In Aztec mythology, Xolotl was a god associated with both lightning and death. He was associated with the sunset and would guard the Sun as it traveled through the underworld every night. Dogs were associated with Xolotl; this deity and a dog were believed to lead the soul on its journey to the underworld. He was depicted as a monstrous dog. Xolotl was the god of lightning, he was god of twins, misfortune and deformities. Xolotl is the canine twin of Quetzalcoatl, the pair being sons of the virgin Coatlicue, he is the dark personification of Venus, the evening star, was associated with heavenly fire. Xolotl was the sinister god of monstrosities who wears the spirally-twisted wind jewel and the ear ornaments of Quetzalcoatl, his job was to protect the sun from the dangers of the underworld. As a double of Quetzalcoatl, he carries his conch-like wind jewel. Xolotl accompanied Quetzalcoatl to Mictlan, the land of the dead, or the underworld, to retrieve the bones from those who inhabited the previous world to create new life for the present world, Nahui Ollin, the sun of movement.
In a sense, this re-creation of life is reenacted every night when Xolotl guides the sun through the underworld. In the tonalpohualli, Xolotl rules over trecena 1-Cozcacuauhtli, his empty eye sockets are explained in the legend of Teotihuacan, in which the gods decided to sacrifice themselves for the newly created sun. Xolotl wept so much his eyes fell out of their sockets. According to the creation recounted in the Florentine Codex, after the Fifth Sun was created, it did not move. Ehecatl began slaying all other gods to induce the newly created Sun into movement. Xolotl, was unwilling to die in order to give movement to the new Sun. Xolotl transformed himself into a young maize plant with two stalks, a doubled maguey plant, an amphibious animal. Xolotl is thus a master transformer. In the end, Ehecatl succeeded in killing Xolotl. In art, Xolotl was depicted as a dog-headed man, a skeleton, or a deformed monster with reversed feet. An incense burner in the form of a skeletal canine depicts Xolotl.
As a psychopomp, Xolotl would guide the dead on their journey to Mictlan the afterlife in myths. His two spirit animal forms are the Xoloitzcuintli dog and the water salamander species known as the Axolotl. Xolos served as companions to the Aztecs in this life and in the after-life, as many dog remains and dog sculptures have been found in Aztec burials, including some at the main temple in Tenochtitlan. Dogs were subject to ritual sacrifice so that they could accompany their master on his voyage through Mictlan, the underworld, their main duty was to help their owners cross a deep river. It is possible that dog sculptures found in burials were intended to help people on this journey. Xoloitzcuintli is the official name of the Mexican Hairless Dog, a pre-Columbian canine breed from Mesoamerica dating back to over 3500 years ago; this is one of many native dog breeds in the Americas and it is confused with the Peruvian Hairless Dog. The name "Xoloitzcuintli" references Xolotl because this dog's mission was to accompany the souls of the dead in their journey into eternity.
The name "Axolotl" comes from the Aztec language. One translation of the name connects the Axolotl to Xolotl; the most common translation is "water-dog". "Atl" for water and "Xolotl" for dog. In the Aztec calendar, the ruler of the day, Itzcuintli, is Mictlantecuhtli, the god of death and lord of Mictlan, the afterlife. Xolotl is sometimes depicted carrying a torch in the surviving Maya codices, which reference the Maya tradition that the dog brought fire to mankind. In the Mayan codices, the dog is conspicuously associated with the god of death and lightning. Xolotl appears to have affinities with the Zapotec and Maya lightning-dog, may represent the lightning which descends from the thundercloud, the flash, the reflection of which arouses the misconceived belief that lightning is "double", leads them to suppose a connection between lightning and twins. Xolotl originated in the southern regions, may represent fire rushing down from the heavens or light flaming up in the heavens. Xolotl was the name for lightning beast of the Maya tribe taking the form of a dog.
The dog plays an important role in Maya manuscripts. He is the lightning beast. Xolotl is represented directly as a dog, is distinguished as the deity of air and of the four directions of the wind by Quetzalcoatl's breast ornament. Xolotl is to be considered equivalent to the beast darting from heaven of the Maya manuscript; the dog is the animal of the therefore of the Place of Shadows. Eduard Seler associates Xolotl's portrayal as a dog with the belief that dogs accompany the souls of the dead to Mictlan, he finds further evidence of the association between Xolotl, dogs and Mictlan in the fact that Mesoamericans viewed twins as unnatural monstrosities and commonly killed one of the two twins shortly after birth. Seler speculates that Xolotl represents the murdered twin who dwells in the darkness of Mictlan, while Quetzalcoatl represents the surviving twin who dwells in the light of the sun. In manuscripts the setting sun, devoured by the earth, is opposite Xolotl's image. Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl constitute the twin phases of Venus as the morning and evening star, respectively.
Quetzalcoatl as the morning star acts as the harbinger of the Sun's r
The John Lennon Educational Tour Bus was founded in 1998 as a non-profit 501 organization "committed to reaching youth through music and video". While corporately based in New York City, the mission of the organization is carried out through a traveling bus, an audio and video recording studio on wheels. With the newest technology and gear, the Bus continues to be dedicated to providing young people with tours of the studios and participation in free songwriting and multimedia production workshops. With the assistance of three on-board engineers, students learn how to write and record original songs, plus produce and shoot music videos or documentaries, completing a broadcast-quality production in a single visit; the Bus is adaptable, designed to provide students, their schools and communities with performances, remote recordings, studio sessions customized for their needs, levels of experience and interest. The Bus travels the country visiting schools and technology conferences and events, partners with newspapers and other media to host Battles of the Bands with the national winner selected online.
The Bus is able to produce live multi-camera video productions streamed to the web in real-time. All projects created on board are available for viewing on lennonbus.org, YouTube, Facebook. The Bus travels from coast to coast, making stops at K-12 schools, universities and Girls Clubs, trade shows, music festivals and more. At most stops the staff conducts free tours while providing an opportunity for a group of youths to record an original song and video; each stop culminates in a community celebration and screening of the music and video just produced on the Bus. At some of its school visits, the Bus organizes a Battle of the Bands where students can engage in a friendly competition and the winning band may receive prizes; the Bus has co-produced a course with the Digital Media Academy, offered at several universities each summer, called "Come Together: Music and Video Production." Requests for the Bus to stop at schools and communities across the U. S. are accepted at any time, but the high volume of requests that the staff receives results in the unfortunate reality that not all requests can be accommodated.
The Bus and its staff strive to reach as many people as possible in order to further music education. The Bus' interior is divided into three separate studio environments that can be opened to create one large studio; the front studio is an audio and video production room. The rear studio offers recording and mixing, as well as an iso booth for acoustic recordings, a Chromatte booth. Featuring Apple audio and video solutions, the studios are powered by Apple computers. Yamaha instruments including guitars and drums are included; the Lennon Bus is connected to the professional recording industry. Recording artists, including will.i.am, Natasha Bedingfield and Justin Timberlake have recorded on the Bus and participated in outreach programs. In addition to isolated recording sessions, the Bus has accompanied headlining artists, such as The Black Eyed Peas, on their concert tours, allowing these artists to continue working on their records while they are on the road. Participants like Black Eyed Peas guitarist George Pajon and musical director Printz Board find time to inspire and be inspired.
In 2006, The George Lucas Educational Foundation, featured the John Lennon Educational Tour Bus on Edutopia.org. Edutopia's video, "Making the Dreams of Young Musical Artists a Reality", article, "Rock and Roll into Town: Students Make Tracks in a Recording Studio on Wheels", follow the bus' progress and interviews executive director, Brian Rothschild; the article and video showcase student musical progress from the bus' instrumental and digital resources. The John Lennon Educational Tour Bus is made possible by Yoko Ono Lennon and the following sponsors and contributors: Canon U. S. A. Inc. Apple, Inc. Juniper Networks, Other World Computing, Securematics, Line 6, The NAMM Foundation, SESAC, Digital Media Academy, Audio-Technica, Sonnet Technologies, Avid, SSL, NewTek, TodoCast, IP Access, Viprinet, Baker & McKenzie, Clear-Com, Anton/Bauer, AJA, Applied Acoustics Systems, Mobile Roadie, McDSP, Native Instruments, IK Multimedia, Noise Industries, iZotope, Mad Mimi, Mackie, Guitar Player, Bass Player, Electronic Musician, Keyboard Magazine, SKB, LiveU
St. Maria Lyskirchen is one of twelve Romanesque churches in Cologne, Germany. St. Maria Lyskirchen is the smallest of the twelve Romanesque churches in Cologne, it was founded in 948, the present building dates from 1210–20, with some additions in the Gothic style. The upper parts of the west front were rebuilt in the 19th century; the church is in the form of a three-aisled basilica, with a chancel flanked by two towers, only one of, constructed to its full height, an eastern apse. The building received only minor damage during the wars; the church has a sculptured Romanesque portal, a cycle of 13th century ceiling paintings. Rediscovered in the 19th century, they are unique in Cologne and show stories from the Old and New Testaments; the church contains the "Schiffermadonna", a wooden statue of 1420. A triptych by Joos van Cleve, with a central panel of the Lamentation, was sold in 1812. Twelve Romanesque churches of Cologne Cologne Cathedral German architecture Romanesque architecture List of regional characteristics of Romanesque churches Romanesque secular and domestic architecture Hiltrud Kier: Via Sacra zu Fuß, Kölns Städtebau und die Romanischen Kirchen.
Bachem Verlag, Köln 2003 ISBN 3-7616-1704-6. Ulrich Krings, Otmar Schwab: Köln: Die Romanischen Kirchen – Zerstörung und Wiederherstellung. Reihe Stadtspuren Bd. 2, Köln, Bachem Verlag, 2007. Sybille Fraquelli: Zwölf Tore zum Himmel. Kinder entdecken: Die Romanischen Kirchen in Köln. J. P. Bachem Verlag, Köln 2007. ISBN 978-3-7616-2148-6 Hiltrud Kier und Ulrich Krings: Die Romanischen Kirchen in Köln, Köln, 3. Auflage 1986. Sabine Czymmek: Die Kölner Romanischen Kirchen, Schatzkunst, Bd. 1, Köln 2008, Bd. 2, Köln 2009 Förderverein Romanische Kirchen Köln e. V. Romanesque churches of Cologne on Sacred Destinations Romanesque churches on Cologne-Tourism
Unipol Assicurazioni was a subsidiary incorporated in 2007 to receive the assets from Unipol Gruppo Finanziario. On 6 January 2014 it was merged with other insurance companies to form UnipolSai. Found as Nuova Unipol Assicurazioni in late 2006. On 1 September 2007 Unipol Assicurazioni was renamed to Unipol Gruppo Finanziario, while the Nuova Unipol Assicurazioni was renamed into Unipol Assicurazioni, as a wholly owned subsidiary of UGF; as at 31 December 2007, it had a shareholders equity of €654,625,654, decreased to €364,958,011 in to next year. On 1 February 2009 sister company Aurora Assicurazioni was merged with new Unipol Assicurazioni to form UGF Assicurazioni; the new subsidiary had a shareholders equity of €1,337,527,861 at 31 December 2009. It was decreased to €1,225,389,669 at 31 December 2010; the company changed to previous name Unipol Assicurazioni in 2011. Circa January 2011 the company acquired the insurance business from sister companies Navale Assicurazioni; as at 31 December 2011 the shareholders equity was further decreased to €1,158,532,303.
Prior the formation of UnipolSai, as at 31 December 2013 Unipol Assicurazioni had a shareholders equity of €2,742,846,924, increased from €1,762,012,434
He Luting was a Chinese composer of the early 20th century. He composed songs for Chinese films beginning in the 1930s. At the Shanghai Conservatory of Music, He won a contest in 1934, sponsored and judged by the Russian composer Alexander Tcherepnin, for his composition Buffalo Boy's Flute, his best-known compositions are "Song of the Four Seasons" and "The Wandering Songstress", both composed for the 1937 film Street Angel and sung by Zhou Xuan. He wrote the music for the patriotic song "Guerrillas' Song." In September 1949 He was appointed director of the Shanghai Conservatory of Music. 1966 saw the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, a fanatical movement meant to weed out "revisionism" and the remnants of "traditional" culture, a wave of terror engulfed every sector of society. In the spirit of proletarian solidarity, "bourgeois" artists were subject to vicious public humiliation, some chose suicide as a way out. An astonishing incident took place on Chinese television, he Luting, who had drawn fire from a proletarian-minded critic for defending the music of Claude Debussy, was subjected to a physically abusive interrogation but refused to apologize.
"Your accusations are false!" he shouted. "Shame on you for lying!" Alex Ross stated that no composer had made a braver stand against totalitarianism. At the end of the Cultural Revolution, He Luting was able to return to his position as Director of the Shanghai Conservatory and allowed to travel overseas, visiting Australia in 1979. In 1984 he retired from his position; the main concert hall at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music is named after He. Constructing Nationhood in Modern East Asia Nie Er Lü Ji Xian Xinghai Ren Guang
1,235 C. E. — 1,250 C. E. Early imperial expansion of the Mali Empire 1,235 C. E. — 1,255 C. E. Tiramakhan's western campaign Tiramakhan known as Tiramaghan, of the Traore clan, was ordered by Sonjata to bring an army west after the king of Jolof had allowed horses to be stolen from Mandekalu merchants; the king of Jolof sent a message to the young emperor referring to him as an upstart. By the time Tiramakhan’s forces were done three kings were dead, the Jolof ruler was reduced to a vassal; the new western portion of the empire settlement would become an outpost that encompassed not only northern Guinea-Bissau but the Gambia and the Casamance region of Senegal. 1,440 C. E. — 1,490 C. E; the Mali Empire on the Defensive 1,444 C. E; the Portuguese arrived on the Senegambian coast in 1444, they were not coming in peace. Using caravels to launch slave raids on coastal inhabitants, 1,659 C. E. French conquest of Senegal 1,754 C. E. — 1,763 C. E. Seven Years' War April 1,758 C. E. — May 1,758 C. E. Capture of Senegal December 1,758 C.
E. Capture of Gorée September 1, 1,939 C. E. — September 2, 1,945 C. E. World War II September 23, 1,940 C. E. — September 25, 1,940 C. E. Battle of Dakar Military of Senegal Senegalese Army Senegalese Navy Senegalese Air Force Military history of Africa African military systems to 1,800 C. E. African military systems 1,800 C. E. — 1,900 C. E. African military systems after 1,900 C. E