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YCbCr, Y′CbCr, or Y Pb/Cb Pr/Cr written as YCBCR or Y'CBCR, is a family of color spaces used as a part of the color image pipeline in video and digital photography systems. Y is the luma component and CB and CR are the blue-difference and red-difference chroma components. Y′ is distinguished from Y, luminance, meaning that light intensity is nonlinearly encoded based on gamma corrected RGB primaries. Y′CbCr color spaces are defined by a mathematical coordinate transformation from an associated RGB color space. If the underlying RGB color space is absolute, the Y′CbCr color space is an absolute color space as well. Cathode ray tube displays are driven by red and blue voltage signals, but these RGB signals are not efficient as a representation for storage and transmission, since they have a lot of redundancy. YCbCr and Y′CbCr are a practical approximation to color processing and perceptual uniformity, where the primary colors corresponding to red and blue are processed into perceptually meaningful information.

By doing this, subsequent image/video processing and storage can do operations and introduce errors in perceptually meaningful ways. Y′CbCr is used to separate out a luma signal that can be stored with high resolution or transmitted at high bandwidth, two chroma components that can be bandwidth-reduced, compressed, or otherwise treated separately for improved system efficiency. One practical example would be decreasing the bandwidth or resolution allocated to "color" compared to "black and white", since humans are more sensitive to the black-and-white information; this is called chroma subsampling. YCbCr is sometimes abbreviated to YCC. Y′CbCr is called YPbPr when used for analog component video, although the term Y′CbCr is used for both systems, with or without the prime. Y′CbCr is confused with the YUV color space, the terms YCbCr and YUV are used interchangeably, leading to some confusion; the main difference is that YUV is analog and YCbCr is digital. Y′CbCr signals are called YPbPr, are created from the corresponding gamma-adjusted RGB source using three defined constants KR, KG, KB as follows: Y ′ = K R ⋅ R ′ + K G ⋅ G ′ + K B ⋅ B ′ P B = 1 2 ⋅ B ′ − Y ′ 1 − K B P R = 1 2 ⋅ R ′ − Y ′ 1 − K R where KR, KG, KB are ordinarily derived from the definition of the corresponding RGB space, required to satisfy K R + K G + K B = 1.

The equivalent matrix manipulation is referred to as the "color matrix": = {\displaystyle ={\beginK_&K_&K_\\-\cdot &-\cdot &\\&-\cdot {\frac {1-K_{

Rorke's Drift Art and Craft Centre

Rorke's Drift Art and Craft Centre is a center for arts and crafts, including fine art, printmaking and weaving, located in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. It has been described as "the most famous indigenous art centre in South Africa". Founded by the Church of Sweden Mission, Rorke's Drift Art and Craft Centre started producing weaving in 1965, its first Swedish directors were Ulla and Peder Gowenius, both graduates of Konstfackskolan in Stockholm. During the 1960s the three main production studios were established at Rorke's Drift, its staff continue to design and create tapestries and woven rugs, printed fabrics and stoneware ceramics to the present; the Pottery Workshop started in 1968 with Danish supervisors with founding throwers Gordon Mbatha, Ephraim Ziqubu, Bhekisani Manyoni and Joel Sibisi. Expert ceramists from the neighbouring Shiyane-Nqutu region, Dinah Molefe and several women of her family joined the Pottery Workshop from the start as skilled hand-builders, accustomed to using traditional Zulu and Sotho coiling methods in the making of domestic izinkamba.

The gendered work-division in the studio’s ceramics —women coiling, men throwing— has been maintained to the present. Through his consultations as intergroup mediator in the late 1960s, H. W. van der Merwe was alerted to the presence of Rorke’s Drift Art and Craft Centre in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and a need for assistance in its newly established Pottery Workshop. His wife Marietjie was an MFA graduate of UCLA and a practicing South African ceramist, able to offer her support to the studio at Rorke's Drift. Marietjie was appointed Advisor to the Pottery Workshop in 1971, having designed and built a large oil-firing kiln in 1973, she continued to mentor the studio’s ceramists and to help with technical problems until her death in 1992. In the era when apartheid policies denied a formal education to black artists and crafters, under the Directorship of Jules and Ada van de Vijver, Rorkes Drift established a Fine Art School; the van de Vijver's introduced printmaking and weaving to the Center that produced some of southern Africa’s most renowned artists and printmakers.

The authoritative publication about Rorke's Drift printmakers, most of whom were trained at its Fine Art School was written by Philippa Hobbs and Elizabeth Rankin in 2003. Titled Rorke's Drift: Empowering Prints the book's publisher in Cape Town is Double Storey. Christiane Voith is the current Centre Manager of Rorke's Drift Craft Centre. Rorke's Drift is the location of the battlefield of the Battle of Rorke's Drift, a historical site in the Anglo-Zulu War where British troops defeated a large Zulu army; the nearby battlefield is a major draw for tourists. Official site


Baxt is a town in Sirdaryo District of Sirdaryo Region in Uzbekistan. The estimated population in 1968 was 9,100. Baxt was founded in 1899 as a settlement serving the passing loop #121 on the Middle Asia Railway which connected Samarkand and Tashkent. In 1916, the passing loop was upgraded to a railway station; the station was named Velikoalexeyevskaya after the Russian prince Alexey, the apparent heir to the throne. In 1963, the settlement and the station were renamed Baxt بخت. In 1980, Baxt was granted town status; as of the 1970s, in Baxt there were a construction materials plant and a cotton purification factory. Baxt has a railway station on a railway connecting Samarkand via Guliston; the M34 highway connecting Tashkent and Dushanbe passes through Baxt as well. There are local roads

Ole Bohman House

The Ole Bohman House, at 114 N. Main St. in Troy, was built in 1913. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2013. According to its National Register nomination, the Ole Bohman House is significant for its association "with the productive life and accomplishments of Ole Bohman, an early settler and prominent businessman and banker in the community of Troy, Idaho; the Ole Bohman House provides an excellent example of Bungalow/Craftsman style in Troy."About Ole Bohman: he "was a significant settler and businessman in Troy, Idaho. His work in developing a local lumber business and a local bank aided the growth of Troy and the surrounding region. Ole Bohman was born Ole Olson on June 1874, in the Varmland area of Sweden, his family was prosperous, but he sought more opportunity in the United States. In 1893, at the age of 18, he immigrated to Minnesota, a few years he moved to the area that would become Troy, where several friends from Sweden had settled, he was the first from his immediate family to immigrate.

Ole Olson decided to change his surname out of frustration with mail deliveries and other complications resulting from so many Olsons living in the area. According to a friend, he asked his father to choose one; the three brothers became Ole and Axel Bohman."Ole Bohman lived in the house until 1936. Axel Bohman House and National Register-listed

VDE e.V.

The VDE e. V. is one of Europe’s largest technical-scientific associations with 36,000 members, including 1,300 corporate and institutional members and 8,000 students. With 36,000 members the VDE Association for Electrical, Electronic & Information Technologies is one of the largest technical and scientific associations in Europe. VDE embraces science, standardization product testing and certification under one roof. VDE is involved in technical knowledge transfers and promoting young talents in the technologies of electrical engineering and information technology and their applications. Other VDE activities include ensuring safety in electrical engineering, developing recognized technical regulations as national and international standards as well as testing and certifying electrical and electronic devices and systems. VDE works in the fields of information technology, medical engineering, microelectronics and nanotechnology and automation; the VDE has main branches in Brussels and Berlin. The Information Technology Society in the VDE promotes research and application of information technology in the data and communication technology, in production and communication systems, in environmental protection and traffic technology.

Objectives of the Power Engineering Society in the VDE are the interdisciplinary and international cooperation of industry, energy suppliers and energy users. The German Society for Biomedical Engineering in the VDE is with more than 2,600 members the largest scientific technical society of medical technology in Germany. DGBMT promotes development of medical technology in Germany in a non-profit manner; the aim of the interdisciplinary VDE/VDI Society of Microelectronics and Precision Engineering is to give impulses in the fields of microelectronics and nanotechnology as well as precision engineering and mechatronics in order to join forces in the processing of new fields and to promote the dialog between manufacturers, users and politics. The VDI/VDE Society for Measurement and Automatic Control is the national network of experts for the promotion of the special fields of measurement and automatic control as well as optical technologies; the interdisciplinary orientation of GMA is characterized by the use of information processing and the use of open networks for automation tasks.

The DKE German Commission for Electrical, Electronic & Information Technologies, a joint organization of the DIN and the VDE, is the national organization responsible for creating and maintaining standards in these fields. Drawing on the expertise and work of about 5,500 voluntary professionals, the DKE represents Germany in the European and international bodies responsible for standardization; the Forum Network Technology / Network Operation in the VDE develops and disseminates VDE technical rules for the operation and safety of transmission and distribution networks as part of the VDE Specifications Code of Safety Standards. Moreover, the FNN gives guidance on the optimum use of resources to maximize safety, supply reliability, environmental friendliness and to achieve profitability. Members are companies, scientific institutions and public authorities; the VDE mark is meant to indicate safety and quality in electrical and medical technologies. The VDE Testing and Certification Institute in Offenbach, tests 100,000 products from over 10,000 customers worldwide.

The spectrum of product tests covers safety, EMV, energy efficiency and other product features, as well as certification and assembly inspections. The VDE Global Services GmbH provides local handling of all testing and certification procedures to its customers in Asia. VDE Verlag GmbH, the association’s publisher with operations in Berlin and Offenbach, provides a full spectrum of literature on electrical engineering and information technology; the VDI/VDE Innovation + Technik GmbH, headquartered in Berlin, is commissioned by German federal and state ministries to develop programs for promoting technical policies. The VDE YoungNet networks 14,000 students and young professionals across Germany, and every year, the VDE awards scholarships and attractive prizes to talented students, university graduates and young scientists. Official Website of the VDE Official Website of the VDE VERLAG GmbH

Tjeerd Oosterhuis

Tjeerd P. Oosterhuis aka TJ Oosterhuis ís a Dutch musician and producer known internationally for his chart topping work with Madcon, Kelly Rowland and Estelle, his production of Freaky Like Me for Madcon was a #1 hit Norway. It received a gold certification in Germany, he is the son of writer and former priest Huub Oosterhuis. With his younger sister and singer Trijntje Oosterhuis, Tjeerd formed the mid 1990s band Total Touch. After Total Touch disbanded in 1997 Oosterhuis founded a music production company, D. E. M. P. and produced the album Face to Face for a solo album for his sister Trijntje. He has worked with many other artists including Candy Dulfer, Mathilde Santing, K-otic, Gordon, Re-play, Di-rect, Alain Clark, Julian Thomas, Petra Berger, Henny Vrienten and Karin Bloemen. Throughout the years Oosterhuis has written and produced many tracks for national artists like Madcon, Ben Saunders and Kinderen voor Kinderen, his latest venture is the supergroup Ladies of Soul that premiered in 2014 for annual arena-shows in both the Netherlands and Belgium.

It is formed around four famous Dutch singers Trijntje Oosterhuis, Edsilia Rombley, Glennis Grace and Berget Lewis, plus sax-player and singer Candy Dulfer. He has made music for various commercials and television programmes