Xhosa language

Xhosa spelled isiXhosa is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants and is one of the official languages of South Africa and Zimbabwe. Xhosa is spoken as a first language by 8.2 million people and by another 11 million as a second language in South Africa in Eastern Cape Province. Xhosa is part of the branch of Nguni languages known as Zunda languages, which include Zulu, Southern Ndebele and Northern Ndebele. Zunda languages form a dialect continuum of variously mutually intelligible varieties. Xhosa is, to some extent, mutually intelligible with Zulu and Northern Ndebele, other Nguni languages to a lesser extent. Nguni languages are, in turn, part of the much larger group of Bantu languages. Xhosa is the most distributed African language in South Africa, though the most spoken African language is Zulu, it is the second most common home language in South Africa as a whole. As of 2003 5.3 million Xhosa-speakers, the majority, live in the Eastern Cape, followed by the Western Cape, the Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, North West, the Northern Cape, Limpopo.

There is a significant Xhosa community of about 200,000 in Zimbabwe. A small community of Xhosa speakers live in Quthing District, Lesotho. Xhosa has several dialects. Maho lists Mpondo, Bomvana, Gcaleka, Mpondomise and Hlubi. Hlubi is the dialect in the former Ciskei. Xhosa has an inventory of ten vowels:, written as a, e, i, o and u in order, all occurring in both long and short. Xhosa is a tonal language with two inherent phonemic tones: high. Tones are marked in the written language, but they can be indicated a, á, â, ä. Long vowels are phonemic but are not written except for â and ä, which are the results of gemination of two vowels, both with different tones. Xhosa is rich in uncommon consonants. Besides pulmonic egressive sounds, which are found in all spoken languages, it has 18 clicks. Xhosa has ejectives and an implosive. Although 15 of the clicks occur in Zulu, they are used less than in Xhosa; the first six are dental clicks, made with the tongue on the back of the teeth, they are similar to the sound represented in English by "tut-tut" or "tsk-tsk" to reprimand someone.

The next six are lateral, made by the tongue at the sides of the mouth, they are similar to the sound used to call horses. The last six are alveolar, made with the tip of the tongue at the roof of the mouth, they sound somewhat like a cork pulled from a bottle; the following table lists the consonant phonemes of the language, with the pronunciation in IPA on the left and the orthography on the right: Two additional consonants, are found in borrowings. Both are spelled r. Two additional consonants, are found in borrowings. Both are spelled zh. Two additional consonants, are found in loans. Both are spelled dz. An additional consonant, is found in loans, it is spelled ngh. In addition to the ejective affricate, the spelling tsh may be used for either of the aspirated affricates and; the breathy voiced glottal fricative is sometimes spelled h. The ejectives tend to be ejective only in careful pronunciation or in salient positions and then, only for some speakers. Otherwise, they tend to be tenuis stops.

The tenuis clicks are glottalised, with a long voice onset time, but, uncommon. The murmured clicks and affricates are only voiced, with the following vowel murmured for some speakers; that is, da may be pronounced. They are better described as slack voiced than as breathy voiced, they are voiced only after nasals, but the oral occlusion is very short in stops, it does not occur at all in clicks. Therefore, the absolute duration of voicing is the same as in tenuis stops; the more notable characteristic is their depressor effect on the tone of the syllable. When consonants are prenasalised, their pronunciation and spelling may change; the murmur no longer shifts to the following vowel. Fricatives become affricated and, if voiceless, they become ejectives as well, at least with some speakers: mf is pronounced, ndl is pronounced, n+hl becomes ntl, n+z becomes ndz, etc; the orthographic b in mb is the voiced plosive. When voiceless clicks are prenasalised, the silent letter k is added to prevent confusion with the nasal clicks nc, nx, nq.

Palatalisation is a change that affects labial consonants whenever they are followed by /j/. While palatalisation occurred it is still productive. Moreover, Xhosa does not tolerate sequences of a labial consonant plus /w/. Whenever /w/ follows a labial consonant, it changes to /j/, which triggers palatalisation of the consonant. In keeping with many other Southern Bantu languages, Xhosa is an agglutinative language, with an array of prefixes and suffixes that are attached to roo

Crime in Poland

Crime in Poland is combated by the Polish police and other agencies. In 2011, Poland had a murder rate of 1.2 per 100,000 population. There were a total of 449 murders in Poland in 2011. In 2014 Poland had a murder rate of 0.7 per 100,000. There were a total 283 murders in Poland in 2014; the most well known of the Polish organized crime groups in the 1990s were the so-called Pruszkow and the Wolomin gangs. The first war against organized crime was won by Poland in the 90’s; this war was aimed at large gangs. The state triumphed and so we no longer have the gangs of Wolomin and Pruszkow,” said Mr Bartłomiej Sienkiewicz at the press conference at the MI. Head of the MI added that at the moment there were about 200 criminal groups operating across Poland which were under constant police monitoring. “For none of them the situation is to return to the one observed in the 90’s” said Minister Bartłomiej Sienkiewicz. Polish organized crime emerged in the 1990s, when the traditional criminal underworld became better organised and due to rising corruption.

Organized crime groups were well known for operating sophisticated car theft-rings, as well as for their involvement in drug trafficking and weapon trafficking. The Pruszków mafia was an organized criminal group that emerged from the Warsaw suburb of Pruszków in the beginning of the 1990s; the group is known for being involved in large car-theft rings, drug trafficking, extortion, weapon trafficking and murder. Though law enforcement dealt a severe blow to the Pruszków mafia, it is alleged that Pruszków-based gangs, with or without notice from their former leaders, have regained their strength in recent years and have begun setting up their car-theft rings and connections with Colombian drug cartels again. A similar organized crime group known as the Wołomin mafia from Wołomin near Warsaw, with whom they fought bloody turf wars, was crushed by the Polish police in cooperation with the German police in a spectacular raid on a highway between Konin and Poznan in September 2011. Poland ranked 30th in the 175 country listing the Corruption Perception Index for 2015.

It is the tenth successive year in which Poland's ranking has improved in the Index. While local organized crime in Poland existed during the interwar period, it has developed since the fall of communism with the introduction of free market system in Poland and the lessening of the police power. Crime in Poland is lower than in many countries of Europe. Surveys conducted in 2005 placed Poland below the European average, with crime victimisation rates lower than in Ireland and Wales, Northern Ireland, Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium and Norway. Newer studies report that the crime victimisation rate in Poland is decreasing, in 2008 Poland was at a low end of 25 among the 36 European countries listed. A 2004 report on security concerns of European Union residents indicated that the Polish public are the most afraid of crime, a finding which does not correlate with the actual crime threat. Football hooliganism in Poland Polish Mob Emil Pływaczewski, Organised Crime in Poland: Its Development from'Real Socialism' to Present Times in Cyrille Fijnaut, Letizia Paoli, Organised Crime in Europe: Concepts and Control Policies in the European Union and Beyond, Springer, 2004, ISBN 1-4020-2615-3 S. P. Bartnicki, CRIME IN POLAND: TRENDS, REGIONAL PATTERNS AND NEIGHBOURHOOD AWARENESS, in David J. Evans, David T. Herbert, The Geography of Crime, Routledge, 1989, ISBN 0-415-00453-5 Carl B.

Klockars, Sanja Kutnjak Ivkovic, Maria R. Haberfeld, Crime in Contemporary Poland in The Contours of Police Integrity, Sage Publications Inc, 2003, ISBN 0-7619-2586-4 Organized crime in poland: how to combat it?, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, Volume 2, Numbers 2-3 / June, 1994, 0928-1371 1572-9869

Penguin General Cemetery

Penguin General Cemetery was gazetted a public cemetery in 1897. It is situated on Main Street, a kilometre west of the town’s Post Office, on land owned by Reverend W. H. Walton of the Primitive Methodist Church. Baby John Lancaster was Penguin's first death, four years after European settlement; the first recorded burial was that of Eliza Ann Hales. She was buried in the cemetery on 23 January 1869, her grave is marked with a headstone. The most complete and up-to-date burial records as well as a detailed plot burial map are available on Council's website. A community meeting on 28 January 1885 established the Penguin Cemetery Trust. Twelve years and many burials the site was gazetted as a public cemetery, known as the Penguin Public Cemetery; the first meeting of the Trust committee was held on 6 January 1886. Meeting minutes indicate that in its earlier days the cemetery was portioned off according to religious denomination, however this is not evident today. Minutes indicate additional lands were purchased as demand grew.

In 1957 the cemetery opened its new section delineating the old from the new. The cemetery closed in 1977. A few burials still take place in the Penguin Cemetery. Penguin General Cemetery was heritage-listed in 2007 under Tasmania’s Historic Cultural Heritage Act 1995, for its evolutionary pattern of Penguin life, its research potential, community significance, associations with Tasmanian history. At rest here are Bounty immigrants of the 1850s, returned soldiers from the Boer and Second World Wars, many of the town’s most notable former residents, as well as former convicts; the Penguin History Group has played a role in the cemetery’s recent history. Checking the cemetery map with the records and headstones began in 1994; this information was compiled by the Penguin History Group and published in 2003 in the Penguin Cemetery Old and New Sections. In 2002 members of the Penguin History Group, with materials donated by Central Coast Council, installed the onsite map and its shelter. A Bi-Centenary grant in 2004 of $3,500 enabled erection of entry gateposts and plot marker plaques.

2006 saw renewed interest in the cemetery, sparked by the chance discovery of a 1915 ‘John Doe’ burial in the records. Buried at the back edge of the cemetery, side-by-side with six other pioneers buried by the state, the discovery generated community interest, which resulted in researching the seven burials and erecting individual gravestones for each. Research suggests the mystery person may have been Jeremiah or Michael Clifford, an Irishman in his 40s; the most comprehensive account of the circumstance of his death comes from the statewide newspaper: The Mercury, under the heading “A bush tragedy – Dead Body Of Man Found – Gunshot Wound To The Head – Supposed Case Of Suicide”. The case for his presumed identity rests on the Police Gazette records; the remains are still unidentified. Much is published on Penguin’s heritage-listed cemetery; this has generated investment in showcasing it as a tourist magnet, including a dedicated small internal garden in memory of the tens of unnamed babies buried in the old section.

Such has been the response to the cemetery's ongoing and widespread publicity that the Tasmanian Association for Hospice & Palliative Care funded the inaugural Penguin Twilight Celebration of the Dead - music among the tombstones. This unusual unique, event held on Wednesday 7 January 2015 at 7pm in the cemetery was well supported by the broader Penguin community, it marked the centenary of the cemetery's unknown burial. The one-hour musical extravaganza, involving pipers, choir, violinist and guitarist had the crowd of 120-150 people meandering around six of the more significant tombstones; the celebration culminated in the magnificent and moving butterfly release in the commemorative garden dedicated to the tens of unnamed babies in the cemetery. Photographic images of all headstones are available online at the Australian Cemeteries Index. Most the Penguin community organized an onsite fundraiser to preserve the cemetery's history; the fundraiser was a Long Table dinner within the cemetery grounds, another unique experience, once again bringing the cemetery alive.

Attended by 36 guests the monies raised go towards commissioning an art-piece in the commemorative garden for the 80 or so unnamed babies buried in the grounds. Penguin's leadership in novel uses for old cemeteries is being emulated across Australia. Most the Penguin community dedicated a sculpture to its many unnamed children buried in the cemetery. Children of the World by Bruny Island artist Keith Smith stands in its small commemorative garden. There have been ghost tours