Xerxes I, called Xerxes the Great, was the fourth King of Kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia. Like his father and predecessor Darius I, he ruled the empire at its territorial apex, he ruled from 486 BC until his assassination in 465 BC at the hands of Artabanus, the commander of the royal bodyguard. Xerxes I is notable in Western history for his failed invasion of Greece in 480 BC, his forces temporarily overran mainland Greece north of the Isthmus of Corinth until losses at Salamis and Plataea a year reversed these gains and ended the second invasion decisively. However, Xerxes crushed revolts in Egypt and Babylon. Roman Ghirshman says that, "After this he ceased to use the title of'king of Babylon', calling himself simply'king of the Persians and the Medes'." Xerxes oversaw the completion of various construction projects at Susa and Persepolis. Xerxes is one of the Persian kings identified as Ahasuerus in the biblical Book of Esther. Xérxēs is the Greek and Latin transliteration of the Old Iranian Xšaya-ṛšā, which can be seen by the first part xšaya, meaning "ruling", the second ṛšā, meaning "hero, man".
The name of Xerxes was known in Akkadian as Ḫi-ši-ʾ-ar-šá and in Aramaic as ḥšyʾrš. Xerxes would become a popular name amongst the rulers of the Achaemenid Empire. Xerxes was born to Darius Atossa. Darius and Atossa were both Achaemenids. While Darius was preparing for another war against Greece, a revolt spurred in Egypt in 486 BC due to heavy taxes and the deportation of craftsmen to build the royal palaces at Susa and Persepolis. Under Persian law, the king was required to choose a successor before setting out on dangerous expeditions; when Darius decided to leave, he prepared his tomb at Naqsh-e Rustam and appointed Xerxes, his eldest son by Atossa, as his successor. However, Darius could not lead the campaign due to his failing health and died in October 486 BC at the age of 64. Artobazan claimed the crown as the eldest of all the children. Xerxes was helped by a Spartan king in exile, present in Persia at the time, Eurypontid king Demaratus, who argued that the eldest son does not universally mean they have claim to the crown, as Spartan law states that the first son born while the father is king is the heir to the kingship.
Some modern scholars view the unusual decision of Darius to give the throne to Xerxes to be a result of his consideration of the unique positions that Cyrus the Great and his daughter Atossa enjoyed. Artobazan was born to "Darius the subject", while Xerxes was the eldest son born in the purple after Darius's rise to the throne, Artobazan's mother was a commoner while Xerxes's mother was the daughter of the founder of the empire. Xerxes was crowned and succeeded his father in October–December 486 BC when he was about 36 years old; the transition of power to Xerxes was smooth due again in part to the great authority of Atossa and his accession of royal power was not challenged by any person at court or in the Achaemenian family, or any subject nation. Xerxes crushed revolts in Egypt and Babylon that had broken out the year before, appointed his brother Achaemenes as satrap over Egypt. In 484 BC, according to ancient writers, he outraged the Babylonians by violently confiscating and destroying the statue of Marduk, the hands of which the rightful king of Babylon had to clasp each New Year's Day.
This sacrilege led the Babylonians to rebel in 484 BC and 482 BC, so that in contemporary Babylonian documents, Xerxes refused his father's title of King of Babylon, being named rather as King of Persia and Media, Great King, King of Kings and King of Nations. This comes from the Daiva Inscriptions of Xerxes, lines 6–13. Darius died while in the process of preparing a second army to invade the Greek mainland, leaving to his son the task of punishing the Athenians and Eretrians for their interference in the Ionian Revolt, the burning of Sardis, their victory over the Persians at Marathon. From 483 BC, Xerxes prepared his expedition: The Xerxes Canal was dug through the isthmus of the peninsula of Mount Athos, provisions were stored in the stations on the road through Thrace, two pontoon bridges known as Xerxes' Pontoon Bridges were built across the Hellespont. Soldiers of many nationalities served in the armies of Xerxes from all over his multi-ethnic massive Eurasian-sized empire and beyond, including the Assyrians, Babylonians, Jews, European Thracians, Achaean Greeks, Aegean islanders, Greeks from Pontus, Colchians and many more.
According to the Greek historian Herodotus, Xerxes's first attempt to bridge the Hellespont ended in failure when a storm destroyed the flax and papyrus cables of the bridges. In retaliation, Xerxes ordered the Hellespont whipped three hundred times, had fetters thrown into the water. Xerxes's second attempt to bridge the Hellespont was successful; the Carthaginian invasion of Sicily deprived Greece of the support of the powerful monarchs of Syracuse and Agrigentum. Many smaller Greek states, took the side of the Persians Thessaly and Argos. Xerxes was victorious during the initial battles. Xerxes set out in the spring of 480 B
Sheboygan Falls High School is a public high school located in Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin. It serves students in grades 9 through 12; the school colors are purple and gold and they are referred to as the "Falcons." The school offers many sports such as baseball, cross country, golf, softball, tennis and field, volleyball. The school has a strong history of successful sports teams. Sheboygan Falls has claimed 6 WIAA state championships and 3 Runner Up trophies. 2000 WIAA Division 3 State Champions in Football. The Falcons cruised to a D3 title finishing the season with a 14-0 record including 11 shut-outs; the Falcons averaged 384.1 rushing yards per game and still hold a D3 state championship game record of 469 rushing yards. Sheboygan Falls football has made the playoffs 24 times since 1985. Falls has been the top team in the EWC in 2017, 2016, 2015, 2004, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1997, 1993, 1992, 1990, 1988, 1987, 1985, 1961, 1953, 1952. 1992 WIAA Division 2 Runner Up in Track. 1987 Class B Runner Up in Football.
1983 Class B State Champions in Women's Volleyball. 1979 Class B State Runner Up in Women's Basketball 1975 Class B State Champions in Men's Basketball. 1974 Class B State Champions in Men's Basketball. 1973 State Champions in Summer Baseball. From 2000–2019, high school enrollment declined 16.3%. Enrollment at Sheboygan Falls High School, 2000–2019 Wisconsin Interscholastic Athletic Association http://msryry.com/falcons/2000/fallsstats200.html http://www.wiaawi.org/Portals/0/PDF/Results/Football/State_Records/records.pdf http://www.wiaawi.org/Portals/0/PDF/Results/Football/State_Records/playoffparticipation.pdf http://www.sheboyganpress.com/story/sports/high-school/football/2015/08/18/past-eastern-wisconsin-conference-football-standings/31960431/ Sheboygan Falls High School Old Sheboygan Falls High School Yearbook Senior Photos
Malam Jabba ski resort is a ski resort situated in the Hindu Kush range of the Swat Valley in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan at a top elevation of 2,804 metres. The resort is located in Malam Jabba village, 40 kilometers east of Saidu Sharif and 314 kilometers northwest of Islamabad, it is the oldest ski resort in Pakistan. The Wali of Swat, who at the time was the historic ruler of Swat, would move his court to Malam Jabba annually during the summer months. In the summer of 1962, the visiting Austrian ambassador to Pakistan and good friend of the Wali, suggested that a ski resort be built in Malam Jabba; the Austrian government funded the chairlift and provided skis and boots, while the Pakistani government built a hotel with 50 rooms. Construction of the entire resort finished in 1988, but the resort sat idle for another 10 years because of disputes over whether it should be run by the government or the private sector. In 1999, the government won rights to run the resort. By 2006, over 20,000 people in Swat were employed indirectly by tourism to the region, including the resort.
In 2007, tourism and skiing infrastructure and businesses in Swat took a severe financial burden under Taliban occupation. The resort was converted into a stronghold for militants. In April 2009, Operation Black Thunderstorm was initiated, in a bid to retake control of the valley; as the army closed in on positions on the militants, the ski lift was destroyed and the hotel at the resort was set ablaze. The army retook Swat, but years of uncertainty and mayhem had negatively impacted international skiing in Pakistan. In 2014, the Tourism Corporation Khyber Pakhtunkhwa leased Malam Jabba to the Samson Group of Companies for reconstruction of the ski resort and hotel, in a bid to boost tourism in the area again; that same year the Swat Snow Festival was arranged to showcase rebuilding activities at Malam Jabba. The Norwegian embassy in Islamabad initiated the collection of skis, Pakistani Norwegian businessman and politician Aamir Sheikh helped to collect skis and gloves. Pakistan's Olympic skier Muhammad Karim, who participated in the recent Sochi Olympics, competed in the giant slalom and downhill during the event.
Malam Jabba ski resort is partially functional. The main hotel resort complex will open in 2019. Two 800 meter ski runs 4 chairlifts 60 room five-star hotel 25 room three-star hotel Ice skating rink Ghorband Valley trekking trail Sabonev Valley trekking trail People from Pakistan as well as abroad enjoy the activities here Naltar ski resort Ski Federation of Pakistan