Xenon is a chemical element with the symbol Xe and atomic number 54. It is a colorless, odorless noble gas found in Earth's atmosphere in trace amounts. Although unreactive, xenon can undergo a few chemical reactions such as the formation of xenon hexafluoroplatinate, the first noble gas compound to be synthesized. Xenon is used in flash lamps and arc lamps, as a general anesthetic; the first excimer laser design used a xenon dimer molecule as the lasing medium, the earliest laser designs used xenon flash lamps as pumps. Xenon is used to search for hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles and as the propellant for ion thrusters in spacecraft. Occurring xenon consists of seven stable isotopes and two long-lived radioactive isotopes. More than 40 unstable xenon isotopes undergo radioactive decay, the isotope ratios of xenon are an important tool for studying the early history of the Solar System. Radioactive xenon-135 is produced by beta decay from iodine-135, is the most significant neutron absorber in nuclear reactors.
Xenon was discovered in England by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers in September 1898, shortly after their discovery of the elements krypton and neon. They found xenon in the residue left over from evaporating components of liquid air. Ramsay suggested the name xenon for this gas from the Greek word ξένον xénon, neuter singular form of ξένος xénos, meaning'foreign','strange', or'guest'. In 1902, Ramsay estimated the proportion of xenon in the Earth's atmosphere to be one part in 20 million. During the 1930s, American engineer Harold Edgerton began exploring strobe light technology for high speed photography; this led him to the invention of the xenon flash lamp in which light is generated by passing brief electric current through a tube filled with xenon gas. In 1934, Edgerton was able to generate flashes as brief as one microsecond with this method. In 1939, American physician Albert R. Behnke Jr. began exploring the causes of "drunkenness" in deep-sea divers.
He tested the effects of varying the breathing mixtures on his subjects, discovered that this caused the divers to perceive a change in depth. From his results, he deduced. Although Russian toxicologist Nikolay V. Lazarev studied xenon anesthesia in 1941, the first published report confirming xenon anesthesia was in 1946 by American medical researcher John H. Lawrence, who experimented on mice. Xenon was first used as a surgical anesthetic in 1951 by American anesthesiologist Stuart C. Cullen, who used it with two patients. Xenon and the other noble gases were for a long time considered to be chemically inert and not able to form compounds. However, while teaching at the University of British Columbia, Neil Bartlett discovered that the gas platinum hexafluoride was a powerful oxidizing agent that could oxidize oxygen gas to form dioxygenyl hexafluoroplatinate. Since O2 and xenon have the same first ionization potential, Bartlett realized that platinum hexafluoride might be able to oxidize xenon.
On March 23, 1962, he mixed the two gases and produced the first known compound of a noble gas, xenon hexafluoroplatinate. Bartlett thought its composition to be Xe+−, but work revealed that it was a mixture of various xenon-containing salts. Since many other xenon compounds have been discovered, in addition to some compounds of the noble gases argon and radon, including argon fluorohydride, krypton difluoride, radon fluoride. By 1971, more than 80 xenon compounds were known. In November 1989, IBM scientists demonstrated a technology capable of manipulating individual atoms; the program, called IBM in atoms, used a scanning tunneling microscope to arrange 35 individual xenon atoms on a substrate of chilled crystal of nickel to spell out the three letter company initialism. It was the first time atoms had been positioned on a flat surface. Xenon has atomic number 54. At standard temperature and pressure, pure xenon gas has a density of 5.761 kg/m3, about 4.5 times the density of the Earth's atmosphere at sea level, 1.217 kg/m3.
As a liquid, xenon has a density of up to 3.100 g/mL, with the density maximum occurring at the triple point. Liquid xenon has a high polarizability due to its large atomic volume, thus is an excellent solvent, it can dissolve hydrocarbons, biological molecules, water. Under the same conditions, the density of solid xenon, 3.640 g/cm3, is greater than the average density of granite, 2.75 g/cm3. Under gigapascals of pressure, xenon forms a metallic phase. Solid xenon changes from face-centered cubic to hexagonal close packed crystal phase under pressure and begins to turn metallic at about 140 GPa, with no noticeable volume change in the hcp phase, it is metallic at 155 GPa. When metallized, xenon appears sky blue because it absorbs red light and transmits other visible frequencies; such behavior is unusual for a metal and is explained by the small width of the electron bands in that state. Liquid or solid xenon nanoparticles can be formed at room temperature by implanting Xe+ ions into a solid matrix.
Many solids have lattice constants smaller than solid Xe. This results in compression of the implanted Xe to pressures that may be sufficient for its liquefaction or solidification. Xenon is a member of the zero-valence elements that are called inert gases, it is inert to most common chemical reactions because the outer valence shell contains eight electrons. This produces a stable, minimum energy configuration in which the outer electrons are b
John Anthony Birch was a British organist and choral director. He was educated at Trent College and left in July 1947 to study at the Royal College of Music, London. In 1953 he became Organist and Master of the Choristers at a prominent Anglo-Catholic church: All Saints, Margaret Street, London. In 1958 Birch moved to Chichester to be Organist and Master of the Choristers at Chichester Cathedral. During his time at the Cathedral, he worked with Dean Walter Hussey in the commissioning of new choral works for the Cathedral Choir, including pieces from composers Leonard Bernstein, William Walton, Lennox Berkeley, William Albright, Bryan Kelly and Herbert Howells. In 1959, Birch was appointed as a Professor at the Royal College of Music, where he continued to lecture until 1997, he was one of the founders of the revived Southern Cathedrals Festival in 1960. Birch was University Organist at the University of Sussex from 1967 to 1994 and worked as a Visiting Lecturer in Music from 1971 to 1983. In 1982, Birch became Director of Music at Temple Church.
Two years he was appointed the role of Curator-Organist at the Royal Albert Hall, a position he held until his death. In the posts at the Temple Church and the Royal Albert Hall, Birch was the successor to Sir George Thalben-Ball. Birch was, in addition, the long-serving organist for the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra and recorded particularly in orchestral repertoire, he had, served with great distinction as accompanist and organist to the Royal Choral Society working with Sir Malcolm Sargent. For forty years, Dr Birch served as a Professor of Organ at The Royal College of Music, he held an honorary MA from the Lambeth degree of Doctor of Music. He died on 28 April 2012 after suffering a stroke
Charles Gabriel Grant is a former American football defensive end in the National Football League. He was drafted by the New Orleans Saints in the first round of the 2002 NFL Draft, he played college football at Georgia. Grant was a member of the Miami Dolphins, Omaha Nighthawks and Chicago Bears. Played for Miller County High School in Colquitt, Georgia in 1998, where he was both an offensive and defensive player, he played both offense and defense at Hargrave Military Academy in 1998. Was a Parade Magazine 1997 All-American, he tied runningback Chuck Rumbley's state single-season touchdown record with 45 in 1997 and added 3,472 all-purpose yards. Totaled 101 touchdowns in his three-year career at Miller County HS. Three-year letterman and two-year starter at the University of Georgia. Ended career with 136 tackles, 15 sacks. Sack total ranks sixth on the school's all-time list. Totaled 63 tackles and six sacks as a junior in 2001; as a freshman, recorded 33 tackles and seven sacks, while seeing duty in offensive backfield, rushing for 79 yards and three touchdowns at fullback.
Majored in arts and sciences. Grant was drafted by the Saints with the 25th pick overall in the 2002 NFL Draft; the Saints acquired the pick, used to draft Grant through a trade with the Miami Dolphins that sent Ricky Williams to Miami. Grant's seven sacks in 2002 were the fourth-highest total for a Saints rookie, he recorded 20.5 sacks from 2003-04. He was the second of two first-round picks for New Orleans in 2002, following wide receiver Donte' Stallworth, he finished second with seven sacks for minus-40 yards, 36 tackles, two passes defensed, four forced fumbles and one fumble recovery. Appeared in 16 games and started six at LDE. Finished tied for 20th in the NFC with seven sack total. Grant got a six-year extension with the Saints on July 27, 2002. After showing glimpses of his vast potential as a rookie, Grant came through with a big season and started all 16 games in 2003, he led the team with 10 sacks and three forced fumbles, led the defensive line with 53 tackles. He started all 16 contests for the second-straight season in 2004 and paced the defensive line with 113 tackles while posting a career-high 10.5 sacks.
He posted his first career interception. In 2005, he appeared in all 16 contests, starting 14 games at RDE, recording 62 tackles, 2.5 sacks, two passes defensed and a fumble recovery. He bounced back from a subpar season in 2006 with 6 sacks and 64 tackles in 16 games, he collected 3 forced fumbles with 2 recoveries and 6 passes defensed. 2007 was Grant's worst season as a pro statistically, as he appeared in 14 of 16 games and compiled only 2.5 sacks to go along with 48 tackles. He chipped in with 2 passes defensed. Grant underwent surgery on a torn ligament in his left ankle the 2007-2008 offseason. Grant injured his ankle on October 28, 2007 but was able to return after missing two games; the severity of the injury was known by the Saints, but never discussed with the media, Grant admitted that he was not as sharp after the injury. On December 2, 2008, he received a four-game suspension for use of a diuretic, which can be used a masking agent for steroid use, it is believed. Charles Grant was due to be suspended for the first 4 games of the Saints' 2009 season, but the league has delayed suspension pending the outcome of a filed litigation by Kevin Williams and Pat Williams of the Minnesota Vikings, who were accused for using the same diuretic.
After starting at left defensive end throughout the regular season, he went on injured reserve for the playoffs with a torn triceps. Grant was released by the Saints on March 5, 2010. After he left the Saints, Grant appeared on the roster of the Omaha Nighthawks of the United Football League, but he did not join the team once it appeared that he could continue with an NFL career. Grant signed a two-year contract with the Miami Dolphins on July 28, 2010; the Dolphins cut Grant on September 5, 2010. Grant signed with the Omaha Nighthawks of the United Football League on September 21, 2010. Grant signed with the Chicago Bears of the National Football League on October 5, 2010, he was released on October 19. Grant was indicted on a charge of involuntary manslaughter stemming from a February 2008 altercation at a nightclub in which a pregnant woman was shot to death outside a Blakely, Georgia nightclub. Korynda Reed, 23, her unborn fetus died after being taken to the Southeast Alabama Medical Center in Dothan after the fight early in the morning of February 3, 2008.
Grant has said that he was neither a participant in the fight. Grant was arraigned on August 15, 2008; the criminal case was resolved in May 2010 when Grant pleaded guilty to a charge of public affray, he was assessed a $1,000 fine and a year's probation, ordered to pay $20,000 for the cost of the investigation by the sheriff's office. Grant still faced a civil suit by the family of the victim. Charles Grant at NFL.com
Bridlington railway station serves the town of Bridlington in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It is located on the Yorkshire Coast Line and is operated by Northern who provide all passenger train services; the station buffet at Bridlington is one of only three original station buffets left in the UK, provides the prizewinning flower display in the station. The station was opened on 6 October 1846 by the York and North Midland Railway as the terminus of their line running from Hull railway station. An extension northwards to Filey railway station leading to a junction at Seamer railway station connecting with the York to Scarborough Line was opened just over a year later; the original station buildings and platforms were located a few yards to the west of the current station. These consisted of a train shed designed by George Townsend Andrews and similar to his work at Filey and Beverley. Platform 3 was an extension to the original scheme and was a bay platform used for many years by the'Malton Dodger' until the 1950s.
Bridlington expanded as a resort at the start of the 20th century as a result of the railway. Direct trains ran from the industrial heartlands via Market Weighton in the summer; the new holiday market led to a huge expansion of the resort and the need for a larger station to take the long excursion trains. The present concourse and the main platforms date from the 1912 expansion of the station which included Bell's wrought iron canopies over the lengthy platforms 5 and 6. A new roofed concourse was built and the new station entrance included the original canopy from the old entrance. After the First World War, excursion platforms were added to cope with the many special trains. On summer Saturdays the timetable would include through trains to Leeds, the Midlands and Derbyshire; the inter-war period saw the greatest extent of the station complete with engine shed and two turntables with extensive sidings. The fine compact Station Buffet was built at this time. After the Second World War, the excursion market continued to thrive until the early 1960s with the opening of Butlin's at Filey which had its own station.
After the Beeching closures of the Wolds' lines excursions continued but the demand weakened. By the 1980s, rationalisation was overdue as many lines in the station were used except on summer weekends; the timetable was changed to create a regular 30-minute clockface service south of Bridlington with fewer trains to Scarborough. A winter Sunday service was introduced south of Bridlington in the late 1980s. Today's station is a fragment; the original train sheds were removed and replaced by concrete canopies as at Driffield and Pickering during the late 1950s. These original platforms were subsequently demolished; the excursion platforms on the opposite side were taken out of regular use before signalling changes in 2000 that put the line northwards towards Filey & Scarborough under the control of the signal boxes at Bridlington South and Seamer, leaving only three platforms in operation. Platform 8 was reinstated as a siding for a time, but abandoned once again; the buffers and most of the track in the platforms were removed on 1 September 2014 to make way for a Council project for a car park.
Today's station has preserved the wide concourse and the sweeping curved platforms of the 1912 extension, it has many floral displays. The station was designated a Grade II listed building in 2003 and is now recorded in the National Heritage List for England, maintained by Historic England. In July 1958, locomotive No. 62703 Hertfordshire ran into the turntable pit and rolled into its side. The station is staffed part-time, covering approximately'shop hours'. Facilities include ticket office, lost property and car park. Wheelchair access is not complete due to a bridge to platform 4, meaning access to that platform is via a barrow crossing on the track which may require staff assistance. A ticket-vending machine was installed on 26 January 2011, near to the Council Information Point inside the concourse; the station buffet, now managed and licensed serves refreshments, including teas and real ales, is fitted out in'steam era' style. Other parts of the building unused by the railway are now used for local interest groups – the parcel office is now an arts centre run by MIND mental health charity, other parts of the building are used by Bridlington Model Railway Society.
A Selecta Vending Machine is available on platform 5. There is a half-hourly service from the station to Hull on weekdays, with alternate departures continuing to Doncaster and Sheffield or York – some of these are limited stop either side of Hull whilst others serve most intermediate stations en route. In general the stopping pattern of the hourly Sheffield service is Bridlington, Beverley, Hull, Goole, Doncaster and Sheffield. There is one service each way to/from Sheffield that runs via Selby rather than the usual route via Goole. Northbound, there is now a basic hourly service to Scarborough all day since the May 2019 timetable change; this is an improvement on the nine per day each way frequency that operated. On Sundays trains operate hourly to Hull and Scarborough from mid-morning throughout the year, with most of the H
Talokar is a village in the Haripur area of Hazara, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. And is situated at latitude 33.9852778 degrees. Talokar was founded during the 12th or 13th century AD by the Talokar Jatt tribe but in the 17th century became part of Dheri-Talokar, a feudal estate of a prominent family of Tarin; the best-known members of this family include the late Muhammad Habib Khan Tarin, Risaldar, CSI. E Abdus Salim Khan, former ambassador and Omer Salim Khan the poet and scholar. In World War I Talokar and its nearby villages made a big contribution of soldiers to the British Indian Army at that time, around 240 men. Among those people from here who died in action in the Great War, were Jemadar Abdul Latif Khan, IDSM of the 82nd Punjabis, Sowar Ghulam Jan Khan of the 11th Cavalry seconded to Central Indian Horse and Sepoy Sikandar Khan of the 82nd Punjabis, attached to the 58th Vaughan's Rifles. A total of 18 people from here are supposed to have died in the War; the approximate population of the main Talokar village as per 2001 Census was about 4800.
Talokar has 2 small nearby hamlets, which are classed along with it, they had an additional population of 1260, in 2000-2001. It is an agrarian area, despite its proximity to Haripur town and is well known for its fine vegetables and maize crops and orchards of loquats and other fruits. Although the majority of the residents are engaged in farming activities, a large number are in government and military service and some few work in local industries, or work abroad as immigrant labour; the main tribes and ethnic groups here are Awans, various Pashtuns, Gujars, Bhatti Rajputs, some others. In terms of religious practices, the population is overwhelmingly Muslim of the Sunni persuasion; the general level of literacy/education is quite high by Pakistani standards, with schooling for both boys and girls available and, by and large, Talokar is a prosperous, law-abiding and peaceful community, although, in common with the clannish culture of the region, occasional outbursts of violence are evident.
The West of England line is a British railway line from Basingstoke, Hampshire, to Exeter St David's in Devon, England. Passenger services run between Exeter. Despite its historic title, it is not today's principal route from London to the West of England: Exeter and everywhere further west is reached more from London Paddington via the Reading–Taunton line. At Salisbury, the line intersects with the Wessex Main Line; when all sections had been incorporated into the London and South Western Railway, they consisted of the following: Basingstoke to Salisbury Basingstoke to Andover, opened 3 July 1854 Andover to Salisbury, opened 1 May 1857 Branches: Basingstoke and Alton Light Railway opened June 1901, closed 30 May 1936 From Hurstbourne and Andover to Romsey and on to Eastleigh and Southampton: both closed. Link via Longparish opened 1 June 1885. At Andover, junction with the Midland and South Western Junction Railway to Cheltenham Bulford Camp branch Salisbury to Romsey, with a branch to Bournemouth At Salisbury, the Great Western Railway line from Westbury and Bristol had its own terminus: the L&SWR continued the route southeast towards Southampton.
This route is known nowadays as the Wessex Main Line. Between Salisbury and Exeter: Salisbury to Yeovil, opened 2 May 1859 Yeovil to Exeter, opened 19 July 1860 Branches: To Yeovil Town To Chard To Lyme Regis from Axminster To Seaton from Seaton Junction To Sidmouth from Sidmouth Junction To Exmouth from Exmouth Junction near ExeterThe line was downgraded by being singled for long sections west of Salisbury by British Rail; this restricts the number of trains on this section, but passing loops have been added to alleviate this problem. Beyond Exeter, the line continued to Plymouth via Okehampton and Tavistock as the Exeter to Plymouth railway of the LSWR; this line is now closed, with the surviving sections downgraded to branch lines. The section from Exeter to Coleford Junction, near Yeoford, is still in existence as part of the Tarka Line; the Dartmoor Railway still exists as a heritage line and industrial line from Coleford Junction to Okehampton, where the track breaks. Tavistock lacks a rail connection, the final section of the original main line, from Bere Alston, continues to Plymouth as part of the Tamar Valley Line.
Trains between London Waterloo and Exeter run on the South Western Main Line as far as Basingstoke. The West of England Line diverges at a short distance west of Basingstoke. Network Rail splits the line into two sections: the first section from the line's start at Worting Junction to Wilton Junction is classified as "London & SE commuter", while the section from Wilton Junction to Exeter is a "secondary" route; the secondary route west of Salisbury is predominantly single track, but has three sections of double track and four passing loops. The double track sections and passing loops are: a loop just outside Tisbury station, a loop at Gillingham station, double track from Templecombe to Yeovil Junction, a loop at the former Chard Junction station, 3 miles of double track centred on Axminster, a loop at Honiton station, double track from Pinhoe to Exeter; the line's speed limit is 80–90 mph over its whole length from Basingstoke to Exeter. Speed is further limited around the junctions; the first section to Wilton Junction has a listed line speed of 50–90 mph, the secondary section to Exeter has a line speed of 85 mph with parts at 70 mph.
Passenger services are operated by South Western Railway using Class Class 158 trains. They run half-hourly from London to Salisbury and hourly to Exeter, calling at Clapham Junction and/or Woking and most stations between Basingstoke and Exeter St David's, although some smaller stations east of Salisbury and near Exeter have a reduced service; the Network Rail South West Main Line Route Utilisation Strategy recommended building an extended section of double track from Chard Junction to Axminster, a passing loop at Whimple. However, Network Rail's 2008 Route Plan is silent on the Whimple loop; the Axminster Loop is centred on Axminster station, does not extend to Chard Junction as proposed. The line between Basingstoke and Exeter is not electrified. Exeter to Plymouth railway of the LSWR Southern Railway routes west of Salisbury Network Rail Business Plan 2006: Route 3 – South West Main Line Network Rail Business Plan 2006: Route 4 – Wessex Routes Network Rail Business Plan 2006: Route 12 – Reading to Penzance Ordnance Survey R.
V. J. Butt; the Directory of Railway Stations. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens. ISBN 9781852605087. J. H. Lucking. Railways of Dorset: an outline of their establishment and progress from 1825. Lichfield: Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. OCLC 31916. Johnston, Howard. "Unlocking the potential to Exeter". RAIL. No. 329. EMAP Apex Publications. Pp. 20–24. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699