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Xinjiang

Xinjiang the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in the far northwest of the country. Being the largest province-level division of China and the 8th largest country subdivision in the world, Xinjiang spans over 1.6 million km2. The Aksai Chin region, administered by China as part of Xinjiang's Hotan Prefecture, is claimed by India. Xinjiang borders the countries of Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and India; the rugged Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges occupy much of Xinjiang's borders, as well as its western and southern regions. Xinjiang borders the Tibet Autonomous Region and the provinces of Gansu and Qinghai; the most well-known route of the historical Silk Road ran through the territory from the east to its northwestern border. In recent decades, abundant oil and mineral reserves have been found in Xinjiang and it is China's largest natural-gas-producing region, it is home to a number of ethnic groups, including the Uyghur, Kazakhs, Hui, Kyrgyz, Mongols and Xibe.

More than a dozen autonomous prefectures and counties for minorities are in Xinjiang. Older English-language reference works refer to the area as Chinese Turkestan. Xinjiang is divided into the Dzungarian Basin in the north and the Tarim Basin in the south by a mountain range. Only about 9.7% of Xinjiang's land area is fit for human habitation. With a documented history of at least 2,500 years, a succession of people and empires have vied for control over all or parts of this territory; the territory came under the rule of the Qing dynasty in the 18th century, replaced by the Republic of China government. Since 1949, it has been part of the People's Republic of China following the Chinese Civil War. In 1954, Xinjiang Bingtuan was set up to strengthen the border defense against the Soviet Union and promote the local economy. In 1955, Xinjiang was turned into an autonomous region from a province. In the last decades, the East Turkestan independent movement, separatist conflict and the influence of radical Islam have both resulted in unrest in the region, with occasional terrorist attacks and clashes between separatist and government forces.

The general region of Xinjiang has been known by many different names in earlier times, in indigenous languages as well as other languages. These names include Altishahr, the historical Uyghur name, as well as Khotan, Chinese Tartary, High Tartary, East Chagatay, Kashgaria, Little Bokhara, and, in Chinese, "Western Regions". In Chinese, under the Han dynasty, Xinjiang was known as Xiyu, meaning "Western Regions". Between the 2nd century BCE and 2nd century CE the Han Empire established the Protectorate of the Western Regions or Xiyu Protectorate in an effort to secure the profitable routes of the Silk Road; the Western Regions during the Tang era were known as Qixi. Qi refers to the Gobi Desert; the Tang Empire had established the Protectorate General to Pacify the West or Anxi Protectorate in 640 to control the region. During the Qing dynasty, the northern part of Xinjiang, Dzungaria was known as Zhunbu and the southern Tarim Basin was known as Huijiang before both regions were merged and became the region of "Xiyu Xinjiang" simplified as "Xinjiang".

The current Mandarin Chinese-derived name Xinjiang, which means "New Frontier", "New Borderland" or "New Territory", was given during the Qing dynasty by the Qianlong Emperor. According to Chinese statesman Zuo Zongtang's report to the Emperor of Qing, Xinjiang means an "old land newly returned", or the new old land.. The term was given to other areas conquered by Chinese empires, for instance, present-day Jinchuan County was known as "Jinchuan Xinjiang'". In the same manner, present-day Xinjiang was known as Gansu Xinjiang; the name "East Turkestan" is used in the diaspora communities today, refers to the independent republic of East Turkestan. The name was created by Russian sinologist Hyacinth to replace the term "Chinese Turkestan" in 1829. "East Turkestan" was used traditionally to only refer to the Tarim Basin in the south, the modern Xinjiang area and Dzungaria being excluded. In 1955, Xinjiang Province was renamed "Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region"; the name, proposed was "Xinjiang Autonomous Region".

Saifuddin Azizi, the first chairman of Xinjiang, registered his strong objections to the proposed name with Mao Zedong, arguing that "autonomy is not given to mountains and rivers. It is given to particular nationalities." As a result, the administrative region would be named "Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region". Xinjiang consists of two main geographically and ethnically distinct regions with different historical names, Dzungaria north of the Ti

Proteales

Proteales is the botanical name of an order of flowering plants consisting of two families. The Proteales have been recognized by all taxonomists. In the classification system of Dahlgren the Proteales were in the superorder Proteiflorae; the APG II system of 2003 recognizes this order, places it in the clade eudicots with this circumscription: order Protealesfamily Nelumbonaceae family Proteaceae with "+..." = optionally separate family. The APG III system of 2009 followed this same approach, but favored the narrower circumscription of the three families recognizing three families in Proteales: Nelumbonaceae and Proteaceae; the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, suggests the addition of Sabiaceae, not placed in an order in the eudicots in the APG III system, would be sensible. The APG IV system of 2016 added family Sabiaceae to the order. Well-known members of the Proteales include the proteas of South Africa, the banksias and macadamias of Australia, the London plane, the sacred lotus; the origins of the order are ancient, with evidence of diversification in the mid-Cretaceous, over 100 million years ago.

Of interest are the current family distributions, with the Proteaceae a Southern Hemisphere family, while the Platanaceae and Nelumbonaceae are Northern Hemisphere plants. This represents a slight change from the APG system of 1998, which did accept family Platanaceae as separate, using this circumscription of the order: order Protealesfamily Nelumbonaceae family Platanaceae family Proteaceae family Sabiaceae The Cronquist system of 1981 recognized such an order and placed it in subclass Rosidae in class Magnoliopsida, it used this circumscription: order Protealesfamily Elaeagnaceae family Proteaceae The Dahlgren system and Thorne system recognized such an order and placed it in superorder Proteanae in subclass Magnoliidae. The Engler system, in its update of 1964 recognized this order and placed it in subclass Archichlamydeae of class Dicotyledoneae; the Wettstein system, last revised in 1935, recognized this order and placed it in the Monochlamydeae in subclass Choripetalae of class Dicotyledones.

These systems used the following circumscription: order Protealesfamily Proteaceae

The Structure of Evolutionary Theory

The Structure of Evolutionary Theory is Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould's technical book on macroevolution and the historical development of evolutionary theory. The book was twenty years in the making, published just two months before Gould's death. Aimed at professionals, the volume is divided into two parts; the first is a historical study of classical evolutionary thought, drawing extensively upon primary documents. According to Gould, classical Darwinism encompasses three essential core commitments: Agency, the unit of selection upon which natural selection acts. Gould described these three propositions as the "tripod" of Darwinian central logic, each being so essential to the structure that if any branch were cut it would either kill, revise, or superficially refurbish the whole structure—depending on the severity of the cut. According to Gould "substantial changes, introduced during the last half of the 20th century, have built a structure so expanded beyond the original Darwinian core, so enlarged by new principles of macroevolutionary explanation, that the full exposition, while remaining within the domain of Darwinian logic, must be construed as different from the canonical theory of natural selection, rather than extended."

In the arena of agency, Gould explores the concept of "hierarchy" in the action of evolution. In the arena of efficacy he explores the forces beside natural selection that have been considered in evolutionary theory. In the arena of scope he considers the relevance of natural selection to the larger scale patterns of life. Gould was motivated to write the book by contrasting the opinions of Darwin and Hugh Falconer about the future of Darwinism. Part I of the book focuses on the early history of evolutionary thought. Chapter one introduces and outlines the Structure of Evolutionary Theory, with chapter two covering the structure of The Origin of Species, chapter three focusing on issues surrounding agency, chapters four and five covering efficacy, chapters six and seven covering scope. Part II -- comprising the bulk of the text -- focuses on debate. Chapters eight and nine cover agency, while chapters ten and eleven cover efficacy, twelve covers scope. Sections of the book dealing with punctuated equilibrium chapter nine, have been posthumously reprinted as a separate volume by Belknap Harvard.

Harvard's promotional page Punctuated Equilibrium's Threefold History - book excerpt Charlie Rose, March 1, 1994 - Gould discusses the purpose of the book Of Beauty and Consolation - Gould on writing Structure The Structure of Evolutionary Theory - profile page with introduction and reviews