $28,413. Males had a median income of $31,229 versus $26,776 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,955. About 27.5% of families and 32.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 44.3% of those under age 18 and 20.1% of those age 65 or over. Of 3,142 counties in the United States in 2013, McDowell County ranked 3,142 in the life expectancy of both male and female residents. Males in McDowell County lived an average of 63.5 years and females lived an average of 71.5 years compared to the national average for life expectancy of 76.5 for males and 81.2 for females. Moreover, the average life expectancy in McDowell County declined by 3.2 years for males and 4.1 years for females between 1985 and 2013 compared to a national average for the same period of an increased life span of 5.5 years for men and 3.1 years for women. High rates of smoking and obesity and a low level of physical activity appear to be contributing factors to the declining life expectancy for both sexes.
In 2015, McDowell County had the highest rate of drug-induced deaths of any county in the United States, with 141 deaths per 100,000 people. Neighboring Wyoming County had the second highest rate; the power of industrial and mining political systems turned it towards the Republican Party between 1890 and 1932 – being Republican enough to support William Howard Taft during the divided 1912 presidential election. McDowell County Schools operates the county's public K-12 education system of 7 elementary schools, 2 middle schools, 2 public high schools in McDowell County including Mount View High School, River View High School; the county has a private school, Twinbranch Pentecostal Christian Academy, located in Twinbranch. The current superintendent of schools is Nelson Spencer. McDowell County Schools were under state control as a'take-over' county from 2001 to 2013. U. S. Route 52 West Virginia Route 16 West Virginia Route 80 West Virginia Route 83 West Virginia Route 103 West Virginia Route 161 West Virginia Route 635The West Virginia Division of Highways is trying to construct new highways, such as U.
S. Route 121, known as the Coalfields Expressway; the county had one airport, Welch Municipal Airport, now closed indefinitely. Gary Keystone War Welch Anawalt Bradshaw Davy Iaeger Kimball
West Virginia's 3rd congressional district
West Virginia's 3rd congressional district is a U. S. congressional district in southern West Virginia. The district covers the state's second largest city, includes Bluefield and Beckley, has a long history of coal mining and farming; the district is represented by Republican Carol Miller. The modern district has grown in geographic size over the years, as it contains the area of the state that has lost the most population. Most of the congressmen listed below prior to the 1992 election cycle represented other parts of the state, as most of the modern 3rd District's history is found in the obsolete 4th, 5th, 6th Districts; the modern 3rd District began to take shape in the 1960s. For much of its history, the 4th district had been focused on Huntington and the mill towns and farm communities north of that city along the Ohio River, while the 5th and 6th Districts were focused on the safely Democratic coal fields. In the 1970 redistricting, the 5th was eliminated, most of its territory was merged into the 4th to form what is now the western half of the modern 3rd.
In the 1990 redistricting the old 4th was renumbered as the 3rd and took in what is now the eastern half of its current shape from a previous version of the 2nd District. The current major areas of the district include the industrial and university city of Huntington, the coal producing southwestern part of the state, the more conservative farm and timber region of the southeastern part of the state. 2010 Census figures again showed a major population loss, Mason County was transferred from the 2nd to the 3rd District. This will not change the character of the district in a significant way. Despite the strength of Democrats at the local and state level, in presidential elections the district has followed the increasing Republican trend in West Virginia. While Bill Clinton twice carried the district handily in three-way races, Al Gore just narrowly won the district in 2000 with 51% of the vote. George W. Bush won the district in 2004 with 53% of the vote, John McCain carried the district in 2008 with 55.76% of the vote, continuing the district, the state's rightward shift despite a large shift towards the Democrats nationally in 2008.
In 2012, the district shifted towards the Republicans yet again, with Republican Mitt Romney defeating President Barack Obama 65.0% to 32.8% in the district. In 2016, the district shifted further towards the Republican Party, with Republican Donald Trump defeating Democrat Hillary Clinton, by a massive margin of 72.5% to 23.3%. Election results from presidential races: The Third District as formed in 1863 included Kanawha, Mason, Cabell, Wayne, Boone, Nicholas, Roane and McDowell counties, it was the successor of Virginia's 12th congressional district. In 1882, the district was reformed of Logan, Wyoming, McDowell, Raleigh, Kanawha, Clay, Greenbrier, Summers, Webster and Upshur counties. In 1902, Wyoming, McDowell, Raleigh and Mercer were removed. In 1916 the district was, more or less, renumbered as the new 6th District, the 3rd was reconstituted as Ritchie, Harrison, Gilmer, Upshur, Clay and Webster counties. In 1934, Fayette was added. In 1952, Wirt was added. In 1962, the district was again broken up and reconstituted as Boone, Kanawha and Raleigh.
In 1972, Raleigh was removed and Ritchie, Gilmer, Mason, Roane, Putnam and Boone were added. In 1982, Lewis was added; the district's current configuration dates from the 1990 round of redistricting. From 1992 to 2002, it consisted of Boone, Fayette, Lincoln, Logan, McDowell, Mingo, Pocahontas, Summers, Wayne and Wyoming. In 2002, Nicholas was added. For the 2012 cycle, Mason was added. West Virginia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Logan County, West Virginia
Logan County is a county in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 36,743, its county seat is Logan. The county was formed in 1824 from parts of Giles, Tazewell and Kanawha counties, it is named for famous Native American chief of the Mingo tribe. Logan County comprises the Logan, WV Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Charleston–Huntington–Ashland, WV–OH–KY Combined Statistical Area. In 1921 it was the location of the Battle of Blair Mountain, one of the largest armed uprisings in U. S. history. More the Buffalo Creek Flood of February 26, 1972, killed 125 people when a coal slurry dam burst under the pressure of heavy rains, releasing over 100,000,000 US gallons of waste and water in a 30-foot wave onto the valley below; the communities of Lorado and Lundale were destroyed and 14 other communities damaged, including Saunders, Amherstdale and Latrobe. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 456 square miles, of which 454 square miles is land and 1.9 square miles is water.
I‑73 I‑74 U. S. Highway 52 U. S. Highway 119 West Virginia Route 10 West Virginia Route 17 West Virginia Route 44 West Virginia Route 73 West Virginia Route 80 Lincoln County Boone County Wyoming County Mingo County As of the census of 2000, there were 37,710 people, 14,880 households, 10,936 families residing in the county; the population density was 83 people per square mile. There were 16,807 housing units at an average density of 37 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.33% White, 2.59% Black or African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.06% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races. 0.54% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 14,880 households out of which 30.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.00% were married couples living together, 12.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.50% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.10% under the age of 18, 9.30% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 26.10% from 45 to 64, 14.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 94.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,603, the median income for a family was $29,072. Males had a median income of $31,515 versus $20,212 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,102. About 20.80% of families and 24.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.60% of those under age 18 and 14.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 36,743 people, 14,907 households, 10,512 families residing in the county; the population density was 81.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 16,743 housing units at an average density of 36.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 96.5% white, 2.1% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 0.1% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 16.6% were Irish, 13.3% were German, 7.8% were English, 6.9% were American. Of the 14,907 households, 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.5% were non-families, 26.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age was 42.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $35,465 and the median income for a family was $43,475. Males had a median income of $39,462 versus $26,571 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,614. About 17.6% of families and 21.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.8% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.
Logan County, being secessionist and between the New Deal and the 1980s unionized, was once powerfully Democratic. Before the 2008 election, the only Republican to carry the county had been Herbert Hoover in 1928, due to strong anti-Catholicism against Al Smith in this "Bible Belt" region. Logan was the only county in West Virginia to be carried by George McGovern in his disastrous 1972 campaign, between 1976 and 2000 no Republican reached 40 percent of the county’s vote. Over the past three presidential elections swings to the Republican Party have averaged thirty percentage points and Democratic vote percentages have plummeted to levels more typical of unionist, traditionally Republican counties like Grant. Logan Chapmanville Man Mitchell Heights West Logan Logan County Schools: Aracoma Alma Mine accident Buffalo Creek flood Chief Logan State Park Elk Creek Wildlife Management Area James H. Harless Landau Eugene Murphy Jr. Logan National Register of Historic Places listings in Logan County, West Virginia Political scandals in Logan County, West Virginia Earl Dotter, "Coalfield Generations: Health and the Environment," Southern Spaces 16 July 2008.
Http://southernspaces.org/2008/coalfield-generations-health-mining-and-environment Logan County Chamber of Commerce Logan County Schools Logan County WVGenWeb Logan Coalfie
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
West Virginia Route 97
West Virginia Route 97 is an east–west state highway in the U. S. state of West Virginia. The western terminus of the route is at U. S. Route 52 and West Virginia Route 80 in Hanover; the eastern terminus is at exit 42 of the West Virginia Turnpike in Mabscott. West Virginia Route 16, which runs concurrent with WV 97 between Sophia and Mabscott, continues north into Beckley on Robert C. Byrd Drive, the right-of-way of both WV 16 and WV 97. State Route 97 connects U. S. Highway 52 in the western end of Wyoming County with the county seat of Pineville and goes on to State Route 54 in Maben. Following the linkage of Interstate 64 to the West Virginia Turnpike south of Beckley, the state continued State Route 97 signage across existing State Route 54 to State Route 16 in Sophia and on to the junction with the Turnpike's newly constructed South Valley Drive exit number 42; as a main thoroughfare in Wyoming County, Route 97 serves the coal industry and its workers, the heavy truck traffic following brought many accidents and made maintenance nearly impossible.
The last 20 years have brought improvements and widening to the road, it could soon lose much traffic to the Coalfields Expressway, a highway that will link the Turnpike to Pineville and Buchanan County, Virginia. Twin Falls Resort State Park R. D. Bailey Dam and Lake