Northeastern Pennsylvania is a geographic region of the U. S. state of Pennsylvania that includes the Pocono Mountains, the Endless Mountains, the industrial cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Hazleton and Carbondale. A portion of this region constitutes a part of the New York City metropolitan area. Unlike some other parts of the Rust Belt, some of these communities are experiencing a modest population increase; some parts of the region Monroe and Pike counties, rank among the fastest growing areas of the state. The counties that comprise northeastern Pennsylvania are Bradford County, Carbon County, Columbia County, Lackawanna County, Luzerne County, Monroe County, Montour County, Northumberland County, Pike County, Schuylkill County, Sullivan County, Susquehanna County, Wayne County and Wyoming County; the region overlaps with the Pocono Mountains, the Endless Mountains, the Wyoming Valley, the Coal Region, Pennsylvania Dutch Country, and, by some definitions, the Lehigh Valley. Green: the largest county by area.
PNC Field in Moosic hosts the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre RailRiders, the AAA affiliate to Major League Baseball's New York Yankees. Mohegan Sun Arena at Casey Plaza in Wilkes-Barre hosts the American Hockey League's Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins. Pocono Raceway in Long Pond holds two NASCAR races annually. Mohegan Sun at Pocono Downs in Plains was Pennsylvania's first casino. Mount Airy Casino Resort in Mount Pocono offers gambling. Skiers can find several slopes in the area, including Blue Mountain Ski Resort, Montage Mountain Ski Resort in Scranton, which operates as a water park during the summer season, Elk Mountain in Union Dale, Camelback Ski Area in Tannersville. Like Montage, it operates as a water park in the off season. There are several attractions. Eckley Miners' Village near Hazleton, the Lackawanna Coal Mine Tour in Scranton highlight the area's coal mining history, while Steamtown National Historic Site and the Electric City Trolley Museum, both in Scranton, focus on transportation history.
The Houdini Museum in Scranton follows Houdini's exploits in the area, as well as the rest of the world. The Scranton Ghost Walk. 1433 N. Main Avenue, home of the longest running seance event in the United States, "Haunted! Mysteries of the Beyond", was picked by the Pennsylvania Department of tourism as one of the most haunted places in the state. NEPA is home to the Northeastern Pennsylvania Philharmonic, the only arts and education organization in the area to develop a multi-county base of support. Many well-known universities are located in northeastern Pennsylvania. Penn State operates campuses near Scranton and in Hazleton. Colleges in the Scranton area include Marywood University in Dunmore, Lackawanna College in downtown Scranton, the University of Scranton, in downtown Scranton. Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine is the region's only medical school and recruits students from NEPA and surrounding counties. Wilkes-Barre area colleges include Wilkes University in downtown Wilkes-Barre, King's College in downtown Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County Community College in Nanticoke, Misericordia University in Dallas.
Keystone College in La Plume, St. Tikhon's Orthodox Theological Seminary in South Canaan Township, Clarks Summit University in Clarks Summit, Bloomsburg University in Bloomsburg, East Stroudsburg University in East Stroudsburg are among the other colleges in the area. Three college preparatory schools are located in northeastern Pennsylvania as well; these include the campus of Wyoming Seminary in Kingston, Scranton Preparatory School in Scranton, MMI Preparatory School in Freeland. Four Catholic high schools are located in northeastern Pennsylvania, they include Holy Cross High School in Dunmore, which serves Lackawanna County, Luzerne County, Wayne County, Pike County, Susquehanna County, Wyoming County, Monroe County. The second school is Holy Redeemer High School in Wilkes-Barre, which serves Luzerne County and Wyoming County; the third school is Notre Dame High School, located in Stroudsburg. It serves Monroe County; the fourth school is Our Lady of Lourdes Regional School, located near the city of Shamokin.
The only major airport to serve the region is the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton International Airport in Pittston Township. Several smaller airports operate in the area, including Wilkes-Barre Wyoming Valley Airport in Forty Fort, Pocono Mountains Municipal Airport in Tobyhanna, Hazleton Municipal Airport in Hazleton, Tidmore Airport in Pottsville, Stroudsburg-Pocono Airport in East Stroudsburg, Bloomsburg Municipal Airport in Bloomsburg, Cherry Ridge Airport-N30 in Honesdale, Spring Hill Airport-70N in Sterling, Mountain Bay Airpark Inc in Greentown, Flying Dollar Airport in Canadensis, Merritt Field in Muncy Valley, Boehms Field in Greeley, Beltzville Airport in Lehighton, Skyhaven Airport in Tunkhannock. Pennsylvania's Northern Coal Field
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Hazleton is a city in Luzerne County, United States. The population was 25,340 at the 2010 census. Hazleton is the second largest city in Luzerne County and the seventeenth largest city in Pennsylvania, it was incorporated as a borough on January 5, 1857, as a city on December 4, 1891. During the height of the American Revolution, in the summer of 1780, British sympathizers began attacking the outposts of American revolutionaries located along the Susquehanna River in the Wyoming Valley; because of reports of Tory activity in the region, Captain Daniel Klader and a platoon of 41 men from Northampton County were sent to investigate. They traveled north from the Lehigh Valley along a path known as "Warrior's Trail"; this route connects the Lehigh River in Jim Thorpe to the Susquehanna River in Berwick. Captain Klader's men made it as far north as present-day Conyngham, when they were ambushed by Tory militiamen and members of the Seneca tribe. In all, 15 men were killed on September 1780, in what is now known as the Sugarloaf Massacre.
The Moravians, a Christian denomination, had been using "Warrior's Trail" since the early 18th century after the Moravian missionary Nicolaus Ludwig Zinzendorf first used it to reach the Wyoming Valley. This particular stretch of "Warrior's Trail" had an abundance of hazel trees. Though the Moravians called the region "St. Anthony's Wilderness," it became known as "Hazel Swamp," a name, used by the Native Americans; the Moravian missionaries were sent from their settlements in Bethlehem to the site of the Sugarloaf Massacre to bury the dead soldiers. Some Moravians decided to stay, in 1782, they built a settlement along the Nescopeck Creek, near the present-day intersection of Interstates 80 and 81. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the "Warrior Trail" was widened, it was renamed the Berwick Turnpike. A road was built to connect Wilkes-Barre to McKeansburg; this road intersected with the Berwick Turnpike. An entrepreneur named Jacob Drumheller decided that this intersection was the perfect location for a rest stop, so in 1809, he built the first building in what would be known as Hazleton.
Though a few buildings and houses were erected nearby, the area remained a dense wilderness for nearly 20 years. At the time, the area offered little more than small-scale logging. Jacob Drumheller is buried at Conyngham Union Cemetery. In 1818, anthracite coal deposits were discovered in nearby Beaver Meadows by prospectors Nathaniel Beach and Tench Coxe; this caught the attention of railroad developers in Philadelphia. A young engineer from New York was hired to survey the topography of Beaver Meadows and report the practicality of extending a railroad from the Lehigh River Canal to Beaver Meadows. Pardee, knowing that the area of Beaver Meadows was controlled by Coxe and Beach, bought many acres of the land in present-day Hazleton; the investment proved to be extraordinarily lucrative. The land contained part of a massive anthracite coal field. Pardee will forever be known as the founding father of Hazleton because of many of these contributions and because he laid out the patch town that would one day become Hazleton.
Pardee incorporated the Hazleton Coal Company in 1836, the same year the rail link to the Lehigh Valley market was on the brink of being completed. The Hazleton Coal Company built the first school on Church Street, where Hazleton City Hall is now located. Pardee built the first church in Hazleton and the first private school in Hazleton. Ario Pardee died in 1892; the following year, his son, Israel Platt Pardee, built a 19-room mansion in Hazleton. The coal industry attracted many immigrants for labor; the first wave consisted of German and Irish immigrants. The second wave consisted of Italian, Russian, Lithuanian and Montenegrin immigrants; the coal mined in Hazleton helped establish the United States as a world industrial power fueling the massive blast furnaces at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. Many small company towns referred to by locals as "patch towns" or "patches," surrounded Hazleton, they were built by coal companies to provide housing for their families. The following is a list of “patch towns” in and around Hazleton: Beaver Meadows, coal was discovered here Stockton, founded by John Stockton Jeansville, founded by James Milens Milnesville, founded by James Milens Tresckow known as Dutchtown Junedale known as Colraine Freeland called Freehold McAdoo called Pleasant Hill Saylors Hill West Hazleton, founded by Conrad Horn Eckley, founded by Eckley B.
Coxe Jeddo, named after a Japanese port to which coal was exported by the Hazleton Coal Company Hollywood, part of Hazleton, named before Hollywood, California Weatherly, a small borough outside of Hazleton Humboldt, a tiny village outside of Hazleton Hazleton was incorporated as a borough on January 5, 1857. “Hazelton” was intended to be the borough's name, but a clerk misspelled it during its incorporation, the name "Hazleton" has been used since. The borough's first fire company, the Pioneer Fire Company, was organized in 1867 by soldiers returning home from the American Civil War. Hazleton was incorporated as a city on December 4, 1891. At the time, the population was est
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and by American Indian allies. At the start of the war, the French colonies had a population of 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British colonies; the outnumbered French depended on the Indians. The European nations declared a wider war upon one another overseas in 1756, two years into the French and Indian war, some view the French and Indian War as being the American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63; the name French and Indian War is used in the United States, referring to the two enemies of the British colonists, while European historians use the term Seven Years' War, as do English-speaking Canadians. French Canadians call it the Fourth Intercolonial War; the British colonists were supported at various times by the Iroquois and Cherokee tribes, the French colonists were supported by Wabanaki Confederacy member tribes Abenaki and Mi'kmaq, the Algonquin, Ojibwa, Ottawa and Wyandot tribes.
Fighting took place along the frontiers between New France and the British colonies, from the Province of Virginia in the south to Newfoundland in the north. It began with a dispute over control of the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River called the Forks of the Ohio, the site of the French Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the dispute erupted into violence in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754, during which Virginia militiamen under the command of 22-year-old George Washington ambushed a French patrol. In 1755, six colonial governors met with General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, planned a four-way attack on the French. None succeeded, the main effort by Braddock proved a disaster. British operations failed in the frontier areas of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Province of New York during 1755–57 due to a combination of poor management, internal divisions, effective Canadian scouts, French regular forces, Indian warrior allies.
In 1755, the British captured Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia, they ordered the expulsion of the Acadians soon afterwards. Orders for the deportation were given by Commander-in-Chief William Shirley without direction from Great Britain; the Acadians were expelled, both those captured in arms and those who had sworn the loyalty oath to the King. Indians were driven off the land to make way for settlers from New England; the British colonial government fell in the region of Nova Scotia after several disastrous campaigns in 1757, including a failed expedition against Louisbourg and the Siege of Fort William Henry. William Pitt came to power and increased British military resources in the colonies at a time when France was unwilling to risk large convoys to aid the limited forces that they had in New France, preferring to concentrate their forces against Prussia and its allies who were now engaged in the Seven Years' War in Europe. Between 1758 and 1760, the British military launched a campaign to capture French Canada.
They succeeded in capturing territory in surrounding colonies and the city of Quebec. The British lost the Battle of Sainte-Foy west of Quebec, but the French ceded Canada in accordance with the Treaty of Paris. France ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain, as well as French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to its ally Spain in compensation for Spain's loss to Britain of Spanish Florida. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Great Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in America. In British America, wars were named after the sitting British monarch, such as King William's War or Queen Anne's War. There had been a King George's War in the 1740s during the reign of King George II, so British colonists named this conflict after their opponents, it became known as the French and Indian War; this continues as the standard name for the war in the United States, although Indians fought on both sides of the conflict.
It led into the Seven Years' War overseas, a much larger conflict between France and Great Britain that did not involve the American colonies. Less used names for the war include the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire. In Europe, the French and Indian War is conflated into the Seven Years' War and not given a separate name. "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in 1756—two years after the French and Indian War had started—to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763. The French and Indian War in America, by contrast, was concluded in six years from the Battle of Jumonville Glen in 1754 to the capture of Montreal in 1760. Canadians conflate both the American conflicts into the Seven Years' War. French Canadi
Forty Fort, Pennsylvania
Forty Fort is a borough in Luzerne County, United States. The population was 4,214 at the 2010 census, its neighbors are Wyoming, Plains Township and Swoyersville. The Wilkes-Barre Wyoming Valley Airport and the Wyoming Seminary Lower School are both located in the borough. In the late 1770s, forty settlers from Westmoreland County, established a fortress along the Susquehanna River in the area now known as Forty Fort Borough. During the American Revolutionary War, both Connecticut and Pennsylvania claimed this territory, as Connecticut laid claim to a wide swath of land to its west based on its colonial charter; these competing claims were settled by exchanges and agreements with resolution by the national government after the United States gained independence. During the Revolutionary War, British forces arrived in the Wyoming Valley on June 30, 1778; the next day, Colonel Butler sent a surrender demand to the militia at Fort Wintermute. Terms were arranged that the defenders, after surrendering the fort with all their arms, would be released on the condition that they would not again bear arms during the war.
On July 3, the British saw that the defenders were gathering in great numbers outside of Forty Fort. This led to the Battle of Wyoming; the next morning, July 4, Colonel Nathan Denison agreed to surrender Forty Fort and two other posts, along with what remained of his militia. Butler paroled them on their promise to take no part in further hostilities. Non-combatants were spared and only a few inhabitants were molested after the forts capitulated. In 1900, a large stone was placed at the end of Fort Street, in Forty Fort Borough, by the Daughters of the American Revolution to mark the approximate location of Forty Fort. In the years following the Revolutionary War, Forty Fort became home to both the Nathan Denison House and the Forty Fort Meetinghouse, located in the borough's cemetery. Forty Fort was incorporated as a borough in 1887; the borough became home to the Lower School of the Wyoming Seminary and a portion of the southern end of the Wilkes-Barre Wyoming Valley Airport. In June 1972, Hurricane Agnes caused the Susquehanna River to overflow its banks.
In Forty Fort, a portion of the levee protecting the town broke. This caused millions of dollars in damage to the surrounding communities. In addition to structural damage, the Forty Fort Cemetery was affected when over 2,000 caskets were washed away. Recovered bodies were buried in a mass grave with a monument marking the 1972 flood's damage. In September 2011, the borough’s levee system was once again put to the test when Tropical Storm Lee caused severe flooding throughout the Wyoming Valley. However, this time the levee held and the town was preserved from the catastrophe it witnessed in 1972. Forty Fort is located at 41°17′0″N 75°52′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.6 square miles, of which 1.3 square miles is land and 0.27 square miles of it, or 16.58%, is water. Forty Fort hugs the western bank of the Susquehanna River just north of Wilkes-Barre, its neighbors are Wyoming, Plains Township and Swoyersville. Forty Fort is protected by a levee system.
In the 1972 flood, the levee broke and the neighboring Susquehanna River flooded much of the town. During the 2011 flood, the levee system was once again put to the test. However, this time it held and the borough was preserved. U. S. Route 11 runs from Wyoming, through Forty Fort, into Kingston. PA 309 runs through the southern end of Forty Fort; the borough is home to the southern edge of the Wilkes-Barre Wyoming Valley Airport, a public facility serving general aviation aircraft. The rest of the airport is located in Wyoming. Forty Fort has a mayor/council form of government; the borough's council consists of seven elected members. Elections are split every two years. At first, the mayor and three council seats are up for election. Two years the other four council seats are up for election; this cycle repeats itself. The council acts as the legislative branch, the most powerful branch of the Forty Fort government; the mayor is elected at-large to a four-year term. He or she is responsible for the public safety of the borough.
One function of the office is to serve as spokesperson for the community and to represent the borough at various civic and social events. The mayor reviews each ordinance enacted by the borough council; the mayor has the authority to break a tie vote on borough council. Other various functions of the office include administering oaths; the current mayor is Andy Tuzinski. In 2000, he served two terms, he served as the president of the borough council from 2000 to 2005. He was elected mayor in 2013 and assumed office in 2014. Forty Fort is part of the Wyoming Valley West School District. There are three schools located in Forty Fort: Dana Street Elementary Center, a public elementary school, part of the Wyoming Valley West School District Wyoming Seminary Lower School, a private school suited for pre-K to 8th grade Apple Tree Nursery and Primary School, a private school As of the census of 2000, there were 4,579 people, 1,989 households, 1,261 families residing in the borough; the population density was 3,418.3 people per square mile.
There were 2,098 housing units at an average density of 1
Pittston is a city in Luzerne County, United States. It is situated between Wilkes-Barre; the city gained prominence in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as an active anthracite coal mining city, drawing a large portion of its labor force from European immigrants. The population was 7,739 as of the 2010 census. At its peak in 1920, the population of Pittston was 18,497; the city consists of three sections: The Downtown, the Oregon Section, the Junction. Pittston City is at the heart of the Greater Pittston region. Greater Pittston has a total population of 48,020. Pittston lies in the Wyoming Valley on the east side of the Susquehanna River and on the south side of the Lackawanna River, it is midway between Wilkes-Barre and Scranton. Named after the famous British statesman William Pitt the Elder, the city was settled around 1770 by the Susquehanna Company of Connecticut, it was called "Pittstown." During the Revolutionary War, the Wyoming Valley was an active battleground between the British and the Continentals.
On July 3, 1778, a force of British soldiers, with the assistance of about 700 Indians and killed nearly 300 American Patriots. Connecticut Continentals, led by Captain Jeremiah Blanchard and Lieutenant Timothy Keyes and maintained a fort in Pittstown. On July 4, 1778, a group of British soldiers took over the fortress and some of it was destroyed. Two years the Continentals stormed the fortification and recaptured it. From on it was under Patriot control until the end of the war in 1783, with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. Today a marker stands at the site. Pittston broke away from Pittston Township and became a borough in 1853. John Hosie served as the first burgess of the Borough of Pittston, it was chartered as a city on December 10, 1894. Thomas J. Maloney served as the city’s first mayor from 1894 to 1898. Throughout the late 1890s, Pittston's borders extended from Scranton to Wilkes-Barre, but due to financial and civil differences, the community would soon be divided into the many townships and boroughs that exist throughout the central Wyoming Valley today.
Pittston is located within Pennsylvania’s Coal Region. The first discovery of the anthracite coal occurred around 1770; the first mine was established in 1775 near Pittston. With the opening of a canal in the 1830s, Pittston became an important link in the coal industry. Money made through the mining and transportation of coal led some of the leading merchants to petition its separation from Pittston Township; the anthracite and railroad industry attracted thousands of immigrants, making Pittston a true melting pot with once-distinct ethnic and class neighborhoods. The population of Pittston boomed in the late 19th century; the boom continued well into the 20th century. The anthracite coal mining industry, its extensive use of child labor in the early part of the 20th century, was one of the industries targeted by the National Child Labor Committee and its hired photographer, Lewis Hine. Many of Hine's subjects were photographed in the mines and coal fields in and around Pittston between 1908 and 1912.
The impact of the Hine photographs led to the enactment of child labor laws across the country. Coal mining remained the prominent industry in Pittston for many decades, but disasters did strike on more than one occasion; the first major tragedy occurred in the Newton Coal Company's Twin Shaft Mine. In the early morning hours of June 28, 1896, ninety miners were at work in the Red Ash Vein of the Newton Coal Company's Twin Shaft Mine in Pittston. At 3:00 a.m. the roof caved-in. The concussion from the explosion was so great; the foundation of nearly every building in Pittston was shaken. The cave-in killed 58 miners. Anthracite coal mining remained a major industry in the Greater Pittston region until the Knox Mine Disaster, it killed the industry in Northeastern Pennsylvania. On January 22, 1959, the ice-laden Susquehanna River broke through the roof of the River Slope Mine of the Knox Coal Company in nearby Port Griffith; this allowed for billions of gallons of river water to flood the interconnected mines.
It took three days to plug the hole in the riverbed, done by dumping large railroad cars, smaller mine cars and other debris into the whirlpool formed by the water draining into the mine. Sixty-nine miners escaped; the heroic efforts of one miner, Myron Thomas of Taylor, led twenty-six miners to safety. Another group of six men was led by Pacifico "Joe" Stella of Pittston. Amedeo Pancotti was part of the second group, for his remarkable climb out of the Eagle Air Shaft to the surface, he was awarded the Carnegie Medal for Heroism from the Carnegie Hero Fund Commission. Pittston became an active railroad center in response to industrial activity; the Lehigh Valley Railroad maintained a beautiful station in downtown Pittston, near the foot of the Water Street Bridge. Sadly, the station did not survive the urban renewal of the 1960s. Pittston had a station on the historic Lackawanna and Wyoming Valley Railroad known as the Laurel Line. Besides mining anthracite coal, Pittston was home to many industries in the 19th and 20th
The Mahican are an Eastern Algonquian Native American tribe, Algonquian-speaking. As part of the Eastern Algonquian family of tribes, they are related to the abutting Lenape, who occupied territory to the south as far as the Atlantic coast; the Mahican occupied the upper tidal Hudson River Valley, including the confluence of the Mohawk River and into western New England centered on the upper Housatonic watershed. After 1680, due to conflicts with the Mohawk during the Beaver Wars, many were driven southeastward across the present-day Massachusetts western border and the Taconic Mountains to Berkshire County around Stockbridge, Massachusetts. Since the forcible relocation of Native American populations to reservations in the American West during the 1830s, most descendants of the Mahican are located in Shawano County, Wisconsin. Decades they formed the federally recognized Stockbridge-Munsee Community with registered members of the Munsee people and have a 22,000-acre reservation. Following the disruption of the American Revolutionary War, most of the Mahican descendants first migrated westward to join the Iroquois Oneida on their reservation in central New York.
The Oneida gave them about 22,000 acres for their use. After more than two decades, in the 1820s and 1830s, the Oneida and the Stockbridge moved again, pressured to relocate to northeastern Wisconsin under the federal Indian Removal program; the tribe identified by the place where they lived: "Muh-he-ka-neew" The word Muh-he-kan refers to a great sea or body of water, the Hudson River reminded them of their place of origin, so they named the Hudson River "Mahicanituck," or the river where there are people from the continually flowing waters. Therefore, along with other tribes living along the Hudson River, were called "the River Indians" by the Dutch and English; the Dutch heard and wrote the term for the people of the area variously as: Mahigan, Mahinganak and Mawhickon, among other variants, which the English simplified to Mahican or Mohican, in a transliteration to their spelling system. The French, adopting names used by their Indian allies in Canada, knew the Mahican as the Loups. Like the Munsee and Wappinger peoples, the Mahican were related to the Lenape people, who occupied coastal areas from western Long Island to the Delaware River valley to the south.
In the late twentieth century, the Mahican joined other former New York tribes and the Oneida in filing land claims against New York state for what were considered unconstitutional purchases after the Revolutionary War. In 2010, outgoing governor David Paterson announced a land exchange with the Stockbridge-Munsee that would enable them to build a large casino on 330 acres in Sullivan County in the Catskills, in exchange for dropping their larger claim in Madison County; the deal had many opponents. The Mahican were living in and around the Hudson River at the time of their first contact with Europeans traders along the river in the 1590s. After 1609 at the time of the Dutch settlement of New Netherland, they ranged along the eastern Mohawk River and the Hoosic River. Most of their communities lay along the upper tidal reaches of the Hudson River and along the watersheds of Kinderhook-Claverack-Taghkanic Creek, the Roeliff Jansen Kill, Catskil Creek, adjacent areas of the Housatonic Watershed.
Mahican territory reached along Hudson River watersheds northeastward to Wood Creek just south of Lake Champlain. In their own language, the Mahican identified collectively as the Muhhekunneuw', "people of the great tidal river". Mahican villages were large. Consisting of 20 to 30 mid-sized longhouses, they were located on hills and fortified, their large cornfields were located nearby. Agriculture and gathering of nuts and roots provided most of their diet, but was supplemented by the men hunting game, fishing. Mahican villages were governed by hereditary sachems advised by a council of clan elders. A general council of sachems met at Shodac to decide important matters affecting the entire confederacy. In his history of the Indians of the Hudson River, Edward Manning Ruttenber described the clans of the Mahicans as the Bear, the Turkey, the Turtle, the Wolf, with the Wolf serving as a defensive shield in the north against the Mohawk. Like their Munsee-speaking relatives to the south, Mahican villages followed a dispersed settlement pattern, with each community dominated by a single lineage or clan.
Consisting of a small cluster of small and mid-sized longhouses, they were located along floodplains. During times of war, they built fortifications in defensive locations as places of retreat, their cornfields were located near to their communities. Horticulture and gathering of nuts and roots provided much of their diet; this was supplemented by fishing. Mahican communities were governed by hereditary sachems advised by a council of clan elders. A general council of sachems met at Schodac to decide important matters affecting the en