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Xenogears is a role-playing video game developed and published by Square for the PlayStation video game console. The debut entry in the wider Xeno franchise, it was released in Japan in February 1998, in North America in October the same year; the gameplay of Xenogears revolves around navigating 3D environments both on-foot and using humanoid mecha dubbed "Gears". Combat is governed by a version of the turn-based "Active Time Battle" system; the story follows protagonist Fei Fong Wong and several others as they journey across the world to overthrow the all-powerful rule of Solaris and uncover mysteries concerning their world. The story incorporates themes of Jungian psychology, Freudian thought, religious symbolism. Created by Tetsuya Takahashi and his wife Kaori Tanaka as a proposal for Final Fantasy VII, it was allowed to be developed as its own project, first as a sequel to Chrono Trigger and as a wholly original game with a science fiction premise, it was developed under the working title "Project Noah".

The characters and mecha were designed by Kunihiko Tanaka, whose designs were portrayed during in-game cinematics through the use of anime cutscenes. Due to time constraints and the team's general inexperience, the second half of the game's plot was told through cutscenes; the game was nearly left unlocalized due to its religious content. The game received critical acclaim, with praise going towards the storyline, gameplay and psychological and religious themes, but received criticism for the rushed pace of the second disc, due to a lack of gameplay and excessive narration. By 2003, the game had shipped over a million copies worldwide, it has since gained a cult following. While a direct sequel was never developed, Takahashi would found Monolith Soft and develop the Xenosaga trilogy as a spiritual successor. Xenogears combines traditional role-playing video game structures such as Square's signature Active Time Battle system with new features particular to the game's martial-arts combat style.

It features two different battle systems: in the first, the user controls human characters in turn-based combat manipulated through the sequencing of learned combos. The second, making use of "gears", introduces different sets of statistics and abilities for each character. Xenogears features both traditional anime and pre-rendered CGI movie clips by Production I. G to illustrate important plot points; the player advances the protagonist and his companions through a three-dimensional fictional world with visitable cities, geographical sites, other important locations spread out across several continents. Some locations exist not in the sky. At first, the party only travels on foot, but can use a variety of vehicles, including their gears and the "sand submarine" Yggdrasil. Battle in Xenogears is a variant of the Active Time Battle system found in games such as Chrono Trigger and the Final Fantasy series. Most enemy encounters in Xenogears are random; when a battle begins, there is a transition to a separate screen with a combat interface.

Player-characters use a combination of martial arts moves, "Ether" attacks, special "Deathblow" combinations, which are learned through the repetition of specific proportions of strong and weak hits. All offensive actions use Action Points, costing either three points, two points, or one point, corresponding to the intensity of the attack; each character can use only three AP per turn, but at higher levels, they can use up to seven AP per turn. At a certain point in the game, characters can use "Elemental Deathblows", which attach elemental attributes to physical combos. In addition to being used for attacks, AP may be saved and allocated to Attack Points for combo attacks during turns. A total of 28 AP may be accumulated for combo attacks. Characters can use a variety of magical abilities for both offense and ally-support; these abilities are limited by the number of available Ether Points, which must be replenished using items during exploration sequences. For most characters, these abilities are attributed to "Ether," a mysterious power to which all humans have access.

Some characters' magical abilities are referred to by different names, implying differences in their origins. For example, Fei's magic is called "Chi" and Citan's is called "Arcane". While fighting in gears, human Ether abilities are amplified, though some change or become unavailable during this type of combat. In addition to hand-to-hand combat, the characters sometimes fight from within giant robots called gears. In gear combat, the limiting factor of AP is replaced by fuel, with each attack consuming an amount corresponding to its power. For these battles, "deathblows" may only be executed after first building up the "Attack Level"—represented by a number in the bottom-left of the gear combat interface—through the execution of strong, moderate, or weak attacks. One deathblow is allowed per point on the Attack Level gauge. There are three levels for normal gear deathblows and, beyond the third level, an "infinite" level with its own set of deathblows. To reach "Infinity Mode", a character must stay at attack level 3.

With each turn, there is a chance. Having a duration of three turns, Infinity Mode allows fuel to be recharged in much larger quantities and, while in this mode, gears have access to "Infinity" attacks. Gears can regain fuel with a "Charge" command; the gears can activate "Boosters" which enable them to act faster at a cost of extra fuel

Barbara Hoyt

Barbara Hoyt was a member of the "Manson Family", led by Charles Manson. Hoyt was a witness in District Attorney Vincent Bugliosi's prosecution of Manson and his followers for the Tate-LaBianca murders, one of the highest-profile murder trials in history. Hoyt lived with the Manson Family at Spahn Ranch. In 1971, five Manson followers — Catherine "Gypsy" Share, Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme, Dennis Rice, Steve "Clem" Grogan, Ruth Ann "Ouisch" Moorehouse — were charged with attempted murder after they plotted to murder Hoyt to prevent her testifying for the prosecution during the Tate/LaBianca murder trial. Moorehouse was to lure Hoyt to Hawaii, so that she would be unable to testify. Once in Hawaii, if Hoyt could not be convinced not to testify, Moorehouse was to kill her. On September 9, 1971, as Hoyt was preparing to board her flight back to California, it was alleged that Moorehouse bought Hoyt a hamburger and laced it with a multi-dose of LSD left her and flew back to California. Hoyt survived the attempt on her life.

Share and the others were charged with attempted murder. Share, Fromme and Grogan served 90-day sentences in the Los Angeles County Jail. Moorehouse never served her sentence. Barbara Hoyt

Women and agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa

Women and agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa refers to the agricultural system in Sub-Saharan Africa, predominantly small-scale farming system with more than 50% of the agricultural activity performed by women, producing about 60-70% of the food in this region. While women provide the majority of the labor in agricultural production, their access and control over productive resources is constrained due to inequalities constructed by patriarchal norms. Women play a critical role in food security in this region by fulfilling their role as food providers. There are 3 basic variants of household food production systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: 1) Women are responsible for production of all or most food crops. In this variant, food plots are considered women's plot. 2) Men and women jointly cultivate staple food crops in fields controlled by male household heads. In this type, male household head controls the output. 3) Men are responsible for food production, while women specialize in food processing.

This variant is encountered where Islamic practices of female seclusion prevent women from engaging in fieldwork. In many countries in Africa, there is a rigid division of labor by gender in agriculture; this division may be based on types of activities performed on the farm or type of crops grown by men and women. The division of labor is based on patriarchal norms that require women to care for the needs of the members of the households while men are involved in bringing cash income to the household. Women are expected to help fathers, husbands in their fields, which increase women's workload. Sometimes men will help women in clearing their plots to prepare the land. In regions where women and men work on separate plots growing different crops, women are engaged in subsistence farming to provide food to fulfill the needs of the members of household while men are engaged in production of cash or export crops. In the early 21st century, this pattern is prevalent in several Sub-Saharan African countries like Tanzania, Cameroon, Burkina Faso etc.

This distinction can be explained as a result of gender norms that assign women with the responsibility of feeding family and men with the responsibility of providing cash income. In Southeast Nigeria, for example, there exist distinctions between traditionally "male" and "female crops. "Female" crops are ephemeral household crops, include cassava, maize and cocoyams. "Male" crops, include food staples such as yams, which are considered the "prestige" crop. Though women grow food crops for household consumption, if there is any marketable surplus they sell it in the market. However, women's primary responsibility is to feed the family and only after that they can engage in other income earning activities; the distinction between crops is sometimes not clear in the case of maize, a staple crop in several Sub-Saharan African countries as well as a cash crop. With the introduction of high yielding varieties of maize, now the distinction is that the high yielding varieties tend to be men's crop and local varieties are women's crop.

This pattern has been observed in Malawi where local varieties of maize are woman's crop while hybrid varieties are cash crops cultivated by men. The logic is the same: high yielding varieties provide large amount of marketable surplus which allows men to provide cash income while women continue with varieties that provide enough for subsistence consumption. Women's role is not limited to food production, they are required to process and prepare the food they grow, perform care work in the household and help men in their cash crop production; as for division of labor by tasks, men cleared the forests, burned the bush and harvested the fruits of tree crops such as the oil palm, fenced fields against wild animals, in some regions planted crops. Women are responsible for weeding, post-harvest production, food preparation. Women are responsible for transporting and marketing the cash crops with male members of the household. In a study for Kenya in the 1980s, it was reported that women were responsible for hand digging and transporting the crops while men were responsible for building the granary.

However the distinction between men's and women's tasks is becoming quite blurred. There are few tasks that are done by men like clearing of field. Women perform most tasks on their plots from sowing, weeding to harvesting, may get some assistance from men in clearing and preparing the land for cultivation. On a man's plot, women may provide help in harvesting etc.. There is some evidence that the roles of men in subsistence agriculture were traditionally somewhat greater in many regions before the period following the introduction of additional New World crops from the Americas such as plantains and cassava. In contrast to certain older traditional and indigenous staple food crops like yams or millet which tended to, continued to be, grown by men or with more male involvement, New World crops were grown with more female involvement; the introduction of cash crops as well as of wage labor during the colonial period, the formation of a more cash-based economy tended to further lessen the participation of men in subsistence farming, as they participated in those newer more lucrative occupations in order to acquire and provide cash for their families at home.

Men's traditional involvement in subsistence farming in pre-colonial times had tended to be s

Robert Altman

Robert Bernard Altman was an American film director and producer. A five-time nominee of the Academy Award for Best Director and an enduring figure from the New Hollywood era, Altman was considered a "maverick" in making films with a naturalistic but stylized and satirical aesthetic, unlike most Hollywood films, he is ranked as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers in American cinema. His style of filmmaking covered many genres, but with a "subversive" twist which relied on satire and humor to express his personal views. Altman developed a reputation for being "anti-Hollywood" and non-conformist in both his themes and directing style. However, actors enjoyed working under his direction because he encouraged them to improvise, thereby inspiring their own creativity, he preferred large ensemble casts for his films, developed a multitrack recording technique which produced overlapping dialogue from multiple actors. This produced a more natural, more dynamic, more complex experience for the viewer.

He used mobile camera work and zoom lenses to enhance the activity taking place on the screen. Critic Pauline Kael, writing about his directing style, said that Altman could "make film fireworks out of next to nothing."In 2006, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences recognized Altman's body of work with an Academy Honorary Award. He never won a competitive Oscar despite seven nominations, his films MASH, McCabe & Mrs. Miller, Nashville have been selected for the United States National Film Registry. Altman is one of three filmmakers whose films have won the Golden Bear at Berlin, the Golden Lion at Venice, the Golden Palm at Cannes. Altman was born on February 20, 1925, in Kansas City, the son of Helen, a Mayflower descendant from Nebraska, Bernard Clement Altman, a wealthy insurance salesman and amateur gambler, who came from an upper-class family. Altman's ancestry was German and Irish. Altman had a Catholic upbringing, but he did not continue to follow or practice the religion as an adult, although he has been referred to as "a sort of Catholic" and a Catholic director.

He was educated including Rockhurst High School, in Kansas City. He graduated from Wentworth Military Academy in Lexington, Missouri in 1943. In 1943, Altman joined the United States Army Air Forces at the age of 18. During World War II, Altman flew more than 50 bombing missions as a crewman on a B-24 Liberator with the 307th Bomb Group in Borneo and the Dutch East Indies. Upon his discharge in 1946, Altman moved to California, he worked in publicity for a company. He entered filmmaking on a whim, selling a script to RKO for the 1948 picture Bodyguard, which he co-wrote with George W. George. Altman's immediate success encouraged him to move to New York City, where he attempted to forge a career as a writer. Having enjoyed little success, in 1949 he returned to Kansas City, where he accepted a job as a director and writer of industrial films for the Calvin Company. In February 2012, an early Calvin film directed by Altman, Modern Football, was found by filmmaker Gary Huggins. Altman directed some 65 industrial films and documentaries before being hired by a local businessman in 1956 to write and direct a feature film in Kansas City on juvenile delinquency.

The film, titled The Delinquents, made for $60,000, was purchased by United Artists for $150,000, released in 1957. While primitive, this teen exploitation film contained the foundations of Altman's work in its use of casual, naturalistic dialogue. With its success, Altman moved from Kansas City to California for the last time, he co-directed The James Dean Story, a documentary rushed into theaters to capitalize on the actor's recent death and marketed to his emerging cult following. Altman's first forays into TV directing were on the DuMont drama series Pulse of the City, an episode of the 1956 western series The Sheriff of Cochise. After Alfred Hitchcock saw Altman's early features The Delinquents and The James Dean Story, he hired him as a director for his CBS anthology series Alfred Hitchcock Presents. After just two episodes, Altman resigned due to differences with a producer, but this exposure enabled him to forge a successful TV career. Over the next decade Altman worked prolifically in television directing multiple episodes of Whirlybirds, The Millionaire, U.

S. Marshal, The Troubleshooters, The Roaring 20s, Bus Stop, Kraft Mystery Theater, Combat!, as well as single episodes of several other notable series including Hawaiian Eye, Lawman, Surfside 6, Peter Gunn, Route 66. Through this early work on industrial films and TV series, Altman experimented with narrative technique and developed his characteristic use of overlapping dialogue, he learned to work and efficiently on a limited budget. Though he was fired from TV projects for refusing to conform to network mandates, as well as insisting on expressing political subtexts and antiwar sentiments during the Vietnam years, Altman always was able to land new assignments. In 1964, the producers decided to expand "Once Upon a Savage Night", one of his episodes of Kraft Suspense Theatre, for release as a TV movie under the title Nightmare in Chicago. Two years Altman was hired to direct the low-budget space travel feature Countd

Hocking County, Ohio

Hocking County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 29,380, its county seat is Logan. The county was organized on March 1, 1818, from land given by Athens and Ross counties, its name is from the Hocking River, the origins of which are disputed but is said to be a Delaware Indian word meaning "bottle river". Hocking County is included in OH Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 424 square miles, of which 421 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water. The major waterway of Hocking County is the Hocking River, which flows from WNW to ESE, arising in Fairfield County and flowing from Hocking County into Athens County; this river drains about half the county. To the southwest, much of the rest of the county is drained by Salt Creek, which flows from there into Vinton County. A small part of the southeastern county is drained by Raccoon Creek, which flows into Vinton County; the easternmost area of the county is within the Monday Creek watershed.

A small area in the north of the county is drained by Rush Creek. Perry County Athens County Vinton County Ross County Pickaway County Fairfield County Wayne National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 28,241 people, 10,843 households, 7,828 families living in the county; the population density was 67 people per square mile. There were 12,141 housing units at an average density of 29 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.54% White, 0.92% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.08% Asian, 0.08% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races. 0.44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,843 households out of which 33.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.30% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.80% were non-families. 23.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 2.98.

In the county, the population was spread out with 25.50% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 28.30% from 25 to 44, 25.00% from 45 to 64, 13.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 99.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,261, the median income for a family was $40,888. Males had a median income of $31,951 versus $24,123 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,095. About 10.30% of families and 13.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.80% of those under age 18 and 14.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 29,380 people, 11,369 households, 7,948 families living in the county; the population density was 69.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,417 housing units at an average density of 31.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.5% white, 0.7% black or African American, 0.3% American Indian, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races.

Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.3% were German, 15.0% were American, 14.1% were Irish, 9.0% were English. Of the 11,369 households, 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.1% were non-families, 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age was 40.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $39,586 and the median income for a family was $48,796. Males had a median income of $39,219 versus $30,371 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,048. About 12.3% of families and 15.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.7% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. Hocking County tends to be a swing county in presidential elections as most were won by close margins but Donald Trump in 2016 won over 60% of the county's vote.

The county commissioners are Sandra Ogle, Gary Waugh, Jeff Dickerson, the Hocking County Sheriff is Lanny North. Logan Buchtel Laurelville Murray City Carbon Hill Haydenville Hide-A-Way Hills Rockbridge Ewing Ilesboro Sand Run South Bloomingville Union Furnace South Perry National Register of Historic Places listings in Hocking County, Ohio Hocking County government's website

Randy Kuhl

John Randall Kuhl Jr. is an American Republican politician. He is a former member of the New York State Assembly, the New York State Senate, the United States House of Representatives. Kuhl represented New York's 29th congressional district for two terms before being defeated for reelection by Eric Massa in 2008. Kuhl was born in New York, he graduated from Union College in Schenectady, New York with a B. A. in civil engineering in 1966, got a law degree from Syracuse University College of Law in 1969. He was admitted to the New York Bar in 1970. Kuhl was a member of the New York Assembly from 1981 to 1986, sitting in the 184th, 185th and 186th New York State Legislatures. In November 1986, after the retirement of William T. Smith, Kuhl ran for Smith's Senate seat and won. Kuhl was a member of the New York State Senate from 1987 to 2004, sitting in the 187th, 188th, 189th, 190th, 192nd, 193rd, 194th, 195th and 196th New York State Legislatures, he was appointed the Senate's Assistant Majority Leader for Operations at the beginning of the 1995 legislative session.

One of Kuhl's signature issues in the state legislature was Upstate secession. He introduced a bill "to let New York City, Long Island and Westchester and Rockland Counties became a separate state called New York. At least one poll in upstate has found the idea to be wildly popular." Kuhl summed up his secessionist views by saying that "his constituents in the Finger Lakes region wonder,'Why don't you just cut the City of New York off and let it drift out to sea?'"In 1997, while serving as a state senator, Kuhl was arrested and convicted of driving while intoxicated. His driver's license was revoked for six months. In 2004, Kuhl ran for the House seat of retiring U. S. Representative Amo Houghton, a Republican multimillionaire who had displayed a moderate bent during 18 years in Washington. In the Republican primary, supported by Houghton, defeated Monroe County Legislator Mark Assini, he defeated 27-year-old Democrat Samara Barend in the general election. Kuhl's Democratic opponent in the 2006 elections was former Navy officer Eric Massa of Corning, a former Republican.

In March 2006, Kuhl invited President George W. Bush to Canandaigua. In September 2006, Kuhl welcomed Vice President Dick Cheney to a major fundraiser in Rochester. Kuhl agreed with Cheney's assessment that combating terrorists around the world was the top issue in the campaign. According to Kuhl, bad news from the war zone should be countered by a frank discussion of reality. Regarding his Finger Lakes and Southern Tier constituents, Kuhl said, "They don't understand the full importance of our presence there". Preliminary results from the November election showed Kuhl narrowly beating Massa by a margin of 5,600 votes. Massa had refused to concede the election and was expected to file a challenge, but on November 15, 2006 Massa conceded the election and contacted Kuhl to congratulate him. According to the final election results, which were certified by the New York State Board of Elections on December 14, 2006, Kuhl won by a margin of 6,033 votes. Kuhl's again faced Democratic nominee and former Navy officer Eric Massa, losing the rematch by a narrow 51%-49% margin reversing the outcome of the 2006 elections.

Kuhl finished behind Massa in Cattaraugus County, a county Kuhl carried by a 56%-44% margin in 2006 contributing to the loss. Because the race was so close, Kuhl did not concede the election until November 21, 2008. Kuhl was considered a reliable conservative who voted against abortion rights, gun control and tax increases, he was, however, a member of the Republican Main Street Partnership. Kuhl supported making then-President Bush's tax cuts permanent. In addition, he advocated for a 10-cent reduction in federal gasoline taxes. In September 2007, Kuhl was noted in the news as being one of the most outspoken opponents of a plan by then-New York Governor Eliot Spitzer to allow illegal aliens to apply for driver's licenses, he became a prominent opponent of the SCHIP expansion, a stance for which he earned significant animosity from various groups including MoveOn, the Service Employees International Union, former New York Governor Eliot Spitzer. During his time as a state senator, Kuhl was an advocate of New York City secession and unsuccessfully introduced several bills to separate Upstate New York from downstate.

United States Congress. "Randy Kuhl". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Congressman Randy Kuhl official campaign site Federal Election Commission – John Kuhl campaign finance reports and data On the Issues – Randy Kuhl issue positions and quotes – John R. Kuhl Jr campaign contributions Project Vote Smart – Representative John R.'Randy' Kuhl Jr. profile Appearances on C-SPAN Washington Post – Congress Votes Database: Randy Kuhl voting record