A prefectural-level municipality, prefectural-level city or prefectural city. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative structure. Administrative chiefs of prefectural level cities have the same rank as a division chief of a national ministry. Since the 1980s, most former prefectures have been renamed into prefectural level cities. A prefectural level city is a "city" and "prefecture" that have been merged into one consolidated and unified jurisdiction; as such it is a city, a municipal entry with subordinate districts, a prefecture with subordinate county-level cities and counties, an administrative division of a province. A prefectural level city is not a "city" in the usual sense of the term, but instead an administrative unit comprising a main central urban area, its much larger surrounding rural area containing many smaller cities and villages; the larger prefectural level cities span over 100 kilometres. Prefectural level cities nearly always contain multiple counties, county level cities, other such sub-divisions.
This results from the fact that the predominant prefectures, which prefectural level cities have replaced, were themselves large administrative units containing cities, smaller towns, rural areas. To distinguish a prefectural level city from its actual urban area, the term 市区 shìqū, is used; the first prefectural level cities were created on 5 November 1983. Over the following two decades, prefectural level cities have come to replace the vast majority of Chinese prefectures. Most provinces are composed or nearly of prefectural level cities. Of the 22 provinces and 5 autonomous regions of the PRC, only 9 provinces and 3 autonomous regions have at least one or more second level or prefectural level divisions that are not prefectural level cities. Criteria that a prefecture must meet to become a prefectural level city: An urban centre with a non-rural population over 250,000 gross output of value of industry of 200,000,000 RMB the output of tertiary industry supersedes that of primary industry, contributing over 35% of the GDP15 large prefectural level cities have been granted the status of sub-provincial city, which gives them much greater autonomy.
Shijiazhuang and Zhengzhou are the largest prefectural level cities with populations approaching or exceeding some sub-provincial cities. A sub-prefecture-level city is a county-level city with powers approaching those of prefectural level cities. There are total of three classification of prefecture-level city: Regular prefectural level city which consist of counties, county level cities, districts subdivisions. Consolidated district-governed prefectural level city which only consist of districts as it subdivisions. There are only 12 cities are under this classification: Ezhou, Guangzhou, Karamay, Sanya, Wuhai, Xiamen, Zhuhai Prefectural level city with no county-level divisions are cities that are not governed by any county-level divisions such as counties, county level cities, or legal administrative districts. There are only 5 cities are under this classification: Danzhou, Jiayuguan, Zhongshan In Europe and North America, cities are represented as points, while counties are represented as areas.
Thus, Indiana is indicated on the map by a point, distinct from, enclosed by, the area of Monroe County, Indiana. In China, large cities such as City of Xianning may, in reality, contain both urban and rural elements. Moreover, they may enclose other cities. On a less detailed map, City of Xianning would be indicated by a point, more or less corresponding to the coordinates of its city government. Other populous areas may be exhibited as points, such as County of Tongshan, with no indication that County of Tongshan is, in fact, enclosed by City of Xianning. On a more detailed map, City of Xianning would be drawn as an area, similar to a county of the United States, County of Tongshan would be drawn as a smaller area within City of Xianning; this convention may lead to difficulty in the identification of places mentioned in older sources. For example, Guo Moruo writes that he was born in Town of Shawan, within Prefecture of Leshan, attended primary school in Town of Jiading. A modern map is unlikely to show either town: Shawan, because it is too small, Jiading, because it is the seat of City of Leshan, is therefore indicated on the map by a point labelled "Leshan."
A more detailed map would show Shawan as a district within City of Leshan, but Jiading would still be missing. Statistics of China such as population and industrial activity are reported along prefectural city lines. Thus, the unknown City of Huangshi has 2.5 million residents, more than most European capitals, but upon closer inspection, the city covers an area 100 kilometers across. Furthermore, Huangshi contains several other cities, such as City of Daye. If a person wished to calculate the population of the urban
Fancheng District is a district of the city of Xiangyang, People's Republic of China. Fancheng was an ancient city in Hubei, situated on the northern side of the Han River, opposite Xiangyang on the southern side of the river. Throughout history, the city has served both military and economic purposes, was famous for numerous battles including the Battle of Fancheng during the Three Kingdoms period and the Siege of Xiangyang during the Mongol invasions. In 1949, Fancheng was merged with Xiangyang to form a prefecture-level city. Fancheng is now a district of that city, encompassing 482.2 km2 and having a population of 630,000, according to a 2004 census. Subdistricts: Hanjiang Subdistrict, Wangzhai Subdistrict, Zhongyuan Subdistrict, Dingzhongmen Subdistrict, Qinghekou Subdistrict, Pingxiangmen Subdistrict, Migong Subdistrict, Shipu Subdistrict, Zizhen Subdistrict, Qilihe Subdistrict, Dongfeng Subdistrict Towns: Niushou, Tuanshan, Mizhuang Official website of Fancheng District Government
Battle of Fancheng
The Battle of Fancheng was fought between the warlords Liu Bei and Cao Cao in 219 in the late Eastern Han dynasty. It was named after Fancheng in present-day Xiangyang City, Hubei, a fortress that played a significant role in the battle. In November 218, Hou Yin, a military officer under Cao Cao, started a rebellion in Wan with his deputy Wei Kai and several thousand troops, they requested help from Guan Yu. By February 219, Cao Ren, a general under Cao Cao, had crushed the rebellion and killed Hou Yin and Wei Kai. Guan Yu did not respond to the rebels' call for assistance. After taking Hanzhong Commandery by defeating Cao Cao in the Hanzhong Campaign in May 219, Liu Bei further expanded his territorial gains in June 219 by sending Meng Da and Liu Feng to take Fangling and Shangyong commanderies. Cao Cao was temporarily forced to be on the defensive after these continuous setbacks and Sun Quan of Jiangdong decided to take the opportunity to attack Cao Cao while his newly defeated men were regrouping and resting.
Realising the imminent attacks of Liu Bei and Sun Quan, Cao Cao planned to launch a preemptive strike on southern Jing Province, the eastern part of Liu Bei's territory defended by Guan Yu. The plan reasoned that Liu Bei could not continue his offensive in the north due to the need to consolidate his new gains, so an attack into southern Jing Province would not be hindered by Liu Bei's invasion elsewhere. However, the plan was called off because Cao Cao's troops still needed time to recover, regroup and re-supply from the campaign to suppress the rebellion of Hou Yin and Wei Kai, as well as from earlier setbacks in the struggles for Hanzhong Commandery; the worn-out troops were not ready for another campaign. In July, 219, Sun Quan mobilised his forces in preparation to attack Hefei, Cao Cao's forces were redeployed to the region to the south of the Huai River to fend off the possible invasion. Seizing the opportunity, Guan Yu decided to launch an offensive of his own against Cao Cao, he ordered Mi Fang and Shi Ren to stay behind to guard Jiangling County and Gong'an County during his absence, while he led Liu Bei's forces in southern Jing Province to attack Cao Cao's strongholds in the north.
The campaign's objective was not stated, but Guan Yu led his army along the Han River northward until he laid siege to Fancheng. From the advance route and the fact that Guan Yu chose to concentrate his main forces on Fancheng, his primary objective was believed to be the conquest of Nanyang Commandery; the cities being attacked were not guarded, as Cao Ren at Fancheng and Lü Chang at Xiangyang were both surrounded. Therefore, Cao Cao ordered Yu Jin to aid Cao Ren. After pitching camp on a lower ground about 4 km north to Fancheng, Yu Jin started to prepare a counteroffensive. Eager to prove his loyalty as he was suspected by others, Cao Cao's general Pang De volunteered to lead a detachment to engage Guan Yu forcing the latter to retreat several times. On one occasion, Pang De fired an arrow. Since Pang De was known and feared among the enemy as "General White Horse" because of the white steed he rode into battle. Although Guan Yu could not defeat Pang De in battle, he held firm control over the water routes around the area and maintained the encirclement of Fancheng.
A few setbacks were far from enough to discourage Guan Yu. In August, heavy rains caused the Han River to flood. Forces under the command of Yu Jin and Pang De were annihilated by the natural disaster, suffering at least 40,000 fatalities, another 30,000 were captured by Guan Yu's navy. Pang De and Yu Jin were both captured. Cao Ren, with several thousand of his surviving troops were forced on the defensive by staying behind the safety of the walls. At the time, Xu Huang, stationed in Wancheng with his force purely consisting of new recruits, was only able to set up defensive fortifications instead of venturing out to relieve Cao Ren. Sensing the tides changing, the Inspector of Jing Province, Hu Xiu, Cao Cao's Administrator of Nan Town, Fu Fang, both defected to Guan Yu; the rebel leaders of Liang and Luhun counties officially accepted Guan Yu's command. Guan Yu's threat to Cao Cao after his initial success was so immense that Cao Cao once considered relocating the capital; when Cao Cao asked his advisers for input, Sima Yi and Jiang Ji opposed.
They pointed out that the alliance between Liu Bei and Sun Quan was shaky at the best due to the feuding over control of Jing Province, Sun Quan would be unhappy to see Guan Yu's success. They suggested that Cao Cao send an emissary to Sun Quan to recognise the latter's control over Jiangnan should Sun Quan agree to flank Guan Yu's rear. Sun Quan sent an emissary to Guan Yu relating his wish for a marriage be arranged between his own son and Guan's daughter. However, Guan Yu insulted the emissary and rejected the marriage proposal, infuriating Sun Quan, an ally Liu Bei could not afford to lose; the initial victory proved to be the prelude to catastrophe for Guan Yu because it had made him overconfident. Guan Yu lacked the experience to handle a huge army one with the s
Sun Jian, courtesy name Wentai, was a military general and warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He allied himself with Yuan Shu in 190 when warlords from eastern China formed a coalition to oust Dong Zhuo, a tyrannical warlord who held the puppet Emperor Xian in his power. Although he controlled neither many troops nor much land, Sun Jian's personal bravery and resourcefulness were feared by Dong Zhuo, who placed him among Yuan Shao, Yuan Shu and Liu Biao as the most influential men at that time. After the coalition disbanded in the next year, China fell into massive civil war. In 191, Sun Jian was killed in battle during an offensive campaign against Liu Biao. Sun Jian was the father of Sun Quan, one of the central figures of the Three Kingdoms era who established the Eastern Wu state and declared himself its first emperor in 229, whereupon Sun Jian was given the posthumous title "Emperor Wulie". Sun Jian was born in Wu Commandery, in present day Fuyang, Zhejiang.
He was a descendant of Sun Tzu, the author of The Art of War. No more immediate records survive, indicating his family played a small part during the Han dynasty, his father's name is unrecorded, although a folk tradition gives it as Sun Zhong. Sun Jian was a civil official in his home county during his youth; when he was 16, Sun Jian travelled with his father to Qiantang, where they encountered a band of pirates dividing up their spoils on land. Sun Jian jumped on shore with a sabre in hand and pointed in different directions as if commanding a detachment of soldiers to surround the pirates. Seeing this, the pirates fled. Sun Jian pursued, only after taking the head of every pirate did he return, his name henceforth spread. In 184, the Yellow Turban Rebellion led by Zhang Jiao broke out across the country. Sun Jian joined the general Zhu Jun to quell the rebellion in Yu Province; the soldiers fought hard. Sun Jian climbed onto the city walls alone; the rest swarmed in and defeated the rebels. Around this time, Bian Zhang and Han Sui colluded with the Qiang tribes and rebelled in Liang Province.
After Dong Zhuo failed to put down the rebellion, the central government sent in his place the Minister of Works Zhang Wen, who invited Sun Jian along as an adviser. When Zhang Wen summoned Dong Zhuo to the encampment at Chang'an, Dong Zhuo procrastinated and took a long time to arrive; when he did, he showed little respect for Zhang Wen. Sun Jian advised Zhang Wen to execute Dong Zhuo, but Zhang Wen declined as Dong Zhuo held high reputation in the west. Despite scoring a major victory against the rebels at Meiyang, Zhang Wen could not press their advantage and the rebellion was still not quelled. Zhang Wen and the rest returned to the capital Luoyang in disgrace and thus. Meanwhile, another local-scale rebellion broke out near Changsha Commandery and the rebels besieged the city. Sun Jian was appointed as the Administrator of Changsha Commandery. Within a month upon taking up office, Sun Jian had quelled the rebellion. Meanwhile, rebellions broke out in the neighbouring commanderies of Lingling and Guiyang.
Sun Jian defeated the rebel leaders Ou Xing, Zhou Chao and Guo Shi, suppressed both rebellions. The Han imperial court enfeoffed as the Marquis of Wucheng in recognition of his contributions. In 189, Emperor Ling died, leaving his young son in the care of Empress Dowager He and General-in-Chief He Jin, he Jin summoned Dong Zhuo to lead troops into the capital to assist in a plot to eliminate the powerful eunuch faction. Before Dong Zhuo arrived, however, He Jin was assassinated by the eunuchs and Luoyang fell into chaos following a clash between supporters of both sides. Dong Zhuo seized military control of the capital and deposed the young emperor for the puppet Emperor Xian. However, his tyrannical ways incurred the wrath of many and in the following year, warlords from eastern China formed a coalition against him. Sun Jian raised an army and joined Yuan Shu, one of the leaders of the coalition at Luyang. On his way, he killed Administrator of Nanyang Zhang Zi. Yuan Shu appointed Sun Jian as General Who Destroys Inspector of Yu Province.
Sun Jian began training and preparing his troops at Luyang. A force sent by Dong Zhuo was so impressed with the strict discipline of Sun Jian's troops that they gave up the plan to attack Luyang; when Sun Jian moved out to Liangdong, he was outnumbered by Dong Zhuo's forces. With several dozen horsemen, Sun Jian broke out of the encirclement, he took off the red felt scarf he had always been wearing and handed it to his trusted aide Zu Mao, whom Dong Zhuo's soldiers chased after while Sun Jian escaped. Unable to shake off his pursuers, Zu Mao dismounted, hung the scarf onto a half-burnt pillar, hid himself in the tall grass nearby; the enemies surrounded the pillar and approached cautiously till they realised they had been fooled, whereupon they retreated. After regrouping his troops, Sun Jian pressed his troops towards Luoyang and engaged in battle against Dong Zhuo's forces at Yangren, he scored a brilliant victory and kil
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region. The name of the province means "north of the lake", referring to its position north of Dongting Lake; the provincial capital is Wuhan, a major transportation thoroughfare and the political and economic hub of Central China. Hubei is abbreviated to "鄂", an ancient name associated with the eastern part of the province since the State of E of the Western Zhou dynasty, while a popular name for Hubei is "楚", after the powerful State of Chu that existed in the area during the Eastern Zhou dynasty, it borders Henan to the north, Anhui to the east, Jiangxi to the southeast, Hunan to the south, Chongqing to the west, Shaanxi to the northwest. The high-profile Three Gorges Dam is located in the west of the province; the Hubei region was home to sophisticated Neolithic cultures. By the Spring and Autumn period, the territory of today's Hubei was part of the powerful State of Chu. Chu was nominally a tributary state of the Zhou dynasty, it was itself an extension of the Chinese civilization that had emerged some centuries before in the north.
During the Warring States period Chu became the major adversary of the upstart State of Qin to the northwest, which began to assert itself by outward expansionism. As wars between Qin and Chu ensued, Chu lost more and more land: first its dominance over the Sichuan Basin its heartland, which correspond to modern Hubei. In 223 BC Qin chased down the remnants of the Chu regime, which had fled eastwards, as part of Qin's bid for the conquest of all China. Qin founded the Qin dynasty in the first unified state in the region. Qin was succeeded by the Han dynasty in 206 BC, which established the province of Jingzhou in what is now Hubei and Hunan; the Qin and Han played an active role in the agricultural colonization of Hubei, maintaining a system of river dikes to protect farmland from summer floods. Towards the end of the Han dynasty in the beginning of the 3rd century, Jingzhou was ruled by regional warlord Liu Biao. After his death, Liu Biao's realm was surrendered by his successors to Cao Cao, a powerful warlord who had conquered nearly all of north China.
Liu Bei took control of Jingzhou. The incursion of northern nomadic peoples into the region at the beginning of the 4th century began nearly three centuries of division into a nomad-ruled north and a Han Chinese-ruled south. Hubei, to the South, remained under southern rule for this entire period, until the unification of China by the Sui dynasty in 589. In 617 the Tang dynasty replaced Sui, on the Tang dynasty placed what is now Hubei under several circuits: Jiangnanxi Circuit in the south. After the Tang dynasty disintegrated in the 10th century, Hubei came under the control of several regional regimes: Jingnan in the center, Wu to the east, the Five Dynasties to the north; the Song dynasty reunified the region in 982 and placed most of Hubei into Jinghubei Circuit, a longer version of Hubei's current name. Mongols conquered the region in 1279, under their rule the province of Huguang was established, covering Hubei and parts of Guangdong and Guangxi. During the Mongol rule, in 1334, Hubei was devastated by an outbreak of the Black Death, striking England and Italy by June 1348, which according to Chinese sources spread during the following three centuries to decimate populations throughout Eurasia.
The Ming dynasty drove out the Mongols in 1368. Their version of Huguang province was smaller, corresponded entirely to the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan combined. While Hubei was geographically removed from the centers of the Ming power. During the last years of the Ming, today's Hubei was ravaged several times by the rebel armies of Zhang Xianzhong and Li Zicheng; the Manchu Qing dynasty which had much of the region in 1644, soon split Huguang into the modern provinces of Hubei and Hunan. The Qing dynasty, continued to maintain a Viceroy of Huguang, one of the most well-known being Zhang Zhidong, whose modernizing reforms made Hubei into a prosperous center of commerce and industry; the Huangshi/Daye area, south-east of Wuhan, became an important center of metallurgy. In 1911 the Wuchang Uprising took place in modern-day Wuhan, overthrowing the Qing dynasty and establishing the Republic of China. In 1927 Wuhan became the seat of a government established by left-wing elements of the Kuomintang, led by Wang Jingwei.
During World War II the eastern parts of Hubei were conquered and occupied by Japan while the western parts remained under Chinese control. During the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s, Wuhan saw fighting between rival Red Guard factions. In July 1967, civil strife struck the city in the Wuhan Incident, an armed conflict between two hostile groups who were fighting for control over the city at the height of the Cultural Revolution; as the fears of a nuclear war increased during the time of Sino-Soviet border conflicts in the late 1960s, t
Liu Biao, courtesy name Jingsheng, was a government official and warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He is best known for serving as the Governor of Jing Province from 192 until his death in 208, he was a member of the extended family of the Han emperors through his ancestor Liu Yu, the fifth son of Emperor Jing. Liu Biao was over eight chi tall; when the Han dynasty was consumed with war following the Yellow Turban Rebellion in 184, Liu Biao held the governorship of Jing Province. Liu Biao started a war against the warlord Yuan Shu and his minor vassal, Sun Jian. During the Battle of Xiangyang, Sun Jian was put in command of an army on Yuan Shu's orders to assault Liu Biao in Jing Province. Liu Biao appointed Huang Zu to command the forces against Sun Jian. Huang Zu was outmaneuvered by Sun Jian, but the latter was hit by an arrow and killed ending the battle in favour of Liu Biao's forces. Years after, Sun Jian's two eldest sons, Sun Ce and Sun Quan, caused Liu Biao no end of trouble as they sought to avenge their father's death.
However, they did not cause Liu Biao's demise as they targeted Huang Zu, a general under Liu Biao, instead of Liu Biao himself. While Cao Cao was gaining strength, Liu Biao chose to neither help nor hinder his conquests, in part because he had been dealt a defeat against the forces of Sun Ce at the Battle of Shaxian. Around 200 CE, after Cao Cao's total victory over the rival warlord Yuan Shao at the Battle of Guandu, Liu Biao still remained neutral, despite being one of the only other warlords in a position to oppose the two powers. Liu Biao, however decided to shelter Liu Bei, an enemy of Cao Cao and relative in deep lineage when Cao Cao defeated Yuan Shao, where Liu Bei was sheltered after the events of 198; this made Liu Biao a target of Cao Cao's wrath due to the fact Liu Bei rebelled against Cao Cao just before the war against Yuan Shao. After Cao Cao finalised his unification of northern China in 208, he led a large army south to conquer Jing Province. With a decline in relations between Liu Biao and Liu Bei, as a result of the meddling of Cai Mao's family, Liu Biao's people faced much difficulty.
To make matters worse, Sun Quan's army had defeated and killed Huang Zu at the Battle of Jiangxia and destroyed Liu Biao's defences to the east. Shortly after Cao Cao's main army began its offensive, Liu Biao died of illness. Liu Biao's successor, his younger son Liu Cong, chose to surrender instead of resisting Cao Cao's invasion. Liu Biao's elder son, Liu Qi, who had had some disagreement with Liu Cong, joined the fleeing Liu Bei, leading to the Battle of Red Cliffs; the aftermath of that battle split Liu Biao's former domain between the three resulting power blocs. Jing Province continued to be a flash point throughout the remaining years of the Han dynasty and well into the Three Kingdoms period, due to its strategic position between all three warring factions, with multiple battles and campaigns fought for control of the province. Liu Biao's first wife, Lady Chen, bore him two sons: Liu Cong, she died early so Liu Biao took a second wife, Lady Cai from the influential Cai family in Xiangyang.
As Liu Cong married Lady Cai's niece, the Cai family favoured him and wanted him to succeed his father as the Governor of Jing Province though Liu Qi, being the elder son, should be the rightful successor. A sibling rivalry developed between Liu Qi. Around mid-208, Liu Qi found an excuse to leave Xiangyang and serve as the Administrator of Jiangxia Commandery. After Liu Biao's death in late 208, Liu Cong became the new Governor of Jing Province with the support of the Cai family; that year, he surrendered to the warlord Cao Cao when the latter led his forces to attack Jing Province. Cao Cao appointed him as the Inspector of Qing Province. On the other hand, Liu Qi, in Jiangxia Commandery, became an ally of Cao Cao's rivals Liu Bei and Sun Quan at the Battle of Red Cliffs in the winter of 208–209. After the battle, Liu Bei nominated Liu Qi to be the nominal Inspector of Jing Province, but Liu Qi died of illness that year. Liu Biao had at least one more son, Liu Xiu, a daughter. Liu Xiu followed Liu Cong when the latter surrendered to Cao Cao and went to Qing Province to serve as the provincial Inspector.
In 210, Liu Xiu was appointed as the Administrator of Dong'an Commandery. He composed a number of poems and formal hymns. Liu Biao's daughter bore Wang Ye. Liu Biao had two nephews: Liu Hu. Liu Pan participated in the battles against rival warlord Sun Ce under the command of Huang Zu, the Administrator of Jiangxia Commandery, he was defeated in battle by a general under Sun Ce. After Liu Biao pacified Changsha Commandery, he put Liu Pan and Huang Zhong in charge of guarding the commandery, it is not known. In the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Liu Pan came to serve Liu Bei through Huang Zhong's recommendation. Liu Hu participated in the Battle of Shaxian against Sun Ce under Huang Zu's leadership. Although many of Liu Biao's subordinates who fought in the battle were killed in action, it is not known whether Liu Hu was one of them. Lists of people of the Three Kingdoms Chen, Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms