A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument played using a keyboard, a row of levers which are pressed by the fingers. The most common of these are the piano and various electronic keyboards, including synthesizers and digital pianos. Other keyboard instruments include celestas, which are struck idiophones operated by a keyboard, carillons, which are housed in bell towers or belfries of churches or municipal buildings. Today, the term keyboard refers to keyboard-style synthesizers. Under the fingers of a sensitive performer, the keyboard may be used to control dynamics, shading and other elements of expression—depending on the design and inherent capabilities of the instrument. Another important use of the word keyboard is in historical musicology, where it means an instrument whose identity cannot be established. In the 18th century, the harpsichord, the clavichord, the early piano were in competition, the same piece might be played on more than one. Hence, in a phrase such as "Mozart excelled as a keyboard player," the word keyboard is all-inclusive.
The earliest known keyboard instrument was the Ancient Greek hydraulis, a type of pipe organ, invented in the third century BC. The keys were balanced and could be played with a light touch, as is clear from the reference in a Latin poem by Claudian, who says magna levi detrudens murmura tactu... intent, “let him thunder forth as he presses out mighty roarings with a light touch”. From its invention until the fourteenth century, the organ remained the only keyboard instrument; the organ did not feature a keyboard at all, but rather buttons or large levers operated by a whole hand. Every keyboard until the fifteenth century had seven naturals to each octave; the clavichord and the harpsichord appeared during the fourteenth century—the clavichord being earlier. The harpsichord and clavichord were both common until widespread adoption of the piano in the eighteenth century, after which their popularity decreased; the piano was revolutionary because a pianist could vary the volume of the sound by varying the vigor with which each key was struck.
The piano's full name is gravicèmbalo con piano e forte meaning harpsichord with soft and loud but can be shortened to piano-forte, which means soft-loud in Italian. In its current form, the piano is a product of the late nineteenth century, is far removed in both sound and appearance from the "pianos" known to Mozart and Beethoven. In fact, the modern piano is different from the 19th-century pianos used by Liszt and Brahms. See Piano history and musical performance. Keyboard instruments were further developed in the early twentieth century. Early electromechanical instruments, such as the Ondes Martenot, appeared early in the century; this was a important contribution to the keyboard's history. Much effort has gone into creating an instrument that sounds like the piano but lacks its size and weight; the electric piano and electronic piano were early efforts that, while useful instruments in their own right, did not convincingly reproduce the timbre of the piano. Electric and electronic organs were developed during the same period.
More recent electronic keyboard designs strive to emulate the sound of specific make and model pianos using digital samples and computer models. Each acoustic keyboard contains 88 keys. Weighted keys, found on electronic keyboards, are designed to simulate the resistance of a key on an acoustic keyboard, via pressurization. There are 4 types of weighted keys. Keybeds, or non-weighted keys place the weights within the base of the keyboard; the second type, Semi-weighted uses springs, the third type is hammer keys. Most electronic keyboards use the fourth type: graded simulate keys. Weighted keys are made of wood, or metal/wood substitute. Enharmonic keyboard Musical instrument Orchestrina di camera Piano Symphony Young, Percy M. Keyboard Musicians of the World. London: Abelard-Schuman, 1967. N. B.: Concerns celebrated keyboard players and the various such instruments used over the centuries. ISBN 0-200-71497-X The general keyboard in the age of MIDI Renaissance Keyboards on the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art The Pianofortes of Bartolomeo Cristofori on the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Pierre Delanoë, born Pierre Charles Marcel Napoleon Leroyer in Paris, was a French lyricist who wrote thousands of songs for dozens of singers such as Dalida, Edith Piaf, Charles Aznavour, Petula Clark, Johnny Hallyday, Mireille Mathieu. Delanoë was his grandmothers maiden name. After he obtained a law degree, Delanoë started a career as a tax collector and a tax inspector. After World War II he began working as a lyricist, he sang with Bécaud in clubs in the beginning, but this did not last long. He wrote some of France's most beloved songs with Bécaud, including "Et maintenant", translated into English as "What Now My Love", covered by artists including Agnetha Fältskog, Elvis Presley, Frank Sinatra, Barbra Streisand, The Supremes, Sonny & Cher, Herb Alpert & the Tijuana Brass, The Temptations. "Je t'appartiens" was covered by The Everly Brothers, Tom Jones, Bob Dylan, Willie Nelson, Nina Simone and Nofx. "Crois-moi ça durera" was covered. In addition to Bécaud, he wrote for Édith Piaf, Tino Rossi, Hugues Aufray, Michel Fugain, Nana Mouskouri, Michel Polnareff, Gérard Lenorman, Joe Dassin, Nicole Rieu and Michel Sardou.
He wrote a passionate song about Joan of Arc in "La demoiselle d'Orléans" for Mireille Mathieu. The final lyric: "When I think of all I have given France... and she has forgotten me" was how the singer felt as she was made a caricature by the Communists in power. His song "Dors, mon amour", performed by André Claveau, won the Eurovision Song Contest 1958. In 1955, Delanoë helped to launch Europe 1 as Director of Programs, the first French radio station to program popular music in a modern way. Pierre Delanoë served as President of SACEM in 1984 and 1986 from 1988 to 1990, 1992 to 1994, he was awarded the Poets Grand Prize in 1997 by the institution. On 31 March 2004 he was given France's highest culture award, Commandeur of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, he created some controversy in July 2006 after expressing his dislike for rap music, saying that it is "a form of expression for people incapable of making music" and "not music but vociferations, eructations". Delanoë died of cardiac arrest in the early morning of 27 December 2006 in Poissy near Paris.
He is buried in the Cimetière de Fourqueux, just southeast of Poissy. His wife Micheline Leroyer died 16 January 2015 at age 97, is buried beside him, they had three children: Pierre-Denis and Caroline. Pierre Delanoë, La vie en chantant, éditions René Julliard, 1980 Pierre Delanoë, Le surnuméraire, éditions René Julliard, 1982 Pierre Delanoë, Le 19è trou, éditions Robert Laffont, 1984 Pierre Delanoë, en collaboration avec A. J. Lafaurie et Philippe Letellier, Golfantasmes, éditions Albin Michel, 1986 Pierre Delanoë, La retraite aux flambeaux, éditions Robert Laffont, 1986 Pierre Delanoë, Poésies et chansons, éditions Seghers, 1986 Pierre Delanoë, Et à part ça qu'est-ce que vous faites?, éditions Michel Lafon, 1987 Pierre Delanoë, Comment écrire une chanson, éditions Paul Beuscher, 1987 Pierre Delanoë, avant-propos de Jean-Marc Natel, Paroles à lire, poèmes à chanter, éditions Le Cherche Midi, 1990 Pierre Delanoë, entretiens avec Alain-Gilles Minella, La chanson en colère, éditions Mame, 1993 Pierre Delanoë, illustrations de Barberousse, Les comptines de Titine, éditions Hemma Éditions, 1995 Pierre Delanoë, illustrations de Barberousse, Les comptines d'Eglantine, éditions Hemma Éditions, 1995 Pierre Delanoë, préface de Jean-Marc Natel, voix de Charles Aznavour à Jean-Claude Brialy en passant par Renaud, Anthologie de la poésie française de Charles d'Orléans à Charles Trenet, éditions du Layeur, 1997 Pierre Delanoë, en collaboration avec Alain Poulanges, préface de Gilbert Bécaud, La vie en rose, éditions Plume, 1997 Pierre Delanoë, illustrations de Barberousse, musique Gérard Calvi, interprètes Jacques Haurogné, Fabienne Guyon, Pierre Delanoë, Xavier Lacouture et Catherine Estourelle, La comptine à Titine, éditions Hemma Éditions, 1998 Pierre Delanoë, préface de Michel Tournier de l'Académie Goncourt, Des paroles qui chantent, éditions Christian Pirot, 1999 Pierre Delanoë, préface de Gilbert Bécaud, Le témoin était aveugle, éditions Les vents contraires, 2000 Pierre Delanoë, préface de Jean-Marc Natel, narration de Brigitte Lahaie, musique de Guy Boyer, La poésie dans le boudoir, éditions du Layeur, 2000 Pierre Delanoë, préface de Jean Orizet, D'humeur et dhumour, éditions Mélis éditions, 2002 Pierre Delanoë, Tous des putes, éditions Mélis éditions, 2002 Pierre Delanoë, en collaboration avec Jean Beaulne, Pierre Delanoë…Et maintenant, éditions City Éditions, 2004 Official website Pierre Delanoë at Find a Grave
Poupée de cire, poupée de son
"Poupée de cire, poupée de son" was the winning entry in the Eurovision song contest of 1965. It was performed in French by French singer France Gall. Composed by Serge Gainsbourg, inspired by the 4th movement from Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 1, it was the first song to win Eurovision, not a ballad. It was nominated as one of the 14 best Eurovision songs of all time at the Congratulations special held in October 2005; as is common with Gainsbourg's lyrics, the words are filled with double meanings and puns. The title can be translated as "wax doll, rag doll" or as "wax doll, sound doll". Sylvie Simmons wrote that the song is about "the ironies and incongruities inherent in baby pop"—that "the songs young people turn to for help in their first attempts at discovering what life and love are about are sung by people too young and inexperienced themselves to be of much assistance, condemned by their celebrity to be unlikely to soon find out."This sense of being a "singing doll" for Gainsbourg reached a peak when he wrote "Les Sucettes" for Gall.
The day after her Eurovision victory the single had sold 16,000 copies in France, four months it had sold more than 500,000 copies. The central image of the song is that singer identifies herself as a rag doll, her heart is engraved in her songs. Is she better or worse than a fashion doll? Her recordings are like a mirror. Through her recordings, it is as though she has been smashed into a thousand shards of voice and scattered so that she is everywhere at once; this central image is extended, as she refers to her listeners as rag dolls who laugh, dance to the music, allow themselves to be seduced for any reason or no reason at all. But love is not just in songs, the singer asks herself what good it is to sing about love when she herself knows nothing about boys; the two concluding verses seem to refer to Gall herself. In them, she sings that she is nothing but a rag doll, under the sun of her blond hair, but someday she, the wax/rag doll, will be able to live her songs without fearing the warmth of boys.
Self-referentiality, word play, double meanings are integral to Gainsbourg's style of lyric writing. These factors make it difficult for non-French speakers to understand the nuances of the lyrics, more difficult to translate the lyrics. At a young age, France Gall was too naïve to understand the second meaning of the lyrics, she felt she was used by Gainsbourg throughout this period, most notably after the song "Sucettes", about lollipops, but with multiple double entendres referring to oral sex. Poupée de son can mean "doll of sound" or "song doll" - France Gall could be said to be the doll through which Gainsbourg channels his sounds; as Sylvie Simmons wrote in Serge Gainsbourg: A Fistful of Gitanes: "Poupée... " was catchy, on the surface pretty annoying - perfect Eurovision fodder, in other words - but closer examination revealed perspicacious lyrics about the ironies and incongruities inherent in baby-pop." In typical Gainsbourg fashion, the song is first of all self-referential in that it is written for a baby-pop performer to sing about herself—complete with reference to Gall singing beneath her "sun of blond hair" and double meanings tying the song to Gall's own life situation: Singing songs created by adults and carrying themes purposefully introduced by those controlling adults which the young performer only understands.
Gall herself is the "Poupée de poupée de son" of the song's title. But the self-referentiality goes far beyond this; the writing of "Poupée" by Gainsbourg and its performance by Gall is itself an example of this dynamic at work, Gainsbourg knew that Gall, at her age, would understand the ramifications of this dynamic only even at the same moment she was performing a song about it. In writing "Poupée," Gainsbourg is purposefully exploiting the dynamic, the subject of the song, it was this extra dimension, in part, that made the song interesting and attractive to audiences, helping catapult it to the top of the Eurovision contest. It was this same element that made Gainsbourg feel that this portion of his songwriting output was groundbreaking and daring, yet made Gall feel profoundly uncomfortable with this material — that she was being deliberately manipulated and exploited by the adults around her—particularly in retrospect as she matured. In years, Gall disassociated herself with the Eurovision Song Contest, refused to discuss it in public or perform her winning song.
In a literal sense, poupée de cire means "wax doll". Son in the context of poupée de son means bran or straw, of the kind used to stuff children's floppy dolls. Poupée de son is a long-standing expression in French meaning "doll stuffed with straw or bran", it is used in the expression Syndrome du bébé "poupée de son", "floppy baby syndrome", can refer to someone too drunk to stand up. So in the first place, poupée de son refers to a floppy type of doll like a rag doll, with no backbone of its own but which, like a puppet, is under the control of others; the double meanings of the two terms cire and son come in because of the subject matter of the lyrics, which contain many references to singing and recording. "Cire" brings to mind the old shellac records known in France as "wax disks". "Son" has a second meaning--"
Princess Margriet of the Netherlands
Princess Margriet of the Netherlands is the third daughter of Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard. As an aunt of the reigning monarch, King Willem-Alexander, she is a member of the Dutch Royal House and eighth and last in the line of succession to the throne. Princess Margriet has represented the monarch at official or semi-official events; some of these functions have taken her back to Canada, the country where she was born de facto, to events organised by the Dutch merchant navy of which she is a patron. The Princess was born in Ottawa Civic Hospital, Ottawa to Princess Juliana of the Netherlands and Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld, her mother was heir presumptive to Queen Wilhelmina. The Dutch family had been living in Canada since June 1940 after the occupation of the Netherlands by Nazi Germany; the maternity ward of Ottawa Civic Hospital in which Princess Margriet was born was temporarily declared to be extraterritorial by the Canadian government. Making the maternity ward outside of the Canadian domain caused it to be unaffiliated with any jurisdiction and technically international territory.
This was done to ensure that the newborn would derive her citizenship from her mother only, thus making her Dutch, which could have been important if the child had been male, as such, the heir of Princess Juliana. It is a common misconception that the Canadian government declared the maternity ward to be Dutch territory. Since Dutch nationality law is based on the principle of jus sanguinis it was not necessary to make the ward Dutch territory for the Princess to become a Dutch citizen if the parent is Dutch. Since Canada followed the rule of jus soli, it was necessary for Canada to disclaim the territory temporarily so that the child would not become a Canadian citizen. Princess Margriet was named after the marguerite, the flower worn during the war as a symbol of the resistance to Nazi Germany, she was christened at St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, Ottawa, on 29 June 1943, her godparents included Franklin D. Roosevelt, Queen Mary, Märtha, Crown Princess of Norway, Martine Roell, it was not until August 1945, when the Netherlands had been liberated, that Princess Margriet first set foot on Dutch soil.
Princess Juliana and Prince Bernhard returned to Soestdijk Palace in Baarn, where the family had lived before the war. It was while she was studying at Leiden University that Princess Margriet met her future husband, Pieter van Vollenhoven, their engagement was announced on 10 March 1965, they were married on 10 January 1967 in The Hague, in the St. James Church, it was decreed that any children from the marriage would be styled HH Prince/Princess of Orange-Nassau, van Vollenhoven, titles that would not be held by their descendants. Together, they had four children: Princes Maurits, Pieter-Christiaan, Floris; the Princess and her husband took up residence in the right wing of Het Loo Palace in Apeldoorn. In 1975 the family moved to Het Loo, which they had built on the Palace grounds. Princess Margriet is interested in health care and cultural causes. From 1987 to 2011 she was vice-president of the Dutch Red Cross, who set up the Princess Margriet Fund in her honour, she is a member of the board of the International Federation of National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
From 1984 to 2007, Princess Margriet was president of the European Cultural Foundation, who set up the Princess Margriet Award for Cultural Diversity in acknowledgement of her work. She is a member of the honorary board of the International Paralympic Committee. 19 January 1943 – 10 January 1967: Her Royal Highness Princess Margriet of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld 10 January 1967 – present: Her Royal Highness Princess Margriet of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld, Mrs Van Vollenhoven Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion Royal Silver Wedding Medal of Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard, 1962 Royal Wedding Medal 1966 Queen Beatrix Investiture Medal Royal Wedding Medal 2002 King Willem-Alexander Investiture Medal Belgium: Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown Cameroon: Grand Cordon of Order of Merit Chile: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit Finland: Grand Cross of the Order of the White Rose of Finland France: Grand Cross of the Order of National Merit Germany: Grand Cross 1st Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Italy: Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Ivory Coast: Grand Cross of the Order of the Ivory Coast Japan: Grand Cordon of the Order of the Precious Crown Jordan: Grand Cordon of the Supreme Order of the Renaissance Luxembourg: Grand Cross of the Order of Adolphe of Nassau Luxembourg: Grand Cross of the Order of the Oak Crown Luxembourg: Commemorative Medal of the marriage of TRH Prince Henri and Princess Maria Teresa of Luxembourg ° Mexico: Grand Cross of the Order of the Aztec Eagle Nepalese Royal Family: Member 1st Class of the Order of the Three Divine Powers Norway: Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Olav Portugal: Grand Cross of the Order of Christ Socialist Republic of Romania: Grand Cross of the Order of 23 August Senegal: Grand Cross of the Order of the Lion Spain: Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Isabella the Catholic Suriname: Grand Cordon of the Order of the Yellow Star Sweden: Member Grand Cross of the Royal Order of the Polar Star Venezuela: Grand Cordon of the Order of the Liberator Royal
West Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, referred to by historians as the Bonn Republic, was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the western portion of Germany was part of the Western bloc during the Cold War. It was created during the Allied occupation of Germany in 1949 after World War II, established from eleven states formed in the three Allied zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France, its capital was the city of Bonn. At the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided among the Eastern blocs. Germany was de facto divided into two countries and two special territories, the Saarland and divided Berlin; the Federal Republic of Germany claimed an exclusive mandate for all of Germany, considering itself to be the democratically reorganised continuation of the 1871–1945 German Empire. It took the line. Though the GDR did hold regular elections, these were not fair. From the West German perspective, the GDR was therefore illegitimate.
Three southwestern states of West Germany merged to form Baden-Württemberg in 1952, the Saarland joined the Federal Republic of Germany in 1957. In addition to the resulting ten states, West Berlin was considered an unofficial de facto 11th state. While not part of the Federal Republic of Germany, as Berlin was under the control of the Allied Control Council, West Berlin politically-aligned itself with West Germany and was represented in its federal institutions; the foundation for the influential position held by Germany today was laid during the Wirtschaftswunder of the 1950s when West Germany rose from the enormous destruction wrought by World War II to become the world's third-largest economy. The first chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who remained in office until 1963, had worked for a full alignment with NATO rather than neutrality, he not only secured a membership in NATO but was a proponent of agreements that developed into the present-day European Union. When the G6 was established in 1975, there was no question whether the Federal Republic of Germany would be a member as well.
Following the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe in 1989, symbolised by the opening of the Berlin Wall, there was a rapid move towards German reunification. East Germany voted to dissolve itself and accede to the Federal Republic in 1990, its five post-war states were reconstituted along with the reunited Berlin, which ended its special status and formed an additional Land. They formally joined the Federal Republic on 3 October 1990, raising the number of states from 10 to 16, ending the division of Germany; the reunion did not result in a brand-new country. The expanded Federal Republic retained West Germany's political culture and continued its existing memberships in international organisations, as well as its Western foreign policy alignment and affiliation to Western alliances like UN, NATO, OECD and the European Union; the official name of West Germany, adopted in 1949 and unchanged since is Bundesrepublik Deutschland. In East Germany, the terms Westdeutschland or westdeutsche Bundesrepublik were preferred during the 1950s and 1960s.
This changed once under its 1968 constitution, when the idea of a single German nation was abandoned by East Germany, as a result West Germans and West Berliners were considered foreigners. In the early 1970s, starting in the East German Neues Deutschland, the initialism "BRD" for the "Federal Republic of Germany" began to prevail in East German usage. In 1973, official East German sources adopted it as a standard expression and other Eastern Bloc nations soon followed suit. In reaction to this move, in 1965 the West German Federal Minister of All-German Affairs Erich Mende issued the Directives for the appellation of Germany, recommending avoiding the initialism. On 31 May 1974, the heads of West German federal and state governments recommended always using the full name in official publications. From on West German sources avoided the abbreviated form, with the exception of left-leaning organizations which embraced it. In November 1979 the federal government informed the Bundestag that the West German public broadcasters ARD and ZDF had agreed to refuse to use the initialism.
The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code of West Germany was "DE", which has remained the country code of Germany after reunification. ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 are the most used country codes, the "DE" code is notably used as country identifier extending the postal code and as the Internet's country code top-level domain.de. Accordingly the less used ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 country code of West Germany was "DEU", which has remained the country code of reunified Germany; the now deleted codes for East Germany, on the other hand, was "DD" in ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 and "DDR" in ISO 3166-1 alpha-3. The colloquial term "West Germany" or its equivalent was used in many languages. "Westdeutschland" was a widespread colloquial form used in German-speaking countries without political overtones. On 4–11 February 1945 leaders from the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union held the Yalta Conference where future arrangements as regards post-war Europe and strategy against Japan in the Pacific were negotiated.
The conference agreed that post-war Germany would be divided into four occupation zones: a French Zone in the far west.
Françoise Madeleine Hardy is a French singer-songwriter. She made her musical debut in the early 1960s on Disques Vogue and found immediate success with her song "Tous les garçons et les filles"; as a leading figure of the yé-yé movement, Hardy "found herself at the forefront of the French music scene", became "France's most exportable female singing star", recording in various languages, appearing in several movies, touring throughout Europe, gaining admiration from musicians such as Bob Dylan, Miles Davis and Mick Jagger. With the aid of photographer Jean-Marie Périer, Hardy began modeling, soon became a popular fashion icon as well; as the yé-yé era drew to a close in the late 1960s, Hardy sought to reinvent herself, casting off the fashionable girl next door image that Périer had created for her and abandoning the "cute" and catchy compositions that had characterized her repertoire up to that point. Her 1971 album La question represented an important turning point in her career, moving towards a more mature style.
The early 1970s marked the beginning of Hardy's renowned involvement with astrology, becoming an expert and writer on the subject over the years. Hardy remains a popular figure in music and fashion, is considered an icon of French pop and of the 1960s; the singer is considered a gay icon and has "repeatedly declared that her most devoted friends and fans are gay." Several of her songs and albums have appeared in critics' lists. Hardy was born in Paris and grew up in the 9th arrondissement of Paris with her younger sister Michèle, her parents lived apart. He was, persuaded by the girls' mother to buy Françoise a guitar for her birthday as a reward for passing her baccalauréat, her early musical influences were the French chanson stars Charles Trenet and Cora Vaucaire as well as Anglophone singers Paul Anka, the Everly Brothers, Cliff Richard, Connie Francis, Elvis Presley, Marty Wilde, whom she heard on the English-language radio station Radio Luxembourg. After a year at the Sorbonne she answered a newspaper advertisement looking for young singers.
Hardy signed her first contract with the record label Vogue in November 1961. In April 1962, shortly after she left university, her first record, "Oh Oh Chéri", written by Johnny Hallyday's writing duo, her own flip side of the record, "Tous les garçons et les filles", became a success, riding the wave of Yé-yé music in France. It was awarded a gold disc; the track peaked at No. 36 in the UK Singles Chart in 1964. She hated the song saying it was recorded "in three hours with the worst four musicians in Paris." She was dating photographer Jean-Marie Périer at this time and his shots featured on many of her record sleeves. Hardy sings in French, Italian and has two interpretations in Spanish and one in Portuguese, her recordings in Italian, completed in Paris in 1963 under the production of Ezio Leoni, remain to this day acclaimed. In 1963 she represented Monaco in the Eurovision Song Contest, finishing fifth with "L'amour s'en va". In 1963, she was awarded the Grand Prix du Disque from the Académie Charles Cros.
In 1994, she collaborated with the British pop group Blur for their "La Comedie" version of "To the End". In 1995, she sang on Malcolm McLaren's single "Revenge of the Flowers"; the song appears on his concept album Paris. In May 2000, she made a comeback with the album Clair-obscur on which her son played guitar and her husband sang the duet "Puisque vous partez en voyage". Iggy Pop and Étienne Daho took part, she has recorded a duet with Perry Blake who wrote two songs for Tant de belles choses. For this album, Hardy won the trophy "Female Artist of the Year" at the Victoires de la musique ceremony in 2005. In 2012, Hardy marked her 50-year career by releasing her 27th album, L'Amour fou. On 5 March 2015, after two years of silence, a second book was published under the title Avis non-autorisé.... In this book, she reflects on her interests and her annoyances; because of her difficult upbringing Hardy became painfully shy – a trait, still part of her character today. When asked about her shyness in an interview with John Andrew, broadcast on BBC Radio 4 in 2011, she said:I thought at first my parents were divorced — at that time it was not a good thing, it was a kind of shame.
My father didn't help much financially my mother, all the other girls, little girls, were dressed differently than I was — their parents had more money... I didn’t enjoy at all everything, the trappings, when all of a sudden you become famous... it was work, things I had to do, a chore – I didn't enjoy it at all... It is quite impossible to stand – to be admired too much – it is not a normal situation... I don't like that at all... I am not comfortable with my professional life so the word'icon' – it's as though you were talking about someone else, it's not me really... I feel happy, in my room with a good book. After a serious illness in March 2015, she stated, she regained her health after two years and has taken the path of the recording studios since November 2017. In 1981, she married her long-time partner Jacques Dutronc, the father of her son, Thomas Dutronc, born in 1973. Hardy lives in the 16th arrondisseme
Mario Del Monaco
Mario Del Monaco was an Italian operatic tenor who earned worldwide acclaim for his powerful voice. Del Monaco was born in Florence to a musical upper-class family; as a young boy he had a passion for singing. He graduated from the Rossini Conservatory at Pesaro, where he first met and sang with Renata Tebaldi, with whom he would form something of an operatic dream team of the 1950s, his early mentors as a singer included Arturo Melocchi, his teacher at Pesaro, Maestro Raffaelli, who recognized his talent and helped launch his career. That career began in earnest with Del Monaco's debut on 31 December 1940 as Pinkerton at the Puccini Theater in Milan, he married, in 1941, Rina Filipini. In 1946, he appeared at Covent Garden, for the first time. During the ensuing years he became famous not only in London but across the operatic world for his powerful voice and heroic acting style, it was heldentenor-like in scope but Del Monaco was no Wagnerian, confining his activities overwhelmingly to the Italian repertoire.
Del Monaco sang at the New York Metropolitan Opera from 1951 to 1959, enjoying particular success in dramatic Verdi parts such as Radamès. He soon established himself as one of four Italian tenor superstars who reached the peak of their fame in the 1950s and'60s, the others being Giuseppe Di Stefano, Carlo Bergonzi and Franco Corelli. Del Monaco's trademark roles during this period were Verdi's Otello, he first kept refining his interpretation throughout his career. It is said. However, the book published by Elisabetta Romagnolo, Mario Del Monaco, Monumentum aere perennius, Azzali 2002, lists only 218 appearances by him as Otello, a more realistic figure. Aptly, the tenor was buried in his Otello costume. Although Otello was his best role, throughout his career, Del Monaco sang a number of other roles with great acclaim, for example: Canio in Pagliacci, Radames in Aida, Don Jose in Carmen, Chenier in Andrea Chénier, Manrico in Il trovatore, Samson in Samson and Delilah, Don Alvaro in La forza del destino.
Del Monaco made his first recordings in Milan in 1948 for HMV. He was partnered by Renata Tebaldi in a long series of Verdi and Puccini operas recorded for Decca. On the same label was his 1969 recording of Giordano's Fedora, opposite Magda Olivero and Tito Gobbi, his ringing voice and virile appearance earned him the nickname of the "Brass Bull of Milan". The soprano Magda Olivero noted in an interview with Stefan Zucker that: "When Del Monaco and I sang Francesca da Rimini together at La Scala he explained his whole vocal technique to me; when he finished I said, "My dear Del Monaco, if I had to put into practice all the things you’ve told me, I’d stop singing right away and just disappear." The technique was so complicated: you push the larynx down you push this up you do that—in short, it made my head spin just to hear everything he did. In 1975 he retired from the stage, he died in Mestre as a result of nephritis. Del Monaco belonged to a once flourishing lineage of dramatic tenors born in Italy.
Famous predecessors of his included Francesco Tamagno, Francesco Signorini, Giuseppe Borgatti, Giovanni Zenatello, Edoardo Ferrari-Fontana, Bernardo de Muro, Giovanni Martinelli, Aureliano Pertile and Francesco Merli, among others. His niece Donella Del Monaco, a soprano, is the singer of Opus Avantra. All stereo unless otherwise indicated. Bellini – Norma – Souliotis, Cava – Varviso. Bizet – Carmen – Resnik, Krause – Schippers. Boito – Mefistofele – Tebaldi, Siepi – Serafin. Catalani – La Wally – Tebaldi, Diaz – Cleva. Cilea – Adriana Lecouvreur – Tebaldi, Fioravanti – Capuana. Giordano – Andrea Chenier – Tebaldi, Bastianini – Gavazzeni. Giordano – Fedora – Olivero, Gobbi – Gardelli. Leoncavallo – Pagliacci – Tucci, MacNeil, Capecchi – Molinari-Pradelli. Mascagni – Cavalleria Rusticana – Nicolai, Protti – Ghione. Mascagni – Cavalleria Rusticana – Simionato, MacNeil, Satre – Serafin. Mascagni – Cavalleria Rusticana – Souliotis, Gobbi – Varviso. Ponchielli – La Gioconda – Cerquetti, Bastianini, Siepi – Gavazzeni.
Puccini – Il Tabarro – Tebaldi, Merrill – Gardelli. Puccini – La fanciulla del West – Tebaldi, MacNeil, Tozzi – Capuana. Puccini – Tosca – Tebaldi, London – Molinari-Pradelli. Puccini – Turandot – Borkh, Tebaldi – Erede. Puccini – Manon Lescaut – Tebaldi, Corena – Molinari-Pradelli. Verdi – Aida – Tebaldi, Protti – Erede. Verdi – Il Trovatore – Tebaldi, Savarese – Erede. Verdi – La Forza del Destino – Tebaldi, Siepi, Corena – Molinari-Pradelli. Verdi – Otello – Tebaldi, Protti – Erede. Verdi – Otello – Tebaldi, Protti – Karajan. Verdi – Requiem Mass – Crespin, van Mill – Ansermet. Verdi – Rigoletto – Gueden, Protti, Siepi – Erede. Bizet – Carmen – Archipova, Lisitsian – Melik-Pashayev – Myto. Giordano – Andrea Chenier – Callas, Amadini – Votto – Opera d'Oro. Giordano – Andrea Chenier – Tebaldi, Protti – Capuana – Opera d'Oro. Leoncavallo – Pagliacci – L. Maslennikova, Iv