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X-ray astronomy

X-ray astronomy is an observational branch of astronomy which deals with the study of X-ray observation and detection from astronomical objects. X-radiation is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere, so instruments to detect X-rays must be taken to high altitude by balloons, sounding rockets, satellites. X-ray astronomy is the space science related to a type of space telescope that can see farther than standard light-absorption telescopes, such as the Mauna Kea Observatories, via x-ray radiation. X-ray emission is expected from astronomical objects that contain hot gases at temperatures from about a million kelvin to hundreds of millions of kelvin. Moreover, the maintenance of the E-layer of ionized gas high in the Earth's Thermosphere suggested a strong extraterrestrial source of X-rays. Although theory predicted that the Sun and the stars would be prominent X-ray sources, there was no way to verify this because Earth's atmosphere blocks most extraterrestrial X-rays, it was not until ways of sending instrument packages to high altitude were developed that these X-ray sources could be studied.

The existence of solar X-rays was confirmed early in the rocket age by V-2s converted to sounding rocket purpose, the detection of extraterrestrial X-rays has been the primary or secondary mission of multiple satellites since 1958. The first cosmic X-ray source was discovered by a sounding rocket in 1962. Called Scorpius X-1, the X-ray emission of Scorpius X-1 is 10,000 times greater than its visual emission, whereas that of the Sun is about a million times less. In addition, the energy output in X-rays is 100,000 times greater than the total emission of the Sun in all wavelengths. Many thousands of X-ray sources have since been discovered. In addition, the space between galaxies in galaxy clusters is filled with a hot, but dilute gas at a temperature between 100 and 1000 megakelvins; the total amount of hot gas is five to ten times the total mass in the visible galaxies. The first sounding rocket flights for X-ray research were accomplished at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico with a V-2 rocket on January 28, 1949.

A detector was placed in the nose cone section and the rocket was launched in a suborbital flight to an altitude just above the atmosphere. X-rays from the Sun were detected by the U. S. Naval Research Laboratory Blossom experiment on board. An Aerobee 150 rocket was launched on June 12, 1962 and it detected the first X-rays from other celestial sources, it is now known that such X-ray sources as Sco X-1 are compact stars, such as neutron stars or black holes. Material falling into a black hole may emit X-rays; the energy source for the X-ray emission is gravity. Infalling gas and dust is heated by the strong gravitational fields of these and other celestial objects. Based on discoveries in this new field of X-ray astronomy, starting with Scorpius X-1, Riccardo Giacconi received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2002; the largest drawback to rocket flights is their short duration and their limited field of view. A rocket launched from the United States will not be able to see sources in the southern sky.

In astronomy, the interstellar medium is the gas and cosmic dust that pervade interstellar space: the matter that exists between the star systems within a galaxy. It fills interstellar space and blends smoothly into the surrounding intergalactic medium; the interstellar medium consists of an dilute mixture of ions, molecules, larger dust grains, cosmic rays, magnetic fields. The energy that occupies the same volume, in the form of electromagnetic radiation, is the interstellar radiation field. Of interest is the hot ionized medium consisting of a coronal cloud ejection from star surfaces at 106-107 K which emits X-rays; the ISM is full of structure on all spatial scales. Stars are born deep inside large complexes of molecular clouds a few parsecs in size. During their lives and deaths, stars interact physically with the ISM. Stellar winds from young clusters of stars and shock waves created by supernovae inject enormous amounts of energy into their surroundings, which leads to hypersonic turbulence.

The resultant structures are stellar wind superbubbles of hot gas. The Sun is traveling through the Local Interstellar Cloud, a denser region in the low-density Local Bubble. To measure the spectrum of the diffuse X-ray emission from the interstellar medium over the energy range 0.07 to 1 keV, NASA launched a Black Brant 9 from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico on May 1, 2008. The Principal Investigator for the mission is Dr. Dan McCammon of the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Balloon flights can carry instruments to altitudes of up to 40 km above sea level, where they are above as much as 99.997% of the Earth's atmosphere. Unlike a rocket where data are collected during a brief few minutes, balloons are able to stay aloft for much longer; however at such altitudes, much of the X-ray spectrum is still absorbed. X-rays with energies less than 35 keV cannot reach balloons. On July 21, 1964, the Crab Nebula supernova remnant was discovered to be a hard X-ray source by a scintillation counter flown on a balloon launched from Palestine, United States.

This was the first balloon-based detection of X-rays from a discrete cosmic X-ray source. The high-energy focusing telescope is a balloon-borne experiment


Actiance Inc is an American-based multinational corporation that develops the platforms required to enable the security and compliance of unified communications, Web 2.0 and social media channels. Headquartered in Redwood City, Actiance supports all leading social networks, unified communications providers and Instant Messaging platforms, including Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, AOL, Yahoo!, Microsoft, IBM and Cisco. Established in 1997, Actiance provided call center and CRM enablement for instant messaging, web chat and email. Working with AOL, Yahoo!, MSN and Microsoft, Actiance established the industry's first CAP agreements providing enhanced access to the public IM networks. In 2000, Actiance was awarded "Most Innovative Use of Real-time Collaboration" at the Microsoft Exchange Conference. In 2001, the company launched its first compliance and security solution for IM networks, IM Auditor. Aimed at the financial services sector that needed to comply with government regulations enabled financial services organizations the ability to leverage the power of public instant messaging networks from AOL, Microsoft and Yahoo! for time-sensitive communications, while ensuring administrative controls are in place to comply with government regulations.

By 2003, over 50% of the top 100 financial services firms worldwide that needed to comply with Securities and Exchange Commission and NASD record retention and supervisory requirements were using IM Auditor, whilst others were still questioning whether IM had a place in business networks. Actiance introduced the first network appliance to control the use of IM in the enterprise in 2004. Capable of preventing unauthorized IM connections and stopping peer-to-peer filesharing on sites such as KaZaA, Grokster and Morpheus, Real Time Guardian identified and controlled access to the growing number of applications that traversed the network without the IT department’s knowledge. Actiance continued to add features to RTG including support for unified communication platforms such as Microsoft Office Communications Server and IBM Lotus Sametime and in 2005 in response to the growing threat from worms and spyware traversing IM networks a zero day defence system was added. In 2008, Actiance added new capabilities to RTG’s successor, Unified Security Gateway, providing IT managers with management and control over 140 social networking sites, 20,000 individual Facebook widgets and more than 400 Web and real-time applications.

Making USG the first secure Web gateway to combine content monitoring and security of Web 2.0 applications, such as social networks, instant messaging and Unified Communications, with URL filtering and Web antivirus protection. 2010 saw another first for Actiance when it launched Vantage, IMAuditor’s successor, which included stringent security and compliance controls for Skype in the enterprise. Vantage provides granular security, policy controls and compliance features for real time and unified communications – providing management for the widest variety of UC and real time communications platforms; that same year it include support for Microsoft Lync Server. In 2010, Actiance launched Socialite Enable, a security and compliance solution for enterprises using social networks. Socialite provides granular control of applications such as Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter, allows organisations to comply with regulatory compliance demanded by organizations such as the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority and the Financial Services Authority.

Available as both a software-as-a-service deployment or as an on-premises installation as a module of USG, Socialite Enable allows for organizations to control social media features and communications for users both on the corporate network and situated remotely. In January 2011, FaceTime Communications announced that it had changed its name to Actiance following the purchase of the FaceTime brand by Apple. In June 2011, Actiance announced Socialite Engage, a new platform that allows distributed teams to share content, engage with clients and prospects, analyze the impact of the content on social media sites. Designed to enable investment and insurance professionals to distribute pre-approved content, Socialite Engage enables any organization to manage social media in a secure and compliant environment, while allowing users to see at a glance which content had the most impact, it leverages third party data sources, such as internal systems and data feeds, highlights channels that are the most effective and identifies potential sales leads.

In 2017, Actiance merged with the Portland company Smarsh, which provides archiving solutions for compliance and risk management. Both companies are being owned by K1 Investment Management. Official website

José Suárez (baseball, born 1998)

José Rances Suárez Quintero is a Venezuelan professional baseball pitcher for the Los Angeles Angels of Major League Baseball. Suárez signed with the Los Angeles Angels as an international free agent in July 2014, he spent his first professional season in 2015 with the Dominican Summer League Angels and Arizona League Angels, compiling a combined 3-3 record and 2.97 ERA in 15 games. In 2016, he pitched for the Arizona League Angels and Orem Owlz where he was 1-4 with a 4.84 ERA in 12 games. Suárez played 2017 with the Arizona League Angels and Burlington Bees where he pitched to a combined 6-1 record and 3.28 ERA in 15 starts. He started 2018 with the Inland Empire 66ers and was promoted to the Mobile BayBears and Salt Lake Bees during the season. In 26 starts between the three clubs, he pitched to a 3-6 record with 3.92 ERA. The Angels added Suárez to their 40-man roster after the 2018 season, he opened the 2019 on the injured list with shoulder soreness, was assigned back to Salt Lake upon his return.

On June 2, Suárez was promoted to the major leagues for the first time to start versus the Seattle Mariners, where he picked up his first major league win. He finished the season with a 7.11 ERA in 81 innings. List of Major League Baseball players from Venezuela Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference

Scooter discography

This is the discography of German techno band, Scooter. The act, founded in December 1993 in Hamburg, is known for being one of the most successful German bands as well as for having sold over 30 million records worldwide. Since 1993, the trio has released 19 studio albums, five compilation albums, four live albums and 64 singles, as well as six video albums and 64 music videos. Scooter, who have gathered 80 Gold and Platinum awards throughout the years, are composed of H. P. Baxxter, Michael Simon and Sebastian Schilde. General "Discography". Retrieved 8 March 2016. Specific Official website Scooter at AllMusic Scooter discography at Discogs Scooter discography at MusicBrainz

Liam O'Neill

Liam O'Neill is a Gaelic games administrator, who served as the 37th President of the Gaelic Athletic Association. He is from County Laois. A former Chairman of the Leinster Council, O'Neill sought the GAA presidency at the 2008 Congress, but was defeated by Christy Cooney. In June 2010, O'Neill became the first person to declare his candidacy to succeed Cooney, he became president-elect at the annual GAA Congress in April 2011 following the withdrawal of three other candidates, succeeded Cooney in the post on 14 April 2012 at the Congress held at Killenard in Laois - becoming the 37th President of the GAA. A primary school principal, O'Neill set out in his inaugural address a manifesto centred on sports issues and growth. Following the 2012 All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final, O'Neill related that All-Ireland winning captain Michael Murphy, as they exchanged the Sam Maguire Cup, had offered his condolences on the sudden death of O'Neill's sister the previous day. President O'Neill went on to express his admiration for Murphy and called him an "exceptional young captain".

Official GAA website

Kazakhstan Judo Federation

Kazakhstan Judo Federation is the governing body for the sport of judo in Kazakhstan. The Judo Federation in Kazakhstan was established in 1973; the beginning of the second stage of judo development is connected with Kazakhstan’s sovereignty, when we first had an opportunity to represent a country at official international tournaments as a separate National picked team. Year 1993 became a remarkable date in the chronicle of Kazakhstan’s judo development. Participating in the Asia championship for the first time, the national men’s team took 2 place, yielding to one of the strongest teams of the World – Japan picked team. In 1993-94, 6 members of the National team were awarded the title of International Sports master. In 2004, Almaty hosted the first championship of Asia. Judo sportsmen of Kazakhstan won glorious victories over traditionally strong sportsmen of the Asian continent. Askhat Zhitkeyev, Muratbek Kipshakbayev and Donbai Bazarbek won golden medals. Nowadays one of the priority tasks of the Authorities of the Judo Federation of the Republic of Kazakhstan is development of club judo, as is common in the world practice.

Among the pioneers there are clubs «Lashyn» and «Arlan» in Almaty, «Yenbek» and «Judo Asia» in Karagandy. For 2011, it was planned to hold the first judo club championship of Kazakhstan. Official website