Chelsea are an English punk rock band which formed in 1976. Three of the four original band members went on to found Generation X. More than two decades after its release, the band's debut single, "Right to Work", was included in the Mojo list of the best punk rock singles of all time; the original line-up of the band was assembled in late 1976 by John Krivine, the owner of Acme Attractions, a fashion boutique shop in King's Road in Chelsea, comprising vocalist Gene October, guitarist William Broad, bassist Tony James and drummer John Towe. After three support gigs playing cover versions of other bands' songs and James departed in November 1976, taking Towe with them, to form Generation X. October recruited Carey Fortune, Martin Stacy and Bob Jessie, with the last two soon replaced by Henry Daze and James Stevenson. Chelsea's first single, "Right to Work", was released in June 1977 by Step-Forward Records. Recorded by the October/Fortune/Daze/Stevenson line-up of the band, it was their most popular song, appeared on the soundtrack album to the 1977 Derek Jarman film Jubilee.
Simon Cade Williams, aka Simon Vitesse, joined the band as bassist in 1977 for a UK tour and the band's second single, "High Rise Living". This rapid turnover of band members was characteristic throughout Chelsea's existence, with October the only constant presence. On August 25, 1978 the band released another single, "Urban Kids", co-written by October and Alternative TV and produced by ex-Who manager Kit Lambert. After spending 1977–78 touring in the UK and overseas, they released their first album, Chelsea, in 1979. A singles compilation, Alternative Hits, was released in 1980. S. by I. R. S. Records, retitled No Escape. After a split, October put together a new line-up, including guitarist Nic Austin, which recorded the critically acclaimed second album Evacuate. October sporadically released albums with various Chelsea line-ups throughout the 1980s, including Original Sinners, Rocks Off and Underwraps. In the early 1990s, a line-up featuring the returning Austin and new bassist Mat Sargent released The Alternative and Traitors Gate albums.
In 1999, the line-up from the first album, including Stevenson, reformed for the Social Chaos Tour across North America. A live album, Metallic F. O.: Live at CBGB's, was recorded at CBGB in New York City during this tour. Augmented by Buzzcocks bassist Tony Barber, the band released Faster and Better Looking in 2005. Austin and Sargent returned in 2011, this line-up released the album Saturday Night Sunday Morning in 2015; the Mission Impossible album followed in 2017. Both albums were recorded at Panther Studios in Surrey and produced by Dick Crippen of Tenpole Tudor, King Kurt and The Weird Things. "Right to Work" "High Rise Living" "Urban Kids" "Decide" "No-One's Coming Outside" "Look at the Outside" "No Escape" "Rockin' Horse" "Freemans" "Evacuate" "War Across the Nation" "Stand Out" "Valium Mother" "Shine the Light" "Give Me More" "We Dare" "Sod the War" Chelsea Evacuate Original Sinners Rocks Off Underwraps The Alternative Traitors Gate Faster and Better Looking Saturday Night Sunday Morning Mission Impossible Live and Well Metallic F.
O.: Live at CBGB's Live at the Music Machine 1978 Live and Loud Alternative Hits released as No Escape in USA Just for the Record Back Trax Unreleased Stuff Fools and Soldiers The Punk Singles Collection 1977-82 Punk Rock Rarities The BBC Punk Sessions Urban Kids - A Punk Rock Anthology Right to Work - The Singles "Right to Work" on Jubilee Official website
Feminism is a range of political movements and social movements that share a common goal: to define and achieve the political, economic and social equality of the genders. This includes fighting gender stereotypes and seeking to establish educational and professional opportunities for women that are equal to those for men. Feminist movements have campaigned and continue to campaign for women's rights, including the right to vote, to hold public office, to work, to earn fair wages or equal pay, to own property, to receive education, to enter contracts, to have equal rights within marriage, to have maternity leave. Feminists have worked to ensure access to legal abortions and social integration, to protect women and girls from rape, sexual harassment, domestic violence. Changes in dress and acceptable physical activity have been part of feminist movements; some scholars consider feminist campaigns to be a main force behind major historical societal changes for women's rights in the West, where they are near-universally credited with achieving women's suffrage, gender neutrality in English, reproductive rights for women, the right to enter into contracts and own property.
Although feminist advocacy is, has been focused on women's rights, some feminists, including bell hooks, argue for the inclusion of men's liberation within its aims because they believe that men are harmed by traditional gender roles. Feminist theory, which emerged from feminist movements, aims to understand the nature of gender inequality by examining women's social roles and lived experience. Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints and aims; some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, college-educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of ethnically specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism and intersectional feminism. Charles Fourier, a Utopian Socialist and French philosopher, is credited with having coined the word "féminisme" in 1837; the words "féminisme" and "féministe" first appeared in France and the Netherlands in 1872, Great Britain in the 1890s, the United States in 1910, the Oxford English Dictionary lists 1852 as the year of the first appearance of "feminist" and 1895 for "feminism".
Depending on the historical moment and country, feminists around the world have had different causes and goals. Most western feminist historians contend that all movements working to obtain women's rights should be considered feminist movements when they did not apply the term to themselves. Other historians assert that the term should be limited to the modern feminist movement and its descendants; those historians use the label "protofeminist" to describe earlier movements. The history of the modern western feminist movements is divided into three "waves"; each wave dealt with different aspects of the same feminist issues. The first wave comprised women's suffrage movements of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, promoting women's right to vote; the second wave was associated with the ideas and actions of the women's liberation movement beginning in the 1960s. The second wave campaigned for social equality for women; the third wave is a continuation of, a reaction to, the perceived failures of second-wave feminism, which began in the 1990s.
First-wave feminism was a period of activity during early twentieth century. In the UK and the US, it focused on the promotion of equal contract, marriage and property rights for women. By the end of the 19th century, a number of important steps had been made with the passing of legislation such as the UK Custody of Infants Act 1839 which introduced the Tender years doctrine for child custody arrangement and gave women the right of custody of their children for the first time. Other legislation such as the Married Women's Property Act 1870 in the UK and extended in the 1882 Act, these became models for similar legislation in other British territories. For example, Victoria passed legislation in 1884, New South Wales in 1889, the remaining Australian colonies passed similar legislation between 1890 and 1897. Therefore, with the turn of the 19th century activism had focused on gaining political power the right of women's suffrage, though some feminists were active in campaigning for women's sexual and economic rights as well.
Women's suffrage began in Britain's Australasian colonies at the close of the 19th century, with the self-governing colonies of New Zealand granting women the right to vote in 1893 and South Australia granting female suffrage in 1895. This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in 1902. In Britain the Suffragettes and the Suffragists campaigned for the women's vote, in 1918 the Representation of the People Act was passed granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who owned property. In 1928 this was extended to all women over 21. Emmeline Pankhurst was the most notable activist in England, with Time naming her one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century stating: "she shaped an idea of women for our time. In the U. S. notable leaders of this movement included Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, who each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing women's right to vote; these women were influenced by the
The Clash were an English rock band formed in London in 1976 as a key player in the original wave of British punk rock. They have contributed to the post-punk and new wave movements that emerged in the wake of punk and employed elements of a variety of genres including reggae, funk and rockabilly. For most of their recording career, the Clash consisted of lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist Joe Strummer, lead guitarist and lead vocalist Mick Jones, bassist Paul Simonon, drummer Nicky "Topper" Headon. Headon left the group in 1982, internal friction led to Jones' departure the following year; the group continued with new members, but disbanded in early 1986. The Clash achieved commercial success in the United Kingdom with the release of their self-titled debut album, The Clash, in 1977, their third album, London Calling, released in the UK in December 1979, earned them popularity in the United States when it was released there the following month. It was declared the best album of the 1980s a decade by Rolling Stone.
In 1982, they reached new heights of success with the release of Combat Rock, which spawned the US top 10 hit "Rock the Casbah", helping the album to achieve a 2× Platinum certification there. Their final album, Cut the Crap, was released in 1985; the Clash's politicized lyrics, musical experimentation, rebellious attitude had a far-reaching influence on rock, alternative rock in particular. They became referred to as "The Only Band That Matters" a promotional slogan introduced by the group's record label, CBS. In January 2003, shortly after the death of Joe Strummer, the band—including original drummer Terry Chimes—were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked the Clash number 28 on its list of the 100 greatest artists of all time. Before the Clash's founding, the band's future members were active in different parts of the London music scene. John Graham Mellor sang and played rhythm guitar in the pub rock act The 101ers, which formed in 1974. By the time the Clash came together two years he had abandoned his original stage name, "Woody" Mellor, in favour of "Joe Strummer", a reference to his rudimentary strumming skills on the ukulele as a busker in the London Underground.
Mick Jones played guitar in protopunk band London SS, which rehearsed for much of 1975 without playing a live show and recording only a single demo. London SS were managed by Bernard Rhodes, a sometime associate of impresario Malcolm McLaren and a friend of the members of the McLaren-managed band, the Sex Pistols. Jones and his bandmates became friendly with Sex Pistols Glen Matlock and Steve Jones, who would assist them as they tried out potential new members. Among those who auditioned for London SS without making the cut were Paul Simonon, who tried out as a vocalist, drummer Terry Chimes. Nicky Headon drummed with the band for a week quit. After London SS broke up in early 1976, Rhodes continued as Jones's manager. In February, Jones saw the Sex Pistols perform for the first time: "You knew straight away, it, this was what it was going to be like from now on, it was a new scene, new values -- so different from. A bit dangerous." At the instigation of Rhodes, Jones contacted Simonon in March, suggesting he learn an instrument so he could join the new band Jones was organising.
Soon Jones, Simonon on bass, Keith Levene on guitar and "whoever we could find to play the drums" were rehearsing. Chimes got the job, although he soon quit; the band was still searching for a lead singer. Chimes recalls one Billy Watts handling the duties for a time. Rhodes had his eye with whom he made exploratory contact. Jones and Levene were impressed as well. Strummer, for his part, was primed to make the switch. In April, he had taken in the opening act for one of his band's gigs—the Sex Pistols. Strummer explained:I knew something was up, so I went out in the crowd, sparse, and I saw the future—with a snotty handkerchief—right in front of me. It was clear. Pub rock was, "Hello, you bunch of drunks, I'm gonna play these boogies and I hope you like them." The Pistols came out that Tuesday evening and their attitude was, "Here's our tunes, we couldn't give a flying fuck whether you like them or not. In fact, we're gonna play them if you fucking hate them."On 30 May and Levene met surreptitiously with Strummer after a 101'ers gig.
Strummer was invited to meet up at the band's rehearsal location on Davis Road. After Strummer turned up, Levene grabbed his guitar, stood several inches away from Strummer, looked him in the eye and began playing "Keys to Your Heart", one of Strummer's own tunes. Rhodes gave him 48 hours to decide whether he wanted to join the new band that would "rival the Pistols." Within 24 hours, Strummer agreed. Simonon remarked, "Once we had Joe on board it all started to come together." Strummer introduced the band to his old school friend Pablo LaBritain, who sat in on drums during Strummer's first few rehearsals with the group. LaBritain's stint with the band did not last long, Terry Chimes—whom Jones referred to as "one of the best drummers" in their circle—became the band's regular drummer. In Westway to the World, Jones says, "I don't think Terry was hired or anything, he had just been playing with us." Chimes did not take to Strummer at first: "He was like twenty-two or twenty-three or something that seemed'old' to me then.
And he had these retro clothes and this croaky voice". Simonon came up with the band's name after they had dubbed themselves the Weak Heartd
Chelsea is an affluent area of West London, bounded to the south by the River Thames. Its frontage runs from Chelsea Bridge along the Chelsea Embankment, Cheyne Walk, Lots Road and Chelsea Harbour, its eastern boundary was once defined by the River Westbourne, now in a pipe above Sloane Square Underground station. The modern eastern boundary is Chelsea Bridge Road and the lower half of Sloane Street, including Sloane Square. To the north and northwest, the area fades into Knightsbridge and Brompton, but it is considered that the area north of King's Road as far northwest as Fulham Road is part of Chelsea; the district is within the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, although Chelsea gives its name to nearby locations, such as Chelsea Harbour in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, Chelsea Barracks in the City of Westminster. From 1900, until the creation of Greater London in 1965, it formed the Metropolitan Borough of Chelsea in the County of London; the exclusivity of Chelsea as a result of its high property prices has resulted in the term Sloane Ranger being used to describe its residents.
Since 2011, Channel 4 has broadcast a reality television show called Made in Chelsea, documenting the lives of affluent young people living there. Moreover, Chelsea is home to one of the largest communities of Americans living outside the United States, with 6.53% of Chelsea residents being born in the U. S; the word Chelsea originates from the Old English term for "landing place for chalk or limestone". Chelsea hosted the Synod of Chelsea in 787 AD; the first record of the Manor of Chelsea precedes the Domesday Book and records the fact that Thurstan, governor of the King's Palace during the reign of Edward the Confessor, gave the land to the Abbot and Convent of Westminster. Abbot Gervace subsequently assigned the manor to his mother, it passed into private ownership. By 1086 the Domesday Book records that Chelsea was in the hundred of Ossulstone in Middlesex, with Edward of Salisbury as tenant-in-chief. King Henry VIII acquired the manor of Chelsea from Lord Sandys in 1536. Two of King Henry's wives, Catherine Parr and Anne of Cleves, lived in the Manor House.
In 1609 James I established a theological college, "King James's College at Chelsey" on the site of the future Chelsea Royal Hospital, which Charles II founded in 1682. By 1694, Chelsea – always a popular location for the wealthy, once described as "a village of palaces" – had a population of 3,000. So, Chelsea remained rural and served London to the east as a market garden, a trade that continued until the 19th-century development boom which caused the final absorption of the district into the metropolis; the street crossing, known as Little Chelsea, Park Walk, linked Fulham Road to King's Road and continued to the Thames and local ferry down Lover's Lane, renamed "Milmans Street" in the 18th century. King's Road, named for Charles II, recalls the King's private road from St James's Palace to Fulham, maintained until the reign of George IV. One of the more important buildings in King's Road, the former Chelsea Town Hall, popularly known as "Chelsea Old Town hall" – a fine neo-classical building – contains important frescoes.
Part of the building contains the Chelsea Public Library. Opposite stands the former Odeon Cinema, now Habitat, with its iconic façade which carries high upon it a large sculptured medallion of the now almost-forgotten William Friese-Greene, who claimed to have invented celluloid film and cameras in the 1880s before any subsequent patents. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, "the better residential portion of Chelsea is the eastern, near Sloane Street and along the river; this is no longer the case, although Council property do remain. The areas to the west attract high prices; this former fashionable village was absorbed into London during the eighteenth century. Many notable people of 18th century London, such as the bookseller Andrew Millar, were both married and buried in the district; the memorials in the churchyard of Chelsea Old Church, near the river, illustrate much of the history of Chelsea. These include Lady Dacre; the intended tomb Sir Thomas More erected for himself and his wives can be found there, though More is not in fact buried here.
In 1718, the Raw Silk Company was established in Chelsea Park, with mulberry trees and a hothouse for raising silkworms. At its height in 1723, it supplied silk to Caroline of Ansbach Princess of Wales. Chelsea once had a reputation for the manufacture of Chelsea buns, made from a long strip of sweet dough coiled, with currants trapped between the layers, topped with sugar; the Chelsea Bun House was patronised by the Georgian royalty. At Easter, great crowds would assemble on the open spaces of the Five Fields – subsequently developed as Belgravia; the Bun House would do a great trade in hot cross buns and sold about quarter of a million on its final Good Friday in 1839. The area was famous for its "Chelsea China" ware, though the works, the Chelsea porcelain factory – thought to be the first workshop to make porcelain in England – were sold in 1769, moved to Derby. Examples of the original Chelsea ware fetch high values; the best-known building is Chelsea R
999 are an English punk rock band, formed in London in December 1976. From the period of 1976 to 1985, the line-up of 999 consisted of Nick Cash, Guy Days, Jon Watson and Pablo LaBrittain. LaBrittain was temporarily replaced in 1980 by drummer Paul Edward aka'Ed Case' while he recovered from a motor accident. Bassist Jon Watson left the band in 1985 and was replaced by Danny Palmer, succeeded by Arturo Bassick in 1991. Between 1978 and 2007, 999 released twelve studio albums. Five of the singles released by 999 between 1978 and 1981 charted within the Top 75 in the UK Singles Chart, with one further single released by 999 in 1978, "Homicide", charting within the Top 40. In addition, as a result of extensive touring in the United States in the early 1980s, the band's third and fourth studio albums: The Biggest Prize in Sport and Concrete, each charted on the U. S. Billboard 200. Despite having formed in 1976, 999 have only experienced two permanent changes to their original line-up and has continued to record and play live, leading AllMusic to describe the band as "one of the longest-lived groups of the punk era."
Named after the UK's emergency telephone number, 999 was founded in London by singer and guitarist Nick Cash, Guy Days. Cash and Days are brothers; the former was a member of the pub rock band Kilburn and the High-Roads, the latter was a session guitarist who played on some of the band's demo tapes. In late 1976, they placed an advertisement in Melody Maker for band members and ended up turning down Chrissie Hynde, Jon Moss and Tony James, they recruited Jon Watson on bass and Pablo LaBritain on drums, LaBritain having played with the Clash. The band that became known as 999 performed their first concert at the Northampton Cricket Club in January 1977. After experimenting with several different band names, the band became 999 in May 1977. 999 soon established themselves as a powerful live act on the London punk scene and became regulars at the Hope and Anchor, Islington. On the strength of their well received, self-financed debut single, 999 were signed to United Artists Records around the same time as the Buzzcocks.
"I'm Alive" became a firm favourite in the punk clubs. The band's second single, "Nasty Nasty", was cited nearly 20 years after its release as a seminal punk single, their self-titled debut album, produced by Andy Arthurs, was released in March 1978. One retrospective review claimed; the 45 cuts like "Me And My Desire" and "Emergency" demonstrated the latter, but the album lacked that special ingredient, uniqueness or originality to make it stand out from the crowd." The album reached No. 53 in the UK Albums Chart. The following year, the song "Emergency" from the album appeared — alongside songs by bands like The Jam and The Stranglers — on the punk compilation 20 of Another Kind; that album reached No. 45 in the UK chart. Years "Emergency" was included in Mojo magazine's list of the best punk rock singles of all time; the band's second album, Separates was produced by Martin Rushent. One reviewer lists it as one of the best punk albums of all time. In the United States, a altered version of Separates, re-titled High Energy Plan, became the band's first American release.
In October 1978, a month after the album's release, 999 recorded their only session for John Peel at BBC Radio 1. 999 played at Front Row Festival, a three-week event at the Hope and Anchor in late November and early December 1977. This resulted in the band's inclusion, alongside the likes of Wilko Johnson, The Only Ones, the Saints, The Stranglers, X-Ray Spex, XTC, on a hit double LP of recordings from the festival. 999 toured in the United States and the band was rewarded when their albums The Biggest Prize In Sport and Concrete charted on the Billboard 200. In the US, "Homicide" and "Hollywood" garnered frequent rotation on Rock of the 80s format radio stations like KROQ in Los Angeles. According to Dave Thompson, "For many Americans, they were the first to bother with the backwoods, playing places which other Brit bands hadn't heard of, returning to them again and again, and while no one knows how many American bands were first inspired to take up arms by 999, those that did still wear their loyalties loudly."Despite a number of minor hit singles, the band's critical appeal in Britain had begun to wane.
Their stock was lifted temporarily with the arrival of the self-released Face To Face. 999's popularity continued to decline leading to the group disbanding twice in the 1980s, reforming soon afterwards. They have since released several albums and continue to tour, including playing at the 11th Antifest in 2005. Bassick plays for The Lurkers. Studio albums 999 # 53 UK Albums Chart Separates High Energy Plan Based upon Separates, it replaced various album tracks with various singles The Biggest Prize in Sport # 177 U. S. Billboard Album Chart Concrete # 192 U. S. Billboard 13th Floor Madness Face to Face You Us It! Takeover Dancing In The Wrong Shoes Outburst Death in Soho Live albums and compilations The Biggest Tour in Sport - recorded live The Singles Album In Case of Emergency Lust Power and Money Live and Loud The Cellblock Tapes The Early Stuff (199
Dental braces are devices used in orthodontics that align and straighten teeth and help position them with regard to a person's bite, while aiming to improve dental health. Braces fix gaps, they are used to correct underbites, as well as malocclusions, open bites, deep bites, cross bites, crooked teeth, various other flaws of the teeth and jaw. Braces can be either structural. Dental braces are used in conjunction with other orthodontic appliances to help widen the palate or jaws and to otherwise assist in shaping the teeth and jaws. According to scholars and historians, braces date back to ancient times. Around 400-300 BC, Hippocrates and Aristotle contemplated ways to straighten teeth and fix various dental conditions. Archaeologists have discovered numerous mummified ancient individuals with what appear to be metal bands wrapped around their teeth. Catgut, a type of cord made from the natural fibers of an animal's intestines, performed a similar role to today’s orthodontic wire in closing gaps in the teeth and mouth.
The Etruscans buried their dead with dental appliances in place to maintain space and prevent collapse of the teeth during the afterlife. A Roman tomb was found with a number of teeth bound with gold wire documented as a ligature wire, a small elastic wire, used to affix the arch wire to the bracket. Cleopatra wore a pair. Roman philosopher and physician Aulus Cornelius Celsus first recorded the treatment of teeth by finger pressure. Due to lack of evidence, poor preservation of bodies, primitive technology, little research was carried out on dental braces until around the 17th century, although dentistry was making great advancements as a profession by then. Orthodontics began developing in the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1728, French dentist Pierre Fauchard, credited with inventing modern orthodontics, published a book entitled "The Surgeon Dentist" on methods of straightening teeth. Fauchard, in his practice, used a device called a "Bandeau", a horseshoe-shaped piece of iron that helped expand the palate.
In 1754, another French dentist, Louis Bourdet, dentist to the King of France, followed Fauchard's book with The Dentist's Art, which dedicated a chapter to tooth alignment and application. He perfected the "Bandeau" and was the first dentist on record to recommend extraction of the premolar teeth to alleviate crowding and to improve jaw growth. Although teeth and palate straightening and/or pulling was used to improve alignment of remaining teeth and had been practiced since early times, orthodontics, as a science of its own, did not exist until the mid-19th century. Several important dentists helped to advance dental braces with specific instruments and tools that allowed braces to be improved. In 1819, Delabarre introduced the wire crib, which marked the birth of contemporary orthodontics, gum elastics were first employed by Maynard in 1843. Tucker was the first to cut rubber bands from rubber tubing in 1850. Dentist, writer and sculptor Norman William Kingsley in 1858 wrote the first article on orthodontics and in 1880, his book, Treatise on Oral Deformities, was published.
A dentist named John Nutting Farrar is credited for writing two volumes entitled, A Treatise on the Irregularities of the Teeth and Their Corrections and was the first to suggest the use of mild force at timed intervals to move teeth. In the early 20th century, Edward Angle devised the first simple classification system for malocclusions, such as Class I, Class II, so on, his classification system is still used today as a way for dentists to describe how crooked teeth are, what way teeth are pointing, how teeth fit together. Angle contributed to the design of orthodontic and dental appliances, making many simplifications, he founded the first school and college of orthodontics, organized the American Society of Orthodontia in 1901 which became the American Association of Orthodontists in the 1930s, founded the first orthodontic journal in 1907. Other innovations in orthodontics in the late 19th and early 20th centuries included the first textbook on orthodontics for children, published by J.
J. Guilford in 1889, the use of rubber elastics, pioneered by Calvin S. Case, along with Henry Albert Baker; the application of braces moves the teeth as a result of pressure on the teeth. There are traditionally four basic elements that are used: brackets, bonding material, arch wire, ligature elastic; the teeth move when the arch wire puts pressure on the teeth. Sometimes springs or rubber bands are used to put more force in a specific direction. Braces have constant pressure; the process loosens the tooth after which new bone grows in to support the tooth in its new position. This is called bone remodeling. Bone remodeling is a biomechanical process responsible for making bones stronger in response to sustained load-bearing activity and weaker in the absence of carrying a load. Bones are made of cells called osteoblasts. Two different kinds of bone resorption are possible: direct resorption, which starts from the lining cells of the alveolar bone, indirect or retrograde resorption, which takes place when the periodontal ligament has been subjected to an excessive amount and duration of compressive stress.
Another important factor associated with tooth movement is bone deposition. Bone deposition occurs in the distracted periodontal ligament. Without bone deposition, the tooth will loosen and voids will occur distal to the direction of tooth movement. Traditional metal wired braces are stainless-steel and are sometimes used in combination with titanium. Traditional metal braces
John Joseph Wardle, known by the stage name Jah Wobble, is an English bass guitarist, singer and composer. He became known to a wider audience as the original bass player in Public Image Ltd in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but left the band after two albums. Following his departure from PiL, he went on to a successful solo career. In 2009, he published Memoirs of a Geezer. In 2012, he reunited with fellow PiL guitarist Keith Levene for Metal Box In Dub and the album Yin & Yang. Since 2013 he has been one of the featured pundits on Sunday morning's The Virtual Jukebox segment of BBC Radio 5 Live's Up All Night with Dotun Adebayo. Wardle was born in Stepney, East London, His father, Harry Eugene Wardle, worked as a postman, while his mother, Kathleen Bridget, was a school and County Hall secretary. Wobble grew up with his family in Whitechapel's Clichy Estate in London’s East End, he is a long-time friend of John Lydon. The two formed half of the group of friends known as "The Four Johns", along with John Grey and John Simon Ritchie.
Jah Wobble acquired his stage name through the drunken, mumbled version of Wardle's name by Sid Vicious, which Wobble kept because "people would never forget it". In his early life and career, by his own admission, Wardle was given to occasional bouts of aggression, exacerbated by heavy drinking and drug use; as a result, he ended up living in a squat with John Gray in West London, whilst Lydon and Vicious formed The Sex Pistols. With admittedly large "builders hands", he had experimented with the guitar, but found playing bass a more connected and whole body experience, influenced in part by admiring Bob Marley’s and The Wailers bassist Aston "Family Man" Barrett on stage in 1975. Wardle was as critical of his friend Vicious's bass playing as John Lydon, had hence played in experimentation sessions with Lydon. After he burned all the possessions of his squat-mates, they left him alone there with a mattress, a headboard and his Music Man-copy bass. Following the Sex Pistols' break-up, Lydon approached Wobble about forming a band.
Both had broad musical tastes, were avid fans of reggae and world music. The band began rehearsing together in May 1978, although remained unnamed until July 1978, when Lydon named the band Public Image, after the Muriel Spark novel The Public Image. Wobble's bass playing drew on dub, which has remained an important feature of his music. Having experimented with Lydon pre-Sex Pistols break-up, he had written a simple repetitive bassline on which Lydon wrote "Public Image". PiL debuted in October 1978 with "Public Image", which reached number 9 on the UK charts, performed well on import in the US. Wobble has stated that the first PiL album was recorded so due in part to the bassist's altercations with a sound engineer and men at a nearby pub, he has, dismissed claims accusing him of extreme malice, such as setting fire to the former drummer for The Fall, Karl Burns, while Burns was session drumming for PiL. Wobble co-wrote and contributed bass and drums to PiL's second album Metal Box, released in 1979.
However, he grew frustrated by the lacklustre creative atmosphere in the band, which he felt stifled his artistic ambitions and PiL's creative potential. Besides differences in artistic vision, further conflicts were brought on in part by heavy drug and alcohol abuse in the band. Wobble went on to recording and releasing his debut album The Legend Lives On... Jah Wobble in "Betrayal", found himself accused by other PiL members of having made unauthorised use of material from Metal Box for the making of Betrayal. Wobble left PiL in late 1980. Wobble released at least one single in the "PiL years": his 1978 single "Dreadlock Don't Deal in Wedlock" in which he recites Edward Lear's "The Owl and the Pussycat" and finishes with the immortal line,'love and marriage is like ice cream and cabbage … dreadlock don't deal in wedlock." Soon after leaving PiL, Wobble formed The Human Condition with guitarist Dave "Animal" Maltby and PiL's original drummer, Jim Walker. The Human Condition toured the UK, US in 1981, made two cassette-only releases of their live shows.
The post-PiL years saw Wobble collaborating with Can members Holger Czukay and Jaki Liebezeit on Czukay's solo projects and Full Circle. In 1983, Wardle appeared on the LP Snake Charmer billed as a co-leader alongside guitarist The Edge of U2, Czukay and producer François Kevorkian. Jah Wobble's Invaders of the Heart was formed in 1982; the original line-up was Ollie Marland on keys, Annie Whitehead on trombone, Neville Murray on percussion and a bloke called Cliff on drums. By 1983 Lee Partis was the drummer. Trumpeter Harry Becket and pedal steel player B. J. Cole performed with the group. By 1985 Jah Wobble's heavy drinking and drunken brawls were taking their toll. Halfway through the recording of the album Psalms, Wobble stopped drinking. From through to the present day he has remained'clean and sober', he did a variety of day jobs, whilst continuing to perform and record his music in what spare time he had. These jobs included a long stretch with the London Underground. In an oft-quoted tale it is related that he once, at Tower Hill Underground Station via the public address system, regaled commuters with the deadpan announcement, "I used to be somebody.
I repeat, I u