Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, reproduction and disease of an organism. It includes food intake, assimilation, biosynthesis and excretion; the diet of an organism is what it eats, determined by the availability and palatability of foods. For humans, a healthy diet includes preparation of food and storage methods that preserve nutrients from oxidation, heat or leaching, that reduce risk of foodborne illnesses. In humans, an unhealthy diet can cause deficiency-related diseases such as blindness, scurvy, preterm birth and cretinism, or nutrient excess health-threatening conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. Undernutrition can lead to wasting in acute cases, the stunting of marasmus in chronic cases of malnutrition; the first recorded dietary advice, carved into a Babylonian stone tablet in about 2500 BC, cautioned those with pain inside to avoid eating onions for three days. Scurvy found to be a vitamin C deficiency, was first described in 1500 BC in the Ebers Papyrus.
According to Walter Gratzer, the study of nutrition began during the 6th century BC. In China, the concept of qi developed, a spirit or "wind" similar to what Western Europeans called pneuma. Food was classified into "hot" and "cold" in China, India and Persia. Humours developed first in China alongside qi. Ho the Physician concluded that diseases are caused by deficiencies of elements, he classified diseases as well as prescribed diets. About the same time in Italy, Alcmaeon of Croton wrote of the importance of equilibrium between what goes in and what goes out, warned that imbalance would result in disease marked by obesity or emaciation; the first recorded nutritional experiment with human subjects is found in the Bible's Book of Daniel. Daniel and his friends were captured by the king of Babylon during an invasion of Israel. Selected as court servants, they were to share in the king's fine foods and wine, but they objected, preferring vegetables and water in accordance with their Jewish dietary restrictions.
The king's chief steward reluctantly agreed to a trial. Daniel and his friends received their diet for ten days and were compared to the king's men. Appearing healthier, they were allowed to continue with their diet. Around 475 BC, Anaxagoras stated that food is absorbed by the human body and, contains "homeomerics", suggesting the existence of nutrients. Around 400 BC, who recognized and was concerned with obesity, which may have been common in southern Europe at the time, said, "Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food." The works that are still attributed to him, Corpus Hippocraticum, called for moderation and emphasized exercise. Salt and other spices were prescribed for various ailments in various preparations for example mixed with vinegar. In the 2nd century BC, Cato the Elder believed that cabbage could cure digestive diseases, ulcers and intoxication. Living about the turn of the millennium, Aulus Celsus, an ancient Roman doctor, believed in "strong" and "weak" foods. One mustn't overlook the doctrines of Galen: In use from his life in the 1st century AD until the 17th century, it was heresy to disagree with him for 1500 years.
Galen was physician to gladiators in Pergamon, in Rome, physician to Marcus Aurelius and the three emperors who succeeded him. Most of Galen's teachings were gathered and enhanced in the late 11th century by Benedictine monks at the School of Salerno in Regimen sanitatis Salernitanum, which still had users in the 17th century. Galen believed in the bodily humours of Hippocrates, he taught that pneuma is the source of life. Four elements combine into "complexion"; the states are made up of pairs of attributes, which are made of four humours: blood, green bile, black bile. Galen thought that for a person to have gout, kidney stones, or arthritis was scandalous, which Gratzer likens to Samuel Butler's Erehwon where sickness is a crime. In the 1500s, Paracelsus was the first to criticize Galen publicly. In the 16th century and artist Leonardo da Vinci compared metabolism to a burning candle. Leonardo did not publish his works on this subject, but he was not afraid of thinking for himself and he disagreed with Galen.
16th century works of Andreas Vesalius, sometimes called the father of modern human anatomy, overturned Galen's ideas. He was followed by piercing thought amalgamated with the era's mysticism and religion sometimes fueled by the mechanics of Newton and Galileo. Jan Baptist van Helmont, who discovered several gases such as carbon dioxide, performed the first quantitative experiment. Robert Boyle advanced chemistry. Sanctorius measured body weight. Physician Herman Boerhaave modeled the digestive process. Physiologist Albrecht von Haller worked out the difference between muscles. Sometimes forgotten during his life, James Lind, a physician in the British navy, performed the first scientific nutrition experiment in 1747. Lind discovered that lime juice saved sailors, at sea for years from scurvy, a deadly an
A sailboat or sailing boat is a boat propelled or by sails smaller than a sailing ship. Distinctions in what constitutes a sailing boat and ship vary by maritime culture. Although sailboat terminology has varied across history, many terms have specific meanings in the context of modern yachting. A great number of sailboat-types may be distinguished by size, hull configuration, keel type, purpose and configuration of masts, sail plan. Popular monohull designs include: The cutter is similar to a sloop with a single mast and mainsail, but carries the mast further aft to allow for a jib and staysail to be attached to the head stay and inner forestay, respectively. Once a common racing configuration, today it gives versatility to cruising boats in allowing a small staysail to be flown from the inner stay in high winds. A catboat does not carry a jib. Most modern designs have the mainsail. A dinghy is a type of small open sailboat used for recreation, sail training, tending a larger vessel, they are popular in youth sailing programs for their short LOA, simple operation and minimal maintenance.
They have three sails: the mainsail and spinnaker. Ketches are similar to a sloop, but there is a second shorter mast astern of the mainmast, but forward of the rudder post; the second mast is called the mizzen mast and the sail is called the mizzen sail. A ketch can be Cutter-rigged with two head sails. A schooner has a mainmast taller than its foremast, distinguishing it from a yawl. A schooner can have more than two masts, with the foremast always lower than the foremost main. Traditional topsail schooners have topmasts allowing triangular topsails sails to be flown above their gaff sails; the most common modern sailboat is the sloop, which features one mast and two sails a Bermuda rigged main, a headsail. This simple configuration is efficient for sailing into the wind. A fractional rigged sloop has its forestay attached at a point below the top of the mast, allowing the mainsail to be flattened to improve performance by raking the upper part of the mast aft by tensioning the backstay. A smaller headsail is easier for a short-handed crew to manage.
A yawl is similar to a ketch, with a shorter mizzen mast carried astern the rudderpost more for balancing the helm than propulsion. Traditional sailboats are monohulls. Monohull boats rely on ballast for stability and are displacement hulls; this stabilizing ballast can, in boats designed for racing, be as much as 50% of the weight of the boat, but is around 30%. It creates two problems. Secondly, unless it has been built with buoyant foam or air tanks, if a monohull fills with water, it will sink. Multihulls rely on the geometry and the broad stance of their multiple hulls for their stability, eschewing any form of ballast. Multihulls are designed to be as light-weight as possible while still maintaining structural integrity, they are built with foam-filled flotation chambers and many modern commercial trimarans are rated as unsinkable, meaning that, should every crew compartment be filled with water, the hull itself has sufficient buoyancy to remain afloat. This absence of ballast results in performance gains in terms of acceleration, top speed, maneuverability.
The lack of ballast makes it much easier to get a multihull on plane, reducing its wetted surface area and thus its drag. The absence of drag improves wind precision. Compared to a monohull, acceleration to top speed is near-instantaneous. Reduced overall weight means a reduced draft, with a much reduced underwater profile. This, in turn, results directly in reduced wetted surface area and drag.. Without a ballast keel, multihulls can go in shallow waters. There are trade offs, however, in multihull design. A well designed ballasted boat can recover from a capsize from turning over completely. Righting a multihull that has gotten upside down is difficult in any case and impossible without help unless the boat is small or carries special equipment for the purpose. Multihulls prove more difficult to tack, since the reduced weight leads directly to reduced momentum, causing multihulls to more lose speed when headed into the wind. Structural integrity is much easier to achieve in a one piece monohull than in a two or three piece multihull whose connecting structure must be substantial and well connected to the hulls.
All these hull types may be manufactured as, or outfitted with, hydrofoils. All vessels have a keel, it is the backbone of the hull. In traditional construction, it is the structure upon. Modern monocoque designs include a virtual keel. Multihulls have keels. On a sailboat, the word "keel" is used to refer to the area, added to the hull to improve its lateral plane; the lateral plane is what allows sailing towards the wind. This can be a part of the hull. Most monohulls larger. Depending on the design of the boat, ballast may be 20 to 50 percent of the displacement; the ballast is integrated into their keels as large masses of lead or cast iron. This gets it as low as possible to improve its effectiveness. External keels are cast in the shape of the keel. A monohull's keel is made effective by a combination of weight and length. Most modern monohull boats ha
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progress in meteorology did not occur until the 18th century; the 19th century saw modest progress in the field after weather observation networks were formed across broad regions. Prior attempts at prediction of weather depended on historical data, it was not until after the elucidation of the laws of physics and more the development of the computer, allowing for the automated solution of a great many equations that model the weather, in the latter half of the 20th century that significant breakthroughs in weather forecasting were achieved. An important domain of weather forecasting is marine weather forecasting as it relates to maritime and coastal safety, in which weather effects include atmospheric interactions with large bodies of water. Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events that are explained by the science of meteorology.
Meteorological phenomena are described and quantified by the variables of Earth's atmosphere: temperature, air pressure, water vapour, mass flow, the variations and interactions of those variables, how they change over time. Different spatial scales are used to describe and predict weather on local and global levels. Meteorology, atmospheric physics, atmospheric chemistry are sub-disciplines of the atmospheric sciences. Meteorology and hydrology compose the interdisciplinary field of hydrometeorology; the interactions between Earth's atmosphere and its oceans are part of a coupled ocean-atmosphere system. Meteorology has application in many diverse fields such as the military, energy production, transport and construction; the word meteorology is from the Ancient Greek μετέωρος metéōros and -λογία -logia, meaning "the study of things high in the air". The ability to predict rains and floods based on annual cycles was evidently used by humans at least from the time of agricultural settlement if not earlier.
Early approaches to predicting weather were practiced by priests. Cuneiform inscriptions on Babylonian tablets included associations between rain; the Chaldeans differentiated 46 ° halos. Ancient Indian Upanishads contain mentions of seasons; the Samaveda mentions sacrifices to be performed. Varāhamihira's classical work Brihatsamhita, written about 500 AD, provides evidence of weather observation. In 350 BC, Aristotle wrote Meteorology. Aristotle is considered the founder of meteorology. One of the most impressive achievements described in the Meteorology is the description of what is now known as the hydrologic cycle; the book De Mundo noted If the flashing body is set on fire and rushes violently to the Earth it is called a thunderbolt. They are all called ` swooping bolts'. Lightning is sometimes smoky, is called'smoldering lightning". At other times, it travels in crooked lines, is called forked lightning; when it swoops down upon some object it is called'swooping lightning'. The Greek scientist Theophrastus compiled a book on weather forecasting, called the Book of Signs.
The work of Theophrastus remained a dominant influence in the study of weather and in weather forecasting for nearly 2,000 years. In 25 AD, Pomponius Mela, a geographer for the Roman Empire, formalized the climatic zone system. According to Toufic Fahd, around the 9th century, Al-Dinawari wrote the Kitab al-Nabat, in which he deals with the application of meteorology to agriculture during the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, he describes the meteorological character of the sky, the planets and constellations, the sun and moon, the lunar phases indicating seasons and rain, the anwa, atmospheric phenomena such as winds, lightning, floods, rivers, lakes. Early attempts at predicting weather were related to prophecy and divining, were sometimes based on astrological ideas. Admiral FitzRoy tried to separate scientific approaches from prophetic ones. Ptolemy wrote on the atmospheric refraction of light in the context of astronomical observations. In 1021, Alhazen showed that atmospheric refraction is responsible for twilight.
St. Albert the Great was the first to propose that each drop of falling rain had the form of a small sphere, that this form meant that the rainbow was produced by light interacting with each raindrop. Roger Bacon was the first to calculate the angular size of the rainbow, he stated. In the late 13th century and early 14th century, Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī and Theodoric of Freiberg were the first to give the correct explanations for the primary rainbow phenomenon. Theoderic went further and explained the secondary rainbow. In 1716, Edmund Halley suggested that aurorae are caused by "magnetic effluvia" moving along the Earth's magnetic field lines. In 1441, King Sejong's son, Prince Munjong of Korea, invented the first standardized rain gauge; these were sent throughout the Joseon dynasty of Korea as an official tool to assess land taxes based
Summer Olympic Games
The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years. The most recent Olympics were held in Rio de Brazil; the International Olympic Committee oversees the host city's preparations. In each Olympic event, gold medals are awarded for first place, silver medals are awarded for second place, bronze medals are awarded for third place; the Winter Olympic Games were created due to the success of the Summer Olympics. The Olympics have increased in scope from a 42-event competition with fewer than 250 male competitors from 14 nations in 1896, to 306 events with 11,238 competitors from 206 nations in 2016; the Summer Olympics has been hosted on five continents by a total of nineteen countries. The Games have been held four times in the United States; the IOC has selected Tokyo, Japan, to host the Summer Olympics for a second time in 2020. The 2024 Summer Olympics will be held in Paris, for a third time one hundred years after the city's last Summer Olympics in 1924.
The IOC has selected Los Angeles, California, to host its third Summer Games in 2028. To date, only five countries have participated in every Summer Olympic Games – Australia, Great Britain and Switzerland; the United States leads the all-time medal table for the Summer Olympics. The United States has hosted the Summer Olympic Games four times: the 1904 Games were held in St. Louis, Missouri; the 2028 Games in Los Angeles will mark the fifth occasion on which the Summer Games have been hosted by the U. S. In 2012, the United Kingdom hosted its third Summer Olympic Games in the capital city, which became the first city to have hosted the Summer Olympic Games three times; the cities of Los Angeles and Athens have each hosted two Summer Olympic Games. In 2024, France will host its third Summer Olympic Games in its capital, making Paris the second city to have hosted three Summer Olympics. In 2028, Los Angeles will become the third city to have hosted the Games three times. Australia, France and Greece have all hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice.
The IOC has selected Tokyo, Japan, to host the 2020 Summer Olympics, when it will become the first city outside the Western world to have hosted the Summer Olympics more than once, having hosted the Games in 1964. The other countries that have hosted the Summer Olympics are Belgium, China, Finland, Mexico, South Korea, Soviet Union, Sweden. Asia has hosted the Summer Olympics three times, in Tokyo, Seoul, South Korea, Beijing, China; the Summer Olympics has been held predominantly in English-speaking countries and European nations. Tokyo will be the first city outside these regions to have hosted the Summer Olympics twice; the 2016 Games in Rio de Janeiro, were the first Summer Olympics to be held in South America and the first that were held during the local winter season. The only two countries in the Southern Hemisphere to have hosted the Summer Olympics have been Australia and Brazil. Africa has yet to host a Summer Olympics. Stockholm, has hosted events at two Summer Olympic Games, having been sole host of the 1912 Games, hosting the equestrian events at the 1956 Summer Olympics.
Amsterdam, has hosted events at two Summer Olympic Games, having been sole host of the 1928 Games and hosting two of the sailing races at the 1920 Summer Olympics. At the 2008 Summer Olympics, Hong Kong provided the venues for the equestrian events, which took place in Sha Tin and Kwu Tung; the modern Olympic Games were founded in 1894 when Pierre de Coubertin sought to promote international understanding through sporting competition. He based his Olympics on the Wenlock Olympian Society Annual Games, contested in Much Wenlock since 1850; the first edition of de Coubertin's games, held in Athens in 1896, attracted just 245 competitors, of whom more than 200 were Greek, only 14 countries were represented. No international events of this magnitude had been organised before. Female athletes were not allowed to compete, though one woman, Stamata Revithi, ran the marathon course on her own, saying "If the committee doesn't let me compete I will go after them regardless"; the 1896 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, celebrated in Athens, from 6 to 15 April 1896.
It was the first Olympic Games held in the Modern era. About 100,000 people attended for the opening of the games; the athletes came with most coming from Greece. Although Greece had the most athletes, the U. S. finished with the most champions. 11 Americans placed first in their events vs. the 10 from Greece
First aid is the first and immediate assistance given to any person suffering a serious illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, or to promote recovery. It includes initial intervention in a serious condition prior to professional medical help being available, such as performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation while awaiting for an ambulance, as well as the complete treatment of minor conditions, such as applying a plaster to a cut. First aid is performed by someone with basic medical training. Mental health first aid is an extension of the concept of first aid to cover mental health. There are many situations which may require first aid, many countries have legislation, regulation, or guidance which specifies a minimum level of first aid provision in certain circumstances; this can include specific training or equipment to be available in the workplace, the provision of specialist first aid cover at public gatherings, or mandatory first aid training within schools.
First aid, does not require any particular equipment or prior knowledge, can involve improvisation with materials available at the time by untrained people. First aid can be performed on all mammals, although this article relates to the care of human patients. Skills of what is now known as first aid have been recorded throughout history in relation to warfare, where the care of both traumatic and medical cases is required in large numbers; the bandaging of battle wounds is shown on Classical Greek pottery from c. 500 BCE, whilst the parable of the Good Samaritan includes references to binding or dressing wounds. There are numerous references to first aid performed within the Roman army, with a system of first aid supported by surgeons, field ambulances, hospitals. Roman legions had the specific role of capsarii, who were responsible for first aid such as bandaging, are the forerunners of the modern combat medic. Further examples occur through history, still related to battle, with examples such as the Knights Hospitaller in the 11th century CE, providing care to pilgrims and knights in the Holy Land.
During the late 18th century, drowning as a cause of death was a major concern amongst the population. In 1767, a society for the preservation of life from accidents in water was started in Amsterdam, in 1773, physician William Hawes began publicizing the power of artificial respiration as means of resuscitation of those who appeared drowned; this led to the formation, in 1774, of the Society for the Recovery of Persons Apparently Drowned the Royal Humane Society, who did much to promote resuscitation. Napoleon's surgeon, Baron Dominique-Jean Larrey, is credited with creating an ambulance corps, which included medical assistants, tasked to administer first aid in battle. In 1859 Jean-Henri Dunant witnessed the aftermath of the Battle of Solferino, his work led to the formation of the Red Cross, with a key stated aim of "aid to sick and wounded soldiers in the field"; the Red Cross and Red Crescent are still the largest provider of first aid worldwide. In 1870, Prussian military surgeon Friedrich von Esmarch introduced formalized first aid to the military, first coined the term "erste hilfe", including training for soldiers in the Franco-Prussian War on care for wounded comrades using pre-learnt bandaging and splinting skills, making use of the Esmarch bandage which he designed.
The bandage was issued as standard to the Prussian combatants, included aide-memoire pictures showing common uses. In 1872, the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem in England changed its focus from hospice care, set out to start a system of practical medical help, starting with making a grant towards the establishment of the UK's first ambulance service; this was followed by creating its own wheeled transport litter in 1875, in 1877 established the St John Ambulance Association "to train men and women for the benefit of the sick and wounded". In the UK, Surgeon-Major Peter Shepherd had seen the advantages of von Esmarch's new teaching of first aid, introduced an equivalent programme for the British Army, so being the first user of "first aid for the injured" in English, disseminating information through a series of lectures. Following this, in 1878, Shepherd and Colonel Francis Duncan took advantage of the newly charitable focus of St John, established the concept of teaching first aid skills to civilians.
The first classes were conducted in the hall of the Presbyterian school in Woolwich using a comprehensive first aid curriculum. First aid training began to spread through the British Empire through organisations such as St John starting, as in the UK, with high risk activities such as ports and railways; the primary goal of first aid is to prevent death or serious injury from worsening. The key aims of first aid can be summarized in three key points, sometimes known as'the three Ps': The overriding aim of all medical care which includes first aid, is to save lives and minimize the threat of death. Prevent further harm sometimes called prevent the condition from worsening, or danger of further injury, this covers both external factors, such as moving a patient away from any cause of harm, applying first aid techniques to prevent worsening of the condition, such as applying pressure to stop a bleed becoming dangerous. First aid involves trying to start the recovery process from the illness or injury,and in some cases might involve completing a treatment, such as in the case of applying a plaster to a small wound
Power boating describes activities performed in a motorized boat. A power boat has a high power-to-weight ratio and a hull design that allows for easy planing, which allows for higher speed and improved handling; the shape of the actual boat is very streamlined, which minimizes air resistance and drag, therefore increasing speed. Power boats are used in yachting and wakeboarding. Powerboating is considered to have begun in 1863 when Frenchman Jean Lenoir used a petrol engine in the small boat; the first major race took place in 1903 across the English Channel and the sport appeared as an event in the 1908 Olympics. P1 SuperStock is considered the least prestigious powerboat racing championship in the world
Lake Päijänne is the second largest lake in Finland. The lake drains into the Gulf of Finland via the Kymi River; the major islands are from north to south Vuoritsalo, Onkisalo, Edessalo, Haukkasalo, Mustassalo and Salonsaari. The largest island is Virmailansaari; the word saari means an island. Salo once meant a great island, nowadays it means a great forest area; the largest city on the shores of Päijänne is Jyväskylä in the North. The city of Lahti is connected to Päijänne through Vääksy canal. An underground aqueduct, Päijänne Water Tunnel, connects the lake to Vantaa, providing the Greater Helsinki area with water; the deepest point in any lake in Finland is located in Päijänne. Päijänne is a famous boating and sailing attraction; the 119 kilometres long lake is connected by canals to Lake Keitele, Lake Vesijärvi and to Lake Ruotsalainen. Length of the open waterway for ships is 380 kilometres. Construction of canals connecting Päijänne to the Baltic Sea has been discussed for decades; the plan is still to be materialized.
Until the 1940s Lake Päijänne was a major transportation channel in the Central Finland. Numerous ships transported passengers and freight between the villages and cities on the shores of Päijänne. Nowadays, passenger transportation is rather a tourist attraction on the lakelands than the fastest way connecting the cities and villages. One of the most popular passenger transportation routes in summertime is between the cities of Lahti and Jyväskylä. There are 16,000 cottages on the shores of Päijänne. Most of the cottages are private have a separate sauna cottage. In addition to cottage tourism Päijänne attracts fishing, canoeing, paddling, ice-skating, snow mobile and nature tourists; the National Parks of Päijänne and Leivonmäki alone has tens of thousands of visitors every year. The Clear and Drinkable Lake Päijänne South Association won a Tourism and Environment award presented by the European Union Commission in 1995. Päijänne National Park is a national park in the southern parts of Lake Päijänne.
It consists of 50 unbuilt parts of inhabited islands. The national park has an area of 14 square kilometres. Leivonmäki National Park is situated few kilometres North East from the Northern part of Lake Päijänne, it is one of the youngest national parks in Finland. From North to South Jyväskylä Säynätsalo Muurame Toivakka Korpilahti Jämsä Luhanka Joutsa Kuhmoinen Sysmä Padasjoki Asikkala Päijänne National Park Media related to Päijänne at Wikimedia Commons