Xavier University

Xavier University is a Jesuit university in Cincinnati and Norwood, Ohio. It is the sixth-oldest fourth-oldest Jesuit university in the United States. Xavier has an undergraduate enrollment of 4,485 students and graduate enrollment of 2,165, it is an undergraduate, liberal arts institution. Xavier University is the fourth oldest Jesuit University and the sixth oldest Catholic university in the United States; the school was founded in 1831 as a men's college in downtown Cincinnati next to St. Francis Xavier Church on Sycamore Street; the Athenaeum, as it was called, was dedicated to the patronage of Saint Francis Xavier by Bishop Edward Fenwick on October 17, 1831. Upon Bishop John Baptist Purcell's request, the Society of Jesus took control of The Athenaeum in 1840, the name was changed to St. Xavier College in honor of the 16th century Jesuit missionary, St. Francis Xavier who, like the founder of the Jesuits, Ignatius Loyola, was a Spanish Basque. St. Xavier College moved in 1912 to its current Norwood location, about 5 miles north of downtown Cincinnati, after the purchase of 26 acres from the Avondale Athletic Club.

The "original" Anthenaeum is now the seminary of the Archdiocese of Cincinnati. St. Xavier College and St. Xavier High School split in 1919, though they did not become financially independent until 1934; the school's name was changed a second time to its current name, Xavier University, in 1930. The Williams College of Business was established in 1961 and Xavier's first doctoral program, in psychology, began in 1997. Xavier admitted women in 1969, but women began attending the college in 1914 in the evening and summer school divisions. Edgecliff College, another Catholic college in Cincinnati, merged with Xavier University in 1980. In 2000, Xavier opened the doors to an arena for the Musketeers. Xavier opened the Gallagher Student Center in 2002. Smith Hall and the Conaton Learning Commons opened in 2010 as part of the James E. Hoff, S. J. Academic Quadrangle. Fr. Hoff was the University's 33rd President, 1991–2000. Fr. Michael J. Graham, S. J. Hoff's successor and 34th President, still serves Xavier.

Fenwick Place, a residential complex, opened in the fall of 2011. The campus covers 190 acres in the City of Cincinnati and features residential and academic malls, flanked by the older west campus and by the expanding east campus. At the center of campus are the Gallagher Student Center and Bellarmine Chapel. Bellarmine Chapel's roof is in the shape of a hyperbolic paraboloid known as a saddle roof, that will not collapse if the Chapel walls were removed; the chapel is home to an active parish community independent of the university. Six buildings with castle architecture sit elevated overlooking Victory Parkway to the west and resemble a single fortress. Next to the Gallagher Student Center is Science Row: Lindner Hall, Logan Hall, Albers Hall. In the middle of this impressive chain is Hinkle Hall, the three-story Tudor-Gothic structure, the oldest standing building on campus and whose turrets were modeled after the Xavier Family Castle in Navarre, Spain, it houses the Departments of Mathematics, Computer Science, History and Theology.

Schmidt Hall sits next as the University’s current Administration Building. It is followed by Edgecliff Hall, Alumni Science Hall but was renamed after the former Edgecliff College and is home to the Department of Music. On the opposite side of the mall to the east stands the tallest structure on campus, Schott Hall, it houses the Office of Admission and Office of Financial Aid as well as the Departments of Modern Languages, Communication Arts, Political Science, Sociology. Next is McDonald Library followed by Alter Hall, rebuilt. Alter Hall is the main classroom building on campus, was reopened for the 2015 fall semester. Hailstones Hall, the former home of the Williams College of Business, is adjoined behind Alter to the east, so is not on the mall. Alter and Hailstones are next to Bellarmine Chapel. To the north of the Academic Mall and on the opposite side of the Gallagher Student Center and Bellarmine Chapel is the Residential Mall. All four underclassmen residence halls are here. Brockman Hall is due north of Gallagher and is an all-freshmen, community-style residence where about 300 students have one or two roommates and share a bathroom with their wing.

Diagonally north across the mall is Buenger Hall. Buenger honors students in suites. Diagonally south across the mall from Brockman and due east of Gallagher are Kuhlman Hall and Husman Hall. Kuhlman and Husman together house about 1,000 freshmen and sophomore students and feature suite style, where students have one or two roommates and share a bathroom with another room. Between Kuhlman and Gallagher is what is referred to as "The Xavier Yard," a large open all-purpose area for students and events. On the opposite side of Victory Parkway from the Academic and Residential malls is west campus, it is home to most of the athletics and recreational sports with facilities including J. Page Hayden Field, Corcoran Soccer Field, Schmidt Fieldhouse, Corbett Physical Education Building, the O'Connor Sports Center. St. Barbara Hall and the Armory are home to Xavier's ROTC. Joseph Hall and Elet Hall are home to the School of Department of Psychology; the Cintas Center, where the Musketeers host their basketball games, is adjacent to the Residential Mall.

Besides the 10,250-seat arena, Cintas includes the Schiff Conference Center a

Paras Thermal Power Station

Paras Thermal Power Plant is oldest power plant of Maharashtra State Power Generation Company located at Paras, Akola district of Maharashtra. The power plant is one of the based power plants of Mahagenco. Paras Thermal Power Station is the oldest of all Mahagenco Power plants; the station has witnessed the third generation technology. The station had 30 MW installed capacity in 1961 with a stroke boiler; the same unit was abandoned in 1993 due to ageing. It is on the Nagpur–Bhusawal section of Central Railway. Coal-based thermal power stations consume large quantities of coal. For example, the Paras Thermal Power Station consumed 351,000 tonnes of coal in 2006-07. Around 80 per cent of the domestic coal supplies in India are meant for coal based thermal power plants and coal transportation forms 42 per cent of the total freight earnings of Indian railways. Paras is home town of Mr. Shivdeep Lande and Dr. Niyaz Ahmad


Naissaar is an island northwest of Tallinn in Estonia. The island covers an area of 18.6 square kilometres. It is 8 kilometres long and 3.5 kilometres wide, lies about 8.5 kilometres from the mainland. The highest point on the island is Kunilamägi, 27 metres above sea level; the island consists predominantly of coniferous forest and piles of boulders. In 2005, the island had a population of ten. Administratively the island is divided into three villages: Tagaküla and Väikeheinamaa; until the Second World War, the island's population numbered about 450 people of Estonian-Swedish origin. However, these people fled during the war. Naissaar under Soviet rule was a military area and off-limits to the public. Although the fortifications on the island date back to Peter the Great's scheme to fortify Tallinn, the main fortifications are from the period of Russian rule before World War II. Today, the previous small houses of the Swedish villages are being restored bit-by-bit. Being restored is a narrow gauge railway that runs from the north to the southern tip of the island.

A notable native of the island was Bernhard Schmidt, the German-Estonian optician who invented the Schmidt telescope in 1930. The island received a lighthouse in 1788, though the present lighthouse dates to 1960, it is 47 meters tall. The island's name means "island of women", it is possible, that Naissaar is the island the chronicle of Adam of Bremen mentioned around 1075 under the name "Terra Feminarum". Estonian Swedish fishermen were well-established on the island by the 15th Century, the Swedes erected a small fortress there in 1705 during the Great Northern War. After the war Estonia became part of the Russian Empire; the Tsar had a new fortress, with five bastions, built in 1720, for the defense of Tallinn and St. Petersburg. An epic single-ship action took place off the north end of the island on 23 June 1808 when the 14-gun Russian cutter Opyt put up an heroic though unsuccessful fight against the British 44-gun frigate HMS Salsette. In 1850 the island's population was 155 people and by 1858 it had grown to 188, most of whom were Estonian Swedes.

Between 1853 and 1856 the inhabitants built a new chapel, part of the Swedish parish of St. Michael in Tallinn. In the early twentieth century, Russia began the process of a modernization of its fortifications in the Gulf of Finland. However, the outbreak of the First World War stopped the planned improvements for Naissaar. Still, in 1914 the Russians opened a narrow-gauge railway line, with a total trackage of 37.7 km. The Ukrainian anarcho-syndicalist Stepan Petrichenko was taken into the Russian navy in 1913 and assigned to the battleship Petropavlovsk. During the February Revolution the ship was based on Naissaar, emptied of its inhabitants in 1914; the Russians built a new fort on the island during the First World War, stationing 80-90 sailors there. Estonia acquired some autonomy in April 1917 by a decree of the Russian provisional government, though Estonia remained under the suzerainty of the Russian Empire. However, after the October Revolution the Bolshevik rebels suspended Estonia's provisional government, the Maapäev.

A local Council of Workers and Soldiers' Ambassadors convened on Naissaar, declaring the local People's Commissar Council on 17 December, which included the Commissioner for War, Home Affairs, Labor and Health. Petrichenko was elected Chairman of the Council; the Council declared: "In constitutional terms, Naissaar has been designed to be an independent Soviet republic.", naming it the Soviet Republic of Soldiers and Fortress-Builders of Naissaar. The Council began drafting a constitution, the capital was designated the Southern Village and the anthem "The Internationale"; the flag became the red-black flag of anarcho-syndicalism. It was intended to issue its own money, but the name of the units is unknown; the Soviet Republic of Naissaar was recognized, at least de-facto, by the workers' government in mainland Estonia, who sent prisoners to the island "to fortify some of the castles, clear the railroads, carry snow and dig sand."At this point the newly formed Estonian Provisional Government appealed to the German army for assistance.

The Republic fought the Germans alike. However, after German forces occupied the island on February 26, 1918, the Baltic fleet evacuated most of its population, moving towards Helsinki and to Kronstadt, thus the "soviet republic" ceased to exist. The few remaining people were imprisoned in the harbor barracks, military buildings were destroyed. However, some of the sites were rescued by a local forest ranger who disconnected wires to the explosives. A week the Bolsheviks ceded the Baltics to the German Empire, in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Stepan Petrichenko became known in 1921, as the leader of the Kronstadt uprising against the Bolsheviks, after which he fled to Finland; the Estonian government executed forty Bolshevik prisoners of war here in February 1919. As the result of the German revolution and capitulation of Germany in World War I, the German occupiers handed over rule of Naissaar to the Estonian Provisional Government on 19 November 1918. After the Estonian Constituent Assembly met on April 23, 1919, the first elected government of the Republic of Estonia took office, the Estonian Provisional Government resigned on May 8, 1919.

The island became part of the new Estonian Republic in 1920. The Estonian Republic too used Naissaar as a naval