Xalapa is the capital city of the Mexican state of Veracruz and the name of the surrounding municipality. In the 2005 census the city reported a population of 387,879 and the municipality of which it serves as municipal seat reported a population of 413,136; the municipality has an area of 118.45 km². Xalapa lies near the geographic center of the state and is the second-largest city in the state after the city of Veracruz to the southeast; the name Xalapa comes from the Nahuatl roots xālli "sand" and āpan "place of water", which means "spring in the sand". It's classically pronounced in Nahuatl, although the final /n/ is omitted; this doesn't occur in contemporary Spanish, its modern counterpart is written as j. The spelling Xalapa reflects the old pronunciation. Xalapa is pronounced or, the last pronunciation is used principally in dialects of Mexico's south, the Caribbean, a large part of Central America, some places in South America and the Canary Islands and western Andalusia in Spain, where has evolved into a voiceless glottal fricative.
The complete name of the city is Xalapa-Enríquez, bestowed in honor of a governor from the 19th century, Juan de la Luz Enríquez. The city's nickname, City of Flowers, was given by Alexander von Humboldt, who visited the city 10 February 1804; the reference is related to the city's older colonial history. According to folklore, the Spanish believed that Jalapa was the birthplace and home of the world's most beautiful woman, la Florecita, which means "little flower"; the residents of Xalapa are called Xalapeños or Jalapeños, the name given to the popular large peppers cultivated in this area. The Totonacs first established themselves around Macuiltepetl; this extinct volcano received its name because the Aztecs used it as the fifth reference mountain to get to the gulf of Mexico's shores. Today it is preserved in a park. During the 14th century, four indigenous peoples settled in the territory today known as Xalapa; each built a small village: Xalitic was founded by the Totonacas. Around 1313, the four villages joined, forming one large village named Xallapan.
Moctezuma Ilhuicamina, the fifth Aztec emperor, invaded the territory during the second half of the 15th century. All the land was ruled as part of the Aztec Empire before the arrival and conquest of the Spanish conquistadores. In 1519 Hernán Cortés passed through en route to Tenochtitlan. In 1555 Spanish Franciscans completed construction of a convent, an important event in the Nueva España of that time; when the Spanish invaded, Xalapa was populated. The population rose after the colonial settlement; when the Spanish improved the Mexico-Orizaba-Veracruz route, Xalapa declined in importance as a transport hub, its population stagnated in the 17th century. From 1720 on Xalapa became important, due to trade with merchants from New Spain arriving to buy and sell the products of the peninsula. Numerous Spanish families from the nearby towns settled in Xalapa, so by 1760 the population had increased to over 1,000 inhabitants, including mestizo and Spanish; the growth of Xalapa in population, culture and importance, increased in the 18th century.
Responding to residents' requests, Carlos IV of Spain declared Xalapa a town on 18 December 1791. In 1772, construction of Xalapa Cathedral began. On 18 May 1784, José María Alfaro got the first air balloon in the Americas, airborne, in Xalapa. Due to the abundance of flowers growing in the region, Alexander von Humboldt, who visited the town on 10 February 1804, christened it the "city of the flowers". Since the beginning of the 19th century, Xalapa has been the scene of some important historical events, it supported independence from Spain. Ideas flowed in the town, Xalapa was represented by many who put forward these ideas to those in Mexico City government meetings. On 20 May 1821, shortly before Mexican Independence on 27 September the same year, Xalapa was attacked by the forces of Don Antonio López de Santa Anna. Together with Don Joaquin Leño, he forced Spanish captain Juan Horbregoso to surrender the town. Independence was gained months later. On 9 May 1824, by decree of the President of the Republic Don Guadalupe Victoria, the first legislature of the state of Veracruz was established in Xalapa.
That year, Xalapa was declared the state capital. In the 1820s Xalapa and the surrounding area revolted when Vicente Guerrero replaced General Anastasio Bustamante. Veracruz was attacked by Isidro Barradas, attempting to reconquer parts of Mexico, over 3,000 were deployed in the military defense of Veracruz, Córdoba and Orizaba. Anastacio Bustamante, betraying the confidence put him, unsuccessfully revolted against the legitimate government with a new plan of Xalapa, signed on 4 December 1829. On 29 November 1830 by decree, Xalapa was named a city. In 1843, Don Antonio María de Rivera founded the Normal School of Xalapa to train teachers. Today it operates as a preparatory school for students going to college. In 1847 in the Mexican–American War Santa Anna attempted to defeat the opposing forces near Xalapa in the Battle of Cerro Gordo, he led an army
Perforated metal known as perforated sheet, perforated plate, or perforated screen, is sheet metal, manually or mechanically stamped or punched to create a pattern of holes, slots, or decorative shapes. Materials used to manufacture perforated metal sheets include stainless steel, cold rolled steel, galvanized steel, aluminum, copper, Inconel, titanium and more; the process of perforating metal sheets has been practiced for over 150 years. In the late 19th century, metal screens were used as an efficient means of separating coal; the first perforators were laborers. This proved to be an inefficient and inconsistent method which led to the development of new techniques, such as perforating the metal with a series of needles arranged in a way that would create the desired hole pattern. Modern day perforation methods involve the use of technology and machines. Common equipment used for the perforation of metal include rotary pinned perforation rollers and punch presses, laser perforations. Perforated metal has been utilized across a variety of industries including, but not limited to: Architectural - infill panels, cladding, column covers, metal signage, site amenities, fencing screens, etc.
Food & beverage - beehive construction, grain dryers, wine vats, fish farming, silo ventilation, sorting machines and vegetable juice presses, cheese molds, baking trays, coffee screens, etc. Chemical & energy - filters, drying machine baskets, battery separator plates, water screens, gas purifiers, liquid gas burning tubes, mine cages, coal washing, etc. Material development - glass reinforcement, cement slurry screens, dyeing machines, textile printers and felt mills, cinder screens, blast furnace screens, etc. Automotive - air filters, oil filters, silencer tubes, radiator grilles, running boards, motorcycle silencers, ventilation grids, tractor engine ventilation, sand ladders and mats, etc. Construction - ceiling noise protection, acoustic panels, stair treads, pipe guards, ventilation grilles, sun protection slats, sign boards, temporary airfield surface, etc; the acoustic performance of perforated metal helps people or workers to limit health effects from noise. Studies have shown. Studies have shown that having buildings use perforated metal sheets in front of their façade can bring in one study 29% energy savings and in the second one 45% energy savings.
Depending on the location of the building, solar irradiation can be decrease by 77.9%
Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg, has been heir apparent to the crown of Luxembourg since his father's accession in 2000. Prince Guillaume was born in 11 November 1981 at the Grand Duchess Charlotte Maternity Hospital in Luxembourg City and is the eldest child of Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg and his wife, Cuban-born Grand Duchess Maria Teresa, he was named after his father's youngest brother Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg. His godparents are Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg. Guillaume has four younger siblings: Prince Félix, Prince Louis, Princess Alexandra and Prince Sébastien. Guillaume's education includes Lycée Robert-Schumann in Luxembourg, he began his higher education studies in the United Kingdom where he studied at University College and Brunel University, both in England. In 2006 he entered Institut Philanthropos in Fribourg, where he spent a year studying philosophy and anthropology, he studied letters and political science at the Institut Albert-le-Grand in Angers, receiving his bachelor's degree with honors in 2009.
His degree was issued by Université d'Angers, as a result of a partnership agreement between the two schools. Guillaume has been heir apparent to the crown of Luxembourg since his father's accession in 2000. If he succeeds to the grand ducal throne, he will reign as Guillaume V, he has been honorary chairman of the Board of Economic Development of Luxembourg since 2001. The Hereditary Grand Duke is patron to the Luxembourg Cycling Sport Federation, Youth Hostels Central, National Association of Road Victims, Chamber Orchestra of Luxembourg, Youth Harmony Orchestra of the European Union, as well as to Young Entrepreneurs Luxembourg and Special Olympics Luxembourg Associations. During the summer of 1997, Guillaume participated as a member of Luxembourg Scout Movement in a humanitarian camp in Nepal, he involved in a reforestation project and other actions for the benefit of the less favored communities. In 2017, the Hereditary Grand Duke joined the board of directors of the World Scout Foundation to support the development of scouting around the world.
In 1999, he participated in a charitable mission to Aguascalientes to provide the educational and social assistance to young people in one of the most deprived areas in Mexico. After having chaired for more than 10 years in Kräizbierg Foundation, which works for people with disabilities. Since 18 January 2016, the Hereditary Grand Duke has been a member of the board of directors of Europäische Stiftung Kaiserdom zu Speyer Foundation. At the occasion of his 30th birthday, he gave interviews during which stated that he was in a relationship with a "dear miss", going strong for more than a year but insisted that they need some more time to evaluate their possible future. On 26 April 2012, the court announced the engagement of the Hereditary Grand Duke to the Belgian Countess Stéphanie de Lannoy. Guillaume and Stéphanie share a common descent from Charles Marie, Prince & 5th Duke d’Arenberg, which means that Guillaume's father and Stéphanie are 7th cousins; the civil wedding took place on Friday, 19 October 2012.
On 6 December 2019 it was announced by the Marshall of the Court that the Hereditary Grand Duke and Hereditary Grand Duchess are expecting their first child due in May 2020. Guillaume is interested in music and sports, he speaks Luxembourgish, German and English. He represents his parents in many foreign activities. 11 November 1981 – 28 July 1987: His Royal Highness Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg, Prince of Nassau, Prince of Bourbon-Parma 28 July 1987 – 18 December 2000: His Royal Highness Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg, Prince of Nassau 18 December 2000 – present: His Royal Highness The Hereditary Grand Duke of LuxembourgHis style and title in full is: His Royal Highness Prince Guillaume Jean Joseph Marie, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Hereditary Prince of Nassau, Prince of Bourbon-Parma. Knight of the Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau Grand Cross of Order of Adolphe of Nassau Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Oak Crown Belgium: Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown France: Grand Officer of the Order of the Legion of Honour Italy: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Netherlands: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Orange-NassauRecipient of the King Willem-Alexander Inauguration Medal Portugal: Grand Cross of the Order of Aviz Slovakia: Grand Officer of the Order of the White Double Cross Grand Duke of Luxembourg Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg Le Grand-Duc héritier – Official website of the Grand Ducal Palace