Suharto was an Indonesian military leader and politician who served as the second President of Indonesia, holding the office for 31 years, from the ousting of Sukarno in 1967 until his resignation in 1998. He was regarded by foreign commentators as a dictator. However, his legacy is still debated at home and abroad. Suharto was born in a small village, Kemusuk, in the Godean area near the city of Yogyakarta, during the Dutch colonial era, he grew up in humble circumstances. His Javanese Muslim parents divorced not long after his birth, he lived with foster parents for much of his childhood. During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia, Suharto served in Japanese-organised Indonesian security forces. Indonesia's independence struggle saw his joining the newly formed Indonesian Army. Suharto rose to the rank of major general following Indonesian independence. An attempted coup on 30 September 1965 backed by the Communist Party of Indonesia was countered by Suharto-led troops; the army subsequently led an anti-communist purge, which the U.
S. Central Intelligence Agency described as "one of the worst mass murders of the 20th century" and Suharto wrested power from Indonesia's founding president, Sukarno, he was appointed acting president in 1967, elected President the following year. He mounted a social campaign known as De-Sukarnoization to reduce the former President's influence. Support for Suharto's presidency was strong throughout the 1980s. By the 1990s, the New Order's authoritarianism and widespread corruption were a source of discontent and, following the Asian financial crisis in 1997-98 which led to widespread unrest, he resigned in May 1998. Suharto was given a state funeral; the legacy of Suharto's 31-year rule is debated both in Indonesia and abroad. Under his "New Order" administration, Suharto constructed a strong and military-dominated government. An ability to maintain stability over a sprawling and diverse Indonesia and an avowedly anti-Communist stance won him the economic and diplomatic support of the West during the Cold War.
For most of his presidency, Indonesia experienced significant economic growth and industrialisation improving health and living standards. Plans to award National Hero status to Suharto are being considered by the Indonesian government and have been debated vigorously in Indonesia. According to Transparency International, Suharto is the most corrupt leader in modern history, having embezzled an alleged $15–35 billion during his rule. Suharto was born on 8 June 1921 during the Dutch East Indies era, in a plaited-bamboo-walled house in the hamlet of Kemusuk, a part of the larger village of Godean; the village is 15 kilometres west of Yogyakarta, the cultural heartland of the Javanese. Born to ethnic Javanese parents, he was the only child of his father's second marriage, his father, had two children from his previous marriage, was a village irrigation official. His mother, Sukirah, a local woman, was distantly related to Hamengkubuwana V by his first concubine. Five weeks after Suharto's birth, his mother suffered a nervous breakdown and he was placed in the care of his paternal great-aunt, Kromodirjo.
Kertosudiro and Sukirah divorced early in Suharto's life and both remarried. At the age of three, Suharto was returned to his mother, who had married a local farmer whom Suharto helped in the rice paddies. In 1929, Suharto's father took him to live with his sister, married to an agricultural supervisor, Prawirowihardjo, in the town of Wuryantoro in a poor and low-yielding farming area near Wonogiri. Over the following two years, he was taken back to his mother in Kemusuk by his stepfather and back again to Wuryantoro by his father. Prawirowihardjo took to raising the boy as his own, which provided Suharto a father-figure and a stable home in Wuryantoro. In 1931, he moved to the town of Wonogiri to attend the primary school, living first with Prawirohardjo's son Sulardi, with his father's relative Hardjowijono. While living with Hardjowijono, Suharto became acquinted with Darjatmo, a dukun of Javanese mystical arts and faith healing; the experience affected him and as president, Suharto surrounded himself with powerful symbolic language.
Difficulties in paying the fees for his education in Wonogiri resulted in another move back to his father in Kemusuk, where he continued studying at a lower-fee Muhammadiyah middle school in the city of Yogyakarta until 1939. Like many Javanese, Suharto had only one name. In religious contexts in recent years he has sometimes been called "Haji" or "el-Haj Mohammed Suharto" but these names were not part of his formal name or used; the spelling "Suharto" reflects modern Indonesian spelling, although the general approach in Indonesia is to rely on the spelling preferred by the person concerned. At the time of his birth, the standard transcription was "Soeharto" but he preferred the original spelling; the international English-language press uses the spelling'Suharto' while the Indonesian government and media use'Soeharto'. Suharto's upbringing contrasts with that of leading Indonesian nationalists such as Sukarno in that he is believed to have had little interest in anti-colonialism, or political concerns beyond his immediate surroundings.
Unlike Sukarno and his circle, Suharto had no contact with European colonizers. He did not learn to speak Dutch or other European languages in his youth, he learned to speak Dutch after his induction into the Dutch military in 1940. Suharto took a clerical job at a bank in Wuryantaro, he was forced to resign. Following a s
Dilma Vana Rousseff is a Brazilian economist and politician who served as the 36th President of Brazil, holding the position from 2011 until her impeachment and removal from office on 31 August 2016. She was the first woman to hold the Brazilian presidency and had served as Chief of Staff to former president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva from 2005 to 2010; the daughter of a Bulgarian immigrant, Rousseff was raised in an upper middle class household in Belo Horizonte. She became a socialist in her youth and after the 1964 coup d'état joined left-wing and Marxist urban guerrilla groups that fought against the military dictatorship. Rousseff was captured and jailed from 1970 to 1972. After her release, Rousseff rebuilt her life in Porto Alegre with Carlos Araújo, her husband for 30 years, they both helped to found the Democratic Labour Party in Rio Grande do Sul, participated in several of the party's electoral campaigns. She became the treasury secretary of Porto Alegre under Alceu Collares, Secretary of Energy of Rio Grande do Sul under both Collares and Olívio Dutra.
In 2000, after an internal dispute in the Dutra cabinet, she left the PDT and joined the Workers' Party. In 2002, Rousseff became an energy policy advisor to presidential candidate Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who on winning the election invited her to become his minister of energy. Chief of Staff José Dirceu resigned in 2005 in a political crisis triggered by the Mensalão corruption scandal. Rousseff became chief of staff and remained in that post until 31 March 2010, when she stepped down to run for president, she was elected in a run-off on 31 October 2010, beating Brazilian Social Democracy Party candidate José Serra. On 26 October 2014 she won a narrow second-round victory over Aécio Neves of the PSDB. Impeachment proceedings against Rousseff began in the Chamber of Deputies on 3 December 2015. On 12 May 2016, the Senate of Brazil suspended President Rousseff's powers and duties for up to six months or until the Senate decided whether to remove her from office or to acquit her. Vice President Michel Temer assumed her powers and duties as Acting President of Brazil during her suspension.
On 31 August 2016, the Senate voted 61–20 to impeach, finding Rousseff guilty of breaking budgetary laws and removing her from office. On 5 August 2018, the PT launched Rousseff's candidacy for a seat in the Federal Senate, from the state of Minas Gerais. However, despite leading in the polls in the run-up to the election, Rousseff finished fourth in the final vote and was not elected. Dilma Vana Rousseff was born in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, on 14 December 1947, to Bulgarian lawyer and entrepreneur Pedro Rousseff and schoolteacher Dilma Jane da Silva, her father was born in Gabrovo, in the Principality of Bulgaria, was a friend of the Nobel Prize-nominated Bulgarian poet Elisaveta Bagryana. As an active member of the Bulgarian Communist Party, banned in 1924, Petar Rusev fled Bulgaria in 1929 to escape political persecution, he arrived in Brazil in the 1930s widowed, but soon moved to Buenos Aires, Argentina. He returned to Brazil several years settling in São Paulo, where he succeeded in business.
Pétar Rúsev adapted his first name to the last to French. During a trip to Uberaba, he met Dilma Jane da Silva, a young schoolteacher born in Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, raised in Minas Gerais, where her parents were ranchers; the two married and settled in Belo Horizonte, where they had three children: Igor, Dilma Vana, Zana Lúcia. Igor Rousseff, Dilma's elder brother, is a lawyer. Pedro Rousseff was a contractor for Mannesmann steel in addition to building and selling real estate; the family lived in a large house, had three servants, maintained European habits. The children had a classical education with French lessons. After they overcame the initial resistance of the community to accepting foreigners, the family attended traditional clubs and schools. Rousseff was enrolled in preschool at the Colégio Izabela Hendrix and primary school at Colégio Nossa Senhora de Sion, a girls' boarding school run by nuns, who taught in French. Encouraged by her father, Rousseff acquired an early taste for reading.
He died in 1962. In 1964 Rousseff left the conservative Colégio Sion and joined the Central State High School, a co-ed public school where the students protested against the dictatorship, established after the 1964 Brazilian coup d'état. In 1967 she joined Worker's Politics, an organization founded in 1961 as a spinoff of the Brazilian Socialist Party, its members found. Rousseff joined the second group. According to Apolo Heringer Lisboa, leader of Colina in 1968 who taught Marxism to Rousseff in high school, she chose armed struggle after reading Revolution inside the Revolution by Régis Debray, a French intellectual who had moved to Cuba and become a friend of Fidel Castro and Che Guevara. Heringer says that "the book inflamed everybody, including Dilma". During that period, Rousseff met a brother-in-arms five years her senior. Galeno, who had joined POLOP in 1962, had served in the Army, participating in the uprising of sailors against the military coup, for which he had
Dili known as “City of Peace”, is the capital, largest city, chief port, commercial centre of East Timor. Dili is part of the Timor Leste -- Indonesia -- Australia Growth Triangle. Dili was settled about 1520 by the Portuguese, who made it the capital of Portuguese Timor in 1769, it was proclaimed a city in January 1864. During World War II, Portugal and its colonies remained neutral, but the Allies saw East Timor as a potential target for Japanese invasion, Australian and Dutch forces occupied the island in 1941. On the night of 19 February 1942, the Japanese attacked with a force of around 20,000 men, occupied Dili before spreading out across the rest of the colony. On 26 September 1945, control of the island was returned to Portugal by the Japanese. East Timor unilaterally declared independence from Portugal on 28 November 1975. However, nine days on 7 December, Indonesian forces invaded Dili. On 17 July 1976, Indonesia annexed East Timor, which it designated the 27th province of Indonesia, Timor Timur, with Dili as its capital.
A guerrilla war ensued from 1975 to 1999 between Indonesian and pro-independence forces, during which tens of thousands of East Timorese and some foreign civilians were killed. Media coverage of the 1991 Dili Massacre helped revitalise international support for the East Timorese independence movement. In 1999, East Timor was placed under UN supervision, on 20 May 2002, Dili became the capital of the newly independent Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. In May 2006, fighting and rioting sparked by conflict between elements of the military caused significant damage to the city and led to foreign military intervention to restore order. Dili lies on the northern coast of the easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands, it is the seat of the administration of the municipality of Dili, the administrative entity of the area and includes the island of Atauro and some cities close to Dili city. The city is divided into the Administrative Posts of Nain Feto, Vera Cruz, Dom Aleixo and Cristo Rei and is divided into several sucos, each of, headed by an elected chefe de suco.
18 of the 26 sucos of the four administrative posts are categorised as urban. The municipality has council; the 2010 census recorded a population of 193,563 in the areas of Dili district classified as urban, with a population of 234,331 in the whole district including rural areas such as Atauro and Metinaro. Dili is a melting pot of the different ethnic groups of East Timor, due to the internal migration of young men from around the country in search of work; this has led to a gender imbalance, with the male population larger than the female. Between 2001 and 2004, the population of Dili district grew by 12.58%, with only 54% of the district's inhabitants born in the city. 7% were born in Baucau, 5% each in Viqueque and Bobonaro 4% in Ermera, the remainder in other districts or overseas. Dili has a Tropical dry climate under the Köppen climate classification. Most buildings were damaged or destroyed in the violence of 1999, orchestrated by the Indonesian military and local pro-Indonesia militias.
However, the city still has many buildings from the Portuguese era. E.g. the former Market Hall built around 1930, used as a Congress Centre nowadays. The former Portuguese Governor's office is now the office of the Prime Minister, it was also used by the Indonesian-appointed Governor, by the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor. Under Indonesian rule, during which the Portuguese was banned, Portuguese street names like Avenida Marechal Carmona remained unchanged, although they were prefixed with the Indonesian word Jalan or'road'; the Roman Catholic Church at Motael became a focus for resistance to Indonesian occupation. Legacies of Jakarta's occupation are the Church of the Immaculate Conception, seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Díli, purportedly the largest cathedral in Southeast Asia, the'Integration Monument', commemorating the Indonesian annexation of the territory in 1976. Featuring a statue of an East Timorese in traditional dress, breaking the chains round his wrists, the monument has not been demolished.
The Cristo Rei of Dili is a 27-metre tall statue of Jesus situated on top of a globe at the end of a peninsula in Dili. It is one of the town's landmarks, it was a present from the Indonesian Government during occupation for the 20th anniversary of East Timor's integration into Indonesia. Schools in Dili include St. Joseph’s High School. There are five International schools in Dili: St Anthony's International School, Timorese owned and managed but teaches in English and uses a modified Australian curriculum. East Timor's major higher education institution, the Universidade Nacional de Timor-Leste is based in Dili. Other universities situated in Dili include the private undergraduate university, Universidade da Paz, Universidade Dili and Dili Institute of Technology, a community-based, non-profit education institution. Dili is served by Presidente Nicolau Lobato International Airport, named after independence leader Nicolau Lobato; this is the only functioning international airport in East Timor, though there are airstrips in Baucau, Suai and O
Order of Liberty
The Order of Liberty, is a Portuguese honorific civil order that distinguishes relevant services to the cause of democracy and liberty, in the defense of the values of civilization and human dignity. The order was created in 1976, after the Carnation Revolution of 1974 in which the corporatist authoritarian Estado Novo regime of António de Oliveira Salazar and Marcello Caetano was deposed; the Grand Collar can be given by the President of Portugal to former Heads of State and others whose deeds are of an extraordinary nature and particular relevance to Portugal, making them worthy of such a distinction. This can include political acts, physical acts of defense for Portugal, or the good representation of Portugal in other countries; the order includes six classes. Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg. François Mitterrand, former president of the French Republic. Juan Carlos I, King of Spain. Václav Havel, former president of the Czech Republic. António Mascarenhas Monteiro, former president of the Republic of Cape Verde.
Miguel Trovoada, former president of the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. Patricio Aylwin, former president of the Republic of Chile. Lech Wałęsa, former president of the Republic of Poland. Fernando Henrique Cardoso, former president of the Republic of Brazil. Mário Soares, former prime minister and president of the Portuguese Republic. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, former president of the Republic of Brazil. Kofi Annan, former secretary-general of the United Nations. António Guterres, current secretary-general of the United Nations. Sergio Mattarella, President of Italy Republic Felipe VI, King of Spain Bruno Neto, Philanthropist Presidency Website Honorific orders of Portugal List of the Grand Collar of Freedom
President of Brazil
The President of Brazil the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil or the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of Brazil. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the Brazilian Armed Forces; the presidential system was established in 1889, upon the proclamation of the republic in a military coup d'état against Emperor Pedro II. Since Brazil has had six constitutions, three dictatorships, three democratic periods. During the democratic periods, voting has always been compulsory; the Constitution of Brazil, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements and responsibilities of the president, their term of office and the method of election. Jair Bolsonaro is the current President, he was sworn in on 1 January 2019 following the 2018 presidential election. As a republic with a presidential executive, Brazil grants significant powers to the president, who controls the executive branch, represents the country abroad, appoints the cabinet and, with the approval of the Senate, the judges for the Supreme Federal Court.
The president is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Presidents in Brazil have significant lawmaking powers, exercised either by proposing laws to the National Congress or by using Medidas Provisórias, an instrument with the force of law that the president can enact in cases of urgency and necessity except to make changes to some areas of law. A provisional measure comes into effect before Congress votes on it, remains in force for up to 60 days unless Congress votes to rescind it; the 60-day period can be extended once, up to 120 days. If Congress, on the other hand, votes to approve the provisional measure, it becomes an actual law, with changes decided by the legislative branch; the provisional measure expires at the end of the 60-day period, or sooner, if rejected by one of the Houses of Congress. Article 84 of the current Federal Constitution, determines that the president has the power to appoint and dismiss the ministers of state; the Constitution of Brazil requires that a President be a native-born citizen of Brazil, at least 35 years of age, a resident of Brazil, in full exercise of their electoral rights, a registered voter, a member of a political party.
The president of Brazil serves for a term of four years
Indonesian occupation of East Timor
The Indonesian occupation of East Timor began in December 1975 and lasted until October 1999. After centuries of Portuguese colonial rule in East Timor, a 1974 coup in Portugal led to the decolonisation of its former colonies, creating instability in East Timor and leaving its future uncertain. After a small-scale civil war, the pro-independence Fretilin declared victory in the capital city of Dili and declared an independent East Timor on 28 November 1975. Claiming that its assistance had been requested by East Timorese leaders, Indonesian military forces invaded East Timor on 7 December 1975 and by 1979 they had all but destroyed the armed resistance to the occupation. Following a controversial "Popular Assembly" which many said was not a genuine act of self-determination, Indonesia declared the territory a province of Indonesia. After the invasion, the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council passed resolutions condemning Indonesia's actions in East Timor and calling for its immediate withdrawal from the territory.
Australia and Indonesia were the only nations in the world which recognised East Timor as a province of Indonesia, soon afterwards they began negotiations to divide resources found in the Timor Gap. Other governments, including those of the United States, Japan and Malaysia supported the Indonesian government; the invasion of East Timor and the suppression of its independence movement, caused great harm to Indonesia's reputation and international credibility. For twenty-four years the Indonesian government subjected the people of East Timor to routine and systematic torture, sexual slavery, extrajudicial executions and deliberate starvation; the 1991 Santa Cruz Massacre caused outrage around the world, reports of other such killings were numerous. Resistance to Indonesian rule remained strong. A 1999 vote to determine East Timor's future resulted in an overwhelming majority in favour of independence, in 2002 East Timor became an independent nation; the Commission for Reception and Reconciliation in East Timor estimated the number of deaths during the occupation from famine and violence to be between 90,800 and 202,600, including between 17,600 and 19,600 violent deaths or disappearances, out of a 1999 population of 823,386.
The truth commission held Indonesian forces responsible for about 70% of the violent killings. After the 1999 vote for independence, paramilitary groups working with the Indonesian military undertook a final wave of violence during which most of the country's infrastructure was destroyed; the Australian led International Force for East Timor restored order and following the departure of Indonesian forces from East Timor, the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor administered the territory for two years, establishing a Serious Crimes Unit to investigate and prosecute crimes committed in 1999. Its limited scope and the small number of sentences delivered by Indonesian courts have caused numerous observers to call for an international tribunal for East Timor. Oxford University held an academic consensus calling the occupation of East Timor a genocide and Yale University teaches it as part of its Genocide Studies program; the Portuguese first arrived in Timor in the 16th century, in 1702 East Timor came under Portuguese colonial administration.
Portuguese rule was tenuous until the island was divided with the Dutch Empire in 1860. A significant battleground during the Pacific War, East Timor was occupied by 20,000 Japanese troops; the fighting helped prevent a Japanese occupation of Australia, but resulted in 60,000 East Timorese deaths. When Indonesia secured its independence after World War II under the leadership of Sukarno, it did not claim control of East Timor, aside from general anti-colonial rhetoric it did not oppose Portuguese control of the territory. A 1959 revolt in East Timor against the Portuguese was not endorsed by the Indonesian government. A 1962 United Nations document notes: "the government of Indonesia has declared that it maintains friendly relations with Portugal and has no claim to Portuguese Timor...". These assurances continued after Suharto took power in 1965. An Indonesian official declared in December 1974: "Indonesia has no territorial ambition... Thus there is no question of Indonesia wishing to annex Portuguese Timor."In 1974, a coup in Lisbon caused significant changes in Portugal's relationship to its colony in Timor.
The power shift in Europe invigorated movements for independence in colonies like Mozambique and Angola, the new Portuguese government began a decolonisation process for East Timor. The first of these was an opening of the political process; when East Timorese political parties were first legalised in April 1974, three groupings emerged as major players in the postcolonial landscape. The União Democrática Timorense, was formed in May by a group of wealthy landowners. Dedicated to preserving East Timor as a protectorate of Portugal, in September UDT announced its support for independence. A week the Frente Revolucionária de Timor-Leste Independente appeared. Organised as the ASDT, the group endorsed "the universal doctrines of socialism", as well as "the right to independence"; as the political process grew more tense, the group changed its name and declared itself "the only legitimate representative of the people". The end of May saw the creation of a third party, Associacão Popular Democratica Timorense (Timorese Popular Democra
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country's first black head of state and the first elected in a representative democratic election, his government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress party from 1991 to 1997. A Xhosa, Mandela was born to the Thembu royal family in British South Africa, he studied law at the University of Fort Hare and the University of Witwatersrand before working as a lawyer in Johannesburg. There he became involved in anti-colonial and African nationalist politics, joining the ANC in 1943 and co-founding its Youth League in 1944. After the National Party's white-only government established apartheid, a system of racial segregation that privileged whites, he and the ANC committed themselves to its overthrow.
Mandela was appointed President of the ANC's Transvaal branch, rising to prominence for his involvement in the 1952 Defiance Campaign and the 1955 Congress of the People. He was arrested for seditious activities and was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the 1956 Treason Trial. Influenced by Marxism, he secretly joined the banned South African Communist Party. Although committed to non-violent protest, in association with the SACP he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1961 and led a sabotage campaign against the government, he was arrested and imprisoned in 1962, subsequently sentenced to life imprisonment for conspiring to overthrow the state following the Rivonia Trial. Mandela served 27 years in prison, split between Robben Island, Pollsmoor Prison, Victor Verster Prison. Amid growing domestic and international pressure, with fears of a racial civil war, President F. W. de Klerk released him in 1990. Mandela and de Klerk led efforts to negotiate an end to apartheid, which resulted in the 1994 multiracial general election in which Mandela led the ANC to victory and became president.
Leading a broad coalition government which promulgated a new constitution, Mandela emphasised reconciliation between the country's racial groups and created the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses. Economically, Mandela's administration retained its predecessor's liberal framework despite his own socialist beliefs introducing measures to encourage land reform, combat poverty, expand healthcare services. Internationally, he acted as mediator in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial and served as Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999, he declined a second presidential term, in 1999 was succeeded by his deputy, Thabo Mbeki. Mandela became an elder statesman and focused on combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the charitable Nelson Mandela Foundation. Mandela was a controversial figure for much of his life. Although critics on the right denounced him as a communist terrorist and those on the far-left deemed him too eager to negotiate and reconcile with apartheid's supporters, he gained international acclaim for his activism.
Regarded as an icon of democracy and social justice, he received more than 250 honours—including the Nobel Peace Prize—and became the subject of a cult of personality. He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is referred to by his Xhosa clan name and described as the "Father of the Nation". Mandela was born on 18 July 1918 in the village of Mvezo in Umtata part of South Africa's Cape Province. Given the forename Rolihlahla, a Xhosa term colloquially meaning "troublemaker", in years he became known by his clan name, Madiba, his patrilineal great-grandfather, was king of the Thembu people in the Transkeian Territories of South Africa's modern Eastern Cape province. One of Ngubengcuka's sons, named Mandela, was the source of his surname; because Mandela was the king's child by a wife of the Ixhiba clan, a so-called "Left-Hand House", the descendants of his cadet branch of the royal family were morganatic, ineligible to inherit the throne but recognised as hereditary royal councillors.
Nelson Mandela's father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa Mandela, was a local chief and councillor to the monarch. In 1926, Gadla was sacked for corruption, but Nelson was told that his father had lost his job for standing up to the magistrate's unreasonable demands. A devotee of the god Qamata, Gadla was a polygamist with four wives, four sons and nine daughters, who lived in different villages. Nelson's mother was Gadla's third wife, Nosekeni Fanny, daughter of Nkedama of the Right Hand House and a member of the amaMpemvu clan of the Xhosa. Mandela stated that his early life was dominated by traditional Thembu custom and taboo, he grew up with two sisters in his mother's kraal in the village of Qunu, where he tended herds as a cattle-boy and spent much time outside with other boys. Both his parents were illiterate, but being a devout Christian, his mother sent him to a local Methodist school when he was about seven. Baptised a Methodist, Mandela was given the English forename of "Nelson" by his teacher.
When Mandela was about nine, his father came to stay at Qunu, where he died of an undiagnosed ailment which Mandela believed to be lung disease. Feeling "cut adrift", he said that he inherited his father's "proud rebelliousness" and "stubborn sense of fairness". Mandela's mother took him to the "Great Place" palace at Mqhekezw