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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is a surface-sensitive quantitative spectroscopic technique that measures the elemental composition at the parts per thousand range, empirical formula, chemical state and electronic state of the elements that exist within a material. Put more XPS is a useful measurement technique because it not only shows what elements are within a film but what other elements they are bonded to; this means if you have a metal oxide and you want to know if the metal is in a +1 or +2 state, using XPS will allow you to find that ratio. However at most the instrument will only probe 20 nm into a sample. XPS spectra are obtained by irradiating a material with a beam of X-rays while measuring the kinetic energy and number of electrons that escape from the top 0 to 10 nm of the material being analyzed. XPS requires high vacuum or ultra-high vacuum conditions, although a current area of development is ambient-pressure XPS, in which samples are analyzed at pressures of a few tens of millibar.

XPS can be used to analyze the surface chemistry of a material in its as-received state, or after some treatment, for example: fracturing, cutting or scraping in air or UHV to expose the bulk chemistry, ion beam etching to clean off some or all of the surface contamination or to intentionally expose deeper layers of the sample in depth-profiling XPS, exposure to heat to study the changes due to heating, exposure to reactive gases or solutions, exposure to ion beam implant, exposure to ultraviolet light. In principle XPS detects all elements. In practice, using typical laboratory-scale X-ray sources, XPS detects all elements with an atomic number of 3 and above, it cannot detect hydrogen or helium. Detection limits for most of the elements are in the parts per thousand range. Detection limits of parts per million are possible, but require special conditions: concentration at top surface or long collection time. XPS is used to analyze inorganic compounds, metal alloys, polymers, catalysts, ceramics, papers, woods, plant parts, make-up, bones, medical implants, bio-materials, viscous oils, ion-modified materials and many others.

XPS is less used to analyze the hydrated forms of some of the above materials by freezing the samples in their hydrated state in an ultra pure environment, allowing or causing multilayers of ice to sublime away prior to analysis. Such hydrated XPS analysis allows hydrated sample structures, which may be different from vacuum-dehydrated sample structures, to be studied in their more relevant as-used hydrated structure. Many biomaterials such as hydrogels are examples of such samples. XPS is used to measure: elemental composition of the surface empirical formula of pure materials elements that contaminate a surface chemical or electronic state of each element in the surface uniformity of elemental composition across the top surface uniformity of elemental composition as a function of ion beam etching XPS can be performed using a commercially built XPS system, a built XPS system, or a synchrotron-based light source combined with a custom-designed electron energy analyzer. Commercial XPS instruments in the year 2005 used either a focused 20- to 500-micrometer-diameter beam of monochromatic Al Kα X-rays, or a broad 10- to 30-mm-diameter beam of non-monochromatic Al Kα X-rays or Mg Kα X-rays.

A few specially designed XPS instruments can analyze volatile liquids or gases, or materials at pressures of 1 torr, but there are few of these types of XPS systems. The ability to heat or cool the sample during or prior to analysis is common; because the energy of an X-ray with particular wavelength is known, because the emitted electrons' kinetic energies are measured, the electron binding energy of each of the emitted electrons can be determined by using an equation, based on the work of Ernest Rutherford: E binding = E photon − where Ebinding is the binding energy of the electron, Ephoton is the energy of the X-ray photons being used, Ekinetic is the kinetic energy of the electron as measured by the instrument and ϕ is the work function dependent on both the spectrometer and the material. This equation is a conservation of energy equation; the work function term ϕ is an adjustable instrumental correction factor that accounts for the few eV of kinetic energy given up by the photoelectron as it becomes absorbed by the instrument's detector.

It is a constant that needs to be adjusted in practice. In 1887, Heinrich Rudolf Hertz discovered but could not explain the photoelectric effect, explained in 1905 by Albert Einstein. Two years after Einstein's publication, in 1907, P. D. Innes experimented with a Röntgen tube, Helmholtz coils, a magnetic field hemisphere, photographic plates, to record broad bands of emitted electrons as a function of velocity, in effect recording the first XPS spectrum. Other researchers, including Henry Moseley and Robinson, independently performed various experiments to sort out the details in the b

Yuniel Hernández

Yuniel Hernández Solar is a Cuban hurdler. His personal best time is 13.26 seconds, achieved in July 2001 in Salamanca when he was still only 20 years old. The result places him sixth among Cuban 110 m hurdlers, behind Anier García, Dayron Robles, Emilio Valle, Alejandro Casañas and Yoel Hernández. Outdoor 200 m: 21.24 s – Havana, 18 March 2005 110 m hurdles: 13.26 s – Salamanca, 18 March 2005Indoor 50 m hurdles: 6.56 s – Stuttgart, 4 February 2001 60 m hurdles: 7.54 s – Pireás, 20 February 2002 Yuniel Hernández at World Athletics Yuniel Hernández at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Tilastopaja biography

Ultima Online: High Seas

Ultima Online: High Seas is the first booster pack for the 1997 MMORPG Ultima Online. Ultima Online: High Seas, was announced during a UO Town Hall Meeting held on August 28, 2010 at EA Mythic/Bioware's division headquarters in Fairfax, Virginia, it was introduced with the title Adventures on the High Seas but trimmed to just "High Seas". New Ships Orcish Galleon Gargish Galleon Tokuno Galleon Britannian Ship New Ship Movements Ship Weapons Boats have multiple weapon stations where Cannons may be placed Ship can now take damage and be repaired Pirate and Merchant Ships New Boss Encounters A Sea Market Fishing Profession Updates Fishing skill cap raised to 120 with power scrolls Miscellaneous 20% House and Bank storage increase New Cooking recipes New mining resource saltpeter Official website http://www.uoguide.com/Ultima_Online:_High_Seas - Further news and details on the expansion

Buffalo Gap, South Dakota

Buffalo Gap is a town in Custer County, South Dakota, United States. The population was 126 at the 2010 census. A old western South Dakota town, Buffalo Gap was founded in 1877. By 1885, it was a railroad spur for the Fremont and Missouri Valley line, with more than 1,200 residents. Today, the town has about 180 residents. In its early years it was one of the largest towns in South Dakota, but it received the same fate as many other towns of that era. Somebody's cow kicked over a lantern and it burned the town to the ground, just like the Great Chicago Fire and many others; the town never recovered and was never rebuilt to its former grandeur. The name comes from a gap to the west of town. Although Buffalo Gap burned down several times, there are a number of historic buildings still standing. Located on State Hwy 79 between Hermosa and Hot Springs, Buffalo Gap intersects with County Road 656, an “off the beaten path” that travelers can take into the Buffalo Gap National Grasslands, Badlands National Park and the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation Buffalo Gap is located at 43°29′33″N 103°18′51″W.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.31 square miles, all of it land. Buffalo Gap has been assigned the ZIP code 57722 and the FIPS place code 08460; as of the census of 2010, there were 126 people, 66 households, 32 families living in the town. The population density was 406.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 85 housing units at an average density of 274.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 91.3% White, 7.1% Native American, 0.8% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.8% of the population. There were 66 households of which 16.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.4% were married couples living together, 3.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 51.5% were non-families. 43.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.91 and the average family size was 2.63.

The median age in the town was 53 years. 16.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 42.9 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 164 people, 75 households, 44 families living in the town; the population density was 842.9 people per square mile. There were 88 housing units at an average density of 452.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 90.85% White, 6.71% Native American, 2.44% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.88% of the population. There were 75 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.0% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.3% were non-families. 40.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.91. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 4.9% from 18 to 24, 18.3% from 25 to 44, 35.4% from 45 to 64, 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $25,000, the median income for a family was $28,750. Males had a median income of $21,250 versus $16,250 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,680. About 18.0% of families and 18.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.6% of those under the age of eighteen and 12.5% of those sixty five or over. Rex Putnam, Oregon Superintendent of Public Instruction List of towns in South Dakota Buffalo Gap Historic Commercial District Media related to Buffalo Gap, South Dakota at Wikimedia Commons

LISE++

The program LISE++ is designed to predict the intensity and purity of radioactive ion beams produced by In-flight separators. LISE++ facilitates the tuning of experiments where its results can be compared to on-line data; the program is expanding and evolving from the feedback of its users around the world. The aim of LISE++ is to simulate the production of RIBs via some type of nuclear reactions, between a beam of stable isotopes and a target; the program simulates the characteristics of the nuclear reactions based on well-established models, as well as the effects of the filtering device located downstream of the target used to create the RIBs. The LISE++ name is borrowed from the well known evolution of the C programming language, is meant to indicate that the program is no longer limited to a fixed configuration like it was in the original “LISE” program, but can be configured to match any type of device or add to an existing device using the concept of modular blocks. Many physical phenomena are incorporated in this program, from reaction mechanism models, cross section systematics, electron stripping models, energy loss models to beam optics, just to list a few.

The references for the calculations are available within the program itself and the user is encouraged to consult them for detailed information. The interface and algorithms are designed to provide a user-friendly environment allowing easy adjustments of the input parameters and quick calculations; the ability to predict as well as identify on-line the composition of RIBs is of prime importance. This has shaped the main functions of the program: predict the fragment separator settings necessary to obtain a specific RIB; the LISE++ package includes configuration files for most of the existing fragment and recoil separators found in the world. Projectile fragmentation, fusion–evaporation, fusion–fission, Coulomb fission, abrasion–fission and two body nuclear reactions models are included in this program and can be used as the production reaction mechanism to simulate experiments at beam energies above the Coulomb barrier. LISE++ can be used not only to forecast the yields and purities of radioactive beams, but as an on-line tool for beam identification and tuning during experiments.

Large progress has been done in ion-beam optics with the introduction of "elemental" blocks, that allows optical matrices calculation within LISE++. New type of configurations based on these blocks allow a detailed analysis of the transmission, useful for fragment separator design, can be used for optics optimization based on user constraints, it can be configured to simulate the fragment separators of various research institutes by means of configuration files. Many “satellite” tools have been incorporated into the LISE++ framework, which are accessible with buttons on the main toolbar and include: Physical calculator Relativistic Kinematics calculator Evaporation calculator Radiation Residue Calculator Units converter ISOL catcher utility Nuclide and Isomeric state Databases utilities Units converter Stripper foil lifetime utility The program PACE4 by A. Gavron et al. Spectrometric calculator by J. Kantele The program CHARGE by Th. Stöhlker et al; the program GLOBAL by W. E. al.. The program BI MOTER by H. A. Thiessen et al.: raytracing code with optimization capabilities operating under MS Windows A1900 @ NSCL/MSU LISE @ GANIL FRS @ GSI BigRIPS & RIPS @ RIBF/RIKEN Accullina @ JINR MOCADI Beam TRANSPORT code COSY INFINITY

Ashok Sinha

Ashok Sinha is a British environmental campaigner. Sinha studied physics at the University of Bristol and completed his Ph. D. in renewable energy at Cambridge. Following this he spent a number of years pursuing research into climate change science at Reading University and Imperial College London, producing a variety of publications on climate feedback process, he moved into policy analysis with Forum for the Future working on climate change-renewable energy policy proposals. Ashok Sinha was one of the group of UK NGO activists who founded the UK Make Poverty History campaign, serving on its governing body, which he did whilst he was leading the Jubilee Debt Campaign. In 2005 he became Director of the newly founded Stop Climate Chaos coalition, now called the Climate Coalition. SCC gained a high-profile with its I Count campaign, the UK's campaign partner with the UK Live Earth event. SCC was instrumental in helping to secure the UK's Climate Change Act 2008, helping to put a brake on the building of new unabated coal-fired power stations, for delivering The Wave, at the time the biggest single climate change campaign event held globally.

In a voluntary capacity Sinha has been a board member of Amnesty International UK and of the London Cycling Campaign. He was listed as one of the UK's top 100 Ethical Heroes by New Consumer magazine in 2007, one of the UK's top 100 environmentalists by the Independent on Sunday in 2008, has been listed annually as one of London's 1000 most influential people by the Evening Standard since 2012. Ashok Sinha is chief executive of the London Cycling Campaign, leading the sustainable transport charity's Love London, Go Dutch and Space for Cycling campaigns, he is currently the chair of the London Sustainable Development Commission and a trustee of the Creekside Education Trust