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X Games

The X Games is an annual extreme sports event hosted and broadcast by ESPN. Coverage is shown on ESPN's sister network, ABC; the inaugural X Games were held during the summer of 1995 in Rhode Island. Participants compete to win bronze and gold medals, as well as prize money; the competition features new tricks such as Tony Hawk's 900 in skateboarding, Travis Pastrana's double backflip in freestyle motocross, Heath Frisby's first snowmobile front flip in Snowmobile Best Trick, Henrick Harlaut’s first nose-butter triple cork in Ski Big Air, Gus Kenworthy’s first switch triple rodeo in a ski slopestyle competition and Torstein Horgmo's first landed triple cork in a snowboard competition. Concurrent with competition is the "X Fest" sports and music festival, which offers live music, athlete autograph sessions, interactive elements; the X Games gained media exposure due to their big name sponsors, top-tier athletes, consistent fan attendance. As the Journal of Sport Management explains, Generation X and Generation Y are the two demographics most valued by marketers.

This creates a broad approach on marketing towards that certain demographic, why the X Games marketing and economic outlook is so "out of the box". According to a 2008 report by ESPN, in 1997, the Winter X Games inaugural year, 38,000 spectators attended the four-day event. In 1998, the attendance dropped to 25,000 spectators, but just two years a record attendance of 83,500 people attended the Winter X Games' East Coast debut. The X Games and Winter X Games continue to grow with the popularity of action sports and the athletes who compete in them; as part of the X Games, there have been performances by various rock bands over the years, as well as a DJ being on-site at all events. The X Games have made it a point since its founding to stage an eco-friendly event; such measures include organizing recycling campaigns. The X Games has never carried out drug tests on competitors, a position, criticized by the World Anti-Doping Agency director general David Howman and the International Olympic Committee president Thomas Bach.

The Winter X Games VIII in 2002 was the first time an X Games event was televised live and had coverage by ESPN's flagship news program, SportsCenter. Viewership across the three networks that carried coverage of the event – ABC Sports, ESPN, ESPN2 – exceeded 2001's household average by 30% according to Nielsen Media Research; the event reached record highs in several demographic categories. To accommodate the first-time live coverage, nighttime competitions were added, resulting in record attendance for the Aspen/Snowmass venue in Colorado; the 2002 Winter X Games was a humongous year for the X Games. It was the first year; the Games continued to add new events including the ski slopestyle event, ski superpipe event, skateboarding etc. The most memorable incident of the 2002 Games was when the entire 2002 U. S. Olympic freestyle snowboarding team showed up to compete in the Winter X snowboard superpipe event, just weeks before the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City. In 2002, ESPN announced the establishment of the X Games Global Championship.

The Global Championship featured two distinct venues hosting competitions in summer and winter action sports simultaneously. It consisted of six teams of the world's top athletes, grouped together by their region of origin, to compete in the four-day event; the winter sports were held in Whistler Blackcomb Resort in British Columbia, the events included snowboarding and skiing. The Winter X Games are held in January or February and the Summer X Games are held in August, both in the United States; the location of the Winter X Games is in Aspen, through 2019, while the location for the Summer X Games has been in Los Angeles, changing to Austin, Texas, in June 2014. The X Games has international competitions and demos around the world that are held at varying times throughout the year; the games are shown live on television. The Winter X Games are, as described by ESPN, a competition compiled of the greatest winter action sport athletes from around the world competing on an annual basis; the competition has day and evening events including skiing and snowmobiling.

The first Winter X Games took place at Mountain Resort in Big Bear Lake, California, in 1997. The following two years, the Games were held at Crested Butte Mountain Resort in Colorado; the two years following that, the Games were held in Vermont. Since 2002, the Winter X Games have been held at Aspen's Buttermilk Mountain and will continue to be until 2024, according to ESPN. During 2015's Winter X Games, ESPN used camera drones to capture aerial views of the athlete's runs; this was a first for ESPN. X Games Asia have been held annually since 1998. In May 2003, the X Games held the Global Championships, a special event where five continents competed in 11 disciplines; the event was held in two locations: the Alamodome in San Antonio and Whistler, British Columbia. The final team results, in order, were the United States, Australia and South America. In May 2011, ESPN held a bid to select three host cities in addition to Los Angeles and Tignes, France, to form a six-event calendar for the next three years beginning in 2013.

In May 2012, the selected cities were announced: Barcelona, Spain. The two European cities have hosted the Summer Olympic Games in the past, whereas Brazil has provided several X Games competitors. Despite previous plans for a three-year run, ESPN opted to cancel the global expansion after 2013

Rookie (Red Velvet song)

"Rookie" is a song recorded by South Korean girl group Red Velvet for their fourth extended play of the same name. The song was released on February 1, 2017, as the lead single from the EP. Produced by the American production team The Colleagues and Jamil'Digi' Chammas who composed the song with Leven Kali, Sara Forsberg, Karl Powell, Harrison Johnson, Russell Steedle, MZMC, Otha'Vakseen' Davis III, Tay Jasper with Korean lyrics by Jo Yoon-kyung, it is a pop-funk dance track which lyrically compares a girl's lover to a rookie. Following the release of single, Red Velvet performed the song on various South Korean music programs, namely Music Bank, The Show, Show Champion, M! Countdown and Show! Music Core. To further promote the song overseas, the group headlined the K-Pop Night Out concert during the 2017 SXSW Conference and Festivals in March 2017 in Austin, Texas; the group performed at KCON Mexico the next day. They held a two-day fan meet in Malaysia in May, where they promoted the song's parent album through a mini showcase.

While initial reactions to the song were negative, deeming it confusing, it topped several music charts in South Korea and became well received by the public in the group's native country. The Korea Herald concluded that like Red Velvet's past eccentric pop releases, the song is "Weird at first, but addictive later"; the single was a success domestically and internationally, peaking at #3 on the Gaon Digital Chart and #4 on Billboard's World Digital Songs chart. "Rookie" is certified platinum in South Korea with over 1.1 million digital units sold and was nominated for Song of the Year at the 2017 Melon Music Awards. "Rookie" was produced by American production team The Colleagues, who worked with western rap artists such as 2 Chainz and Gucci Mane, Jamil'Digi' Chammas who composed the song along with Leven Kali, Sara Forsberg, Karl Powell, Harrison Johnson, Russell Steedle, MZMC, Otha'Vakseen' Davis III, Tay Jasper while its Korean lyrics were penned by Jo Yoon-kyung. The single was released on February 1, 2017 in conjunction with its parent EP's release and music video.

Musically, the song is characterized as a pop-funk dance track. Tamar Herman of Billboard stated that the song "draws on Red Velvet's unconventional musicality to combine low-key sing-speaking and synth beats before blasting into the saccharine hook of a chorus" while its melody is "dominated by brassy horns and plinking synths". On the other hand, Jacques Peterson of Idolator described it as "a pure bubblegum ditty based on old-school funk and R&B", its lyrics compare a girl's lover to a'rookie', with the word being repeated all throughout the chorus and hook. A music video directed by Shin Hee-won was released on the same day as the single's release, featuring choreography by Ryu So-hee and Japanese dancer and choreographer Rino Nakasone who has choreographed for other S. M. Entertainment artists such as TVXQ, Girls' Generation and Shinee; the members claimed. The music video begins with all five Red Velvet members at a play as'rookie' performers. After being offered some mysterious pink smoke by member Joy, a series of random and entertaining scenarios ensue where the members follow a floral-clad mascot in a'Wonderland' while wearing various colorful outfits, such as blue and white Alice-like dresses and continue the chase as they fly around in spaceships.

It ends with the members exiting the stage. Billboard likened the girls in the video to Alice in Wonderland's titular character, as they travel in a world that's part Candyland and part Yellow Submarine. Meanwhile, Bradley Stern of PopCrush called it "a colorful visual buffet including a flower dude, UFO adventures and fourth wall-breaking meta marionette moments" and added that it's the K-pop version of The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe; the group performed the single on all of South Korea's music programs in February 2017, performing the song live for the first time on Music Bank on February 3, 2017. To help promote the song overseas, Red Velvet headlined the K-Pop Night Out concert during the 2017 SXSW Conference and Festivals at The Belmont on March 17, 2017 in Austin, Texas which had over 2,500 spectators. A day they participated in KCON Mexico. On April 16, the group had a fan event for the album in Taipei, they flew to Malaysia the next month to hold a two-day fanmeet at the LG Concourse of Berjaya Times Square in Kuala Lumpur, where they performed and promoted the song through a mini showcase for the EP.

"Rookie" was criticized for being unconventional and confusing but gained popularity in the group's native country where the song topped various South Korean music charts and its hook was lauded as the biggest earworm of the year. Jeff Benjamin of Billboard labelled it as "a quirky, funk-driven dance track with an unforgettable earworm of a hook" while Jacques Peterson of Idolator called it "a testament to the barrier-breaking, musical diversity of the K-pop genre"; the song received favorable reviews in South Korea, where it was praised for its success despite earlier reactions from the public. The Korea Herald stated that similar to the group's previous eccentric pop releases, "Rookie" is "Weird at first, but addictive later". However, The Star's Chester Chin commented that while the EP's lead single had an "insanely catchy arrangement and energetic delivery", he felt that it is its weakest track. Idolator chose "Rookie" as the best k-pop song of the first quarter of the year and it was nominated for Song of the Year at the 2017 Melon Music Awards.

The song rose to # 3 a week later. It peaked at #4 on Billboard's World Digital S

Augustin-Louis Cauchy

Baron Augustin-Louis Cauchy was a French mathematician and physicist who made pioneering contributions to several branches of mathematics, including mathematical analysis and continuum mechanics. He was one of the first to state and rigorously prove theorems of calculus, rejecting the heuristic principle of the generality of algebra of earlier authors, he singlehandedly founded complex analysis and the study of permutation groups in abstract algebra. A profound mathematician, Cauchy had a great influence over his successors. Cauchy was a prolific writer. Cauchy was the son of Louis François Marie-Madeleine Desestre. Cauchy had two brothers: Alexandre Laurent Cauchy, who became a president of a division of the court of appeal in 1847 and a judge of the court of cassation in 1849, Eugene François Cauchy, a publicist who wrote several mathematical works. Cauchy married Aloise de Bure in 1818, she was a close relative of the publisher. They had Marie Françoise Alicia and Marie Mathilde. Cauchy's father was a high official in the Parisian Police of the Ancien Régime, but lost this position due to the French Revolution, which broke out one month before Augustin-Louis was born.

The Cauchy family survived the revolution and the following Reign of Terror by escaping to Arcueil, where Cauchy received his first education, from his father. After the execution of Robespierre, it was safe for the family to return to Paris. There Louis-François Cauchy found himself a new bureaucratic job in 1800, moved up the ranks; when Napoleon Bonaparte came to power, Louis-François Cauchy was further promoted, became Secretary-General of the Senate, working directly under Laplace. The famous mathematician Lagrange was a friend of the Cauchy family. On Lagrange's advice, Augustin-Louis was enrolled in the École Centrale du Panthéon, the best secondary school of Paris at that time, in the fall of 1802. Most of the curriculum consisted of classical languages. In spite of these successes, Augustin-Louis chose an engineering career, prepared himself for the entrance examination to the École Polytechnique. In 1805, he placed second out of 293 applicants on this exam, he was admitted. One of the main purposes of this school was to give future civil and military engineers a high-level scientific and mathematical education.

The school functioned under military discipline, which caused the young and pious Cauchy some problems in adapting. He finished the Polytechnique in 1807, at the age of 18, went on to the École des Ponts et Chaussées, he graduated with the highest honors. After finishing school in 1810, Cauchy accepted a job as a junior engineer in Cherbourg, where Napoleon intended to build a naval base. Here Augustin-Louis stayed for three years, was assigned the Ourcq Canal project and the Saint-Cloud Bridge project, worked at the Harbor of Cherbourg. Although he had an busy managerial job, he still found time to prepare three mathematical manuscripts, which he submitted to the Première Classe of the Institut de France. Cauchy's first two manuscripts were accepted. In September 1812, now 23 years old, Cauchy returned to Paris after becoming ill from overwork. Another reason for his return to the capital was that he was losing his interest in his engineering job, being more and more attracted to the abstract beauty of mathematics.

Therefore, when his health improved in 1813, Cauchy chose to not return to Cherbourg. Although he formally kept his engineering position, he was transferred from the payroll of the Ministry of the Marine to the Ministry of the Interior; the next three years Augustin-Louis was on unpaid sick leave, spent his time quite fruitfully, working on mathematics. He attempted admission to the First Class of the Institut de France but failed on three different occasions between 1813 and 1815. In 1815 Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo, the newly installed Bourbon king Louis XVIII took the restoration in hand; the Académie des Sciences was re-established in March 1816. The reaction of Cauchy's peers was harsh. In November 1815, Louis Poinsot, an associate professor at the École Polytechnique, asked to be exempted from his teaching duties for health reasons. Cauchy was by a rising mathematical star, who merited a professorship. One of his great successes at that time was the proof of Fermat's polygonal number theorem.

However, the fact that Cauchy was known to be loyal to the Bourbo