Yad Vashem is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust. It is dedicated to preserving the memory of the dead. Established in 1953, Yad Vashem is on the western slope of Mount Herzl known as the Mount of Remembrance, a height in western Jerusalem, 804 meters above sea level and adjacent to the Jerusalem Forest; the memorial consists of a 180-dunam complex containing two types of facilities: some dedicated to the scientific study of the Holocaust and genocide in general, memorials and museums catering to the needs of the larger public. Among the former there are a research institute with archives, a library, a publishing house, an educational center, the International School/Institute for Holocaust Studies. A core goal of Yad Vashem's founders was to recognize non-Jews who, at personal risk and without a financial or evangelistic motive, chose to save Jews from the ongoing genocide during the Holocaust; those recognized by Israel as Righteous Among the Nations are honored in a section of Yad Vashem known as the Garden of the Righteous Among the Nations.
Yad Vashem is the second-most-visited Israeli tourist site, after the Western Wall, with one million visitors each year. It does not charge any fee for admission; the name "Yad Vashem" is taken from a verse in the Book of Isaiah: "To them I will give within my temple and its walls a memorial and a name better than sons and daughters. Naming the Holocaust memorial "yad vashem" conveys the idea of establishing a national depository for the names of Jewish victims who have no one to carry their name after death; the original verse referred to infertile people who, although they could not have children, could still live for eternity with the Lord. The notion of establishing a memorial in the historical Jewish homeland for Jewish victims of the Nazi Holocaust was conceived during World War II, as a response to reports of the mass murder of Jews in Nazi-occupied countries. Yad Vashem was first proposed in September 1942, at a board meeting of the Jewish National Fund, by Mordecai Shenhavi, a member of Kibbutz Mishmar Ha'emek.
In August 1945, the plan was discussed in greater detail at a Zionist meeting in London. A provisional board of Zionist leaders was established that included David Remez as chairman, Shlomo Zalman Shragai, Baruch Zuckerman, Shenhavi. In February 1946, Yad Vashem opened an office in Jerusalem and a branch office in Tel Aviv, in June that year convened its first plenary session. In July 1947, the First Conference on Holocaust Research was held at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. However, the outbreak of the 1947–1949 Palestine war brought operations to a standstill for two years. On 19 August 1953, the Knesset, Israel's Parliament, unanimously passed the Yad Vashem Law, establishing the Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, the aim of, "the commemoration in the Homeland of all those members of the Jewish people who gave their lives, or rose up and fought the Nazi enemy and its collaborators," and to set up "a memorial to them, to the communities and institutions that were destroyed because they belonged to the Jewish people."
On 29 July 1954, the cornerstone for the Yad Vashem building was laid on a hill in western Jerusalem, to be known as the Mount of Remembrance. The memorial and museum opened to the public in 1957; the location of Yad Vashem on the western side of Mount Herzl, an area devoid of weighty historical associations, was chosen to convey a symbolic message of "rebirth" after destruction, distinct from the Chamber of the Holocaust, founded in 1948 on Mount Zion. Thus, the latter museum, whose walls are lined with plaques memorializing over 2,000 Jewish communities destroyed during the Holocaust, portrays the Holocaust as a continuation of the "death and destruction" that plagued Jewish communities throughout Jewish history. On 15 March 2005, a new Museum complex four times larger than the old one opened at Yad Vashem, it included the Holocaust History Museum with a new Hall of Names, a Museum of Holocaust Art, an Exhibitions Pavilion, a Learning Center and a Visual Center. The new Yad Vashem museum was designed by Israeli-Canadian architect Moshe Safdie, replacing the previous 30-year-old exhibition.
It was the culmination of a $100 million decade-long expansion project. In November 2008, Rabbi Yisrael Meir Lau was appointed Chairman of Yad Vashem's Council, replacing Tommy Lapid; the Vice Chairmen of the Council are Moshe Kantor. Elie Wiesel was Vice Chairman of the Council until his death on July 2, 2016; the Chairman of the Directorate is Avner Shalev, who replaced Yitzhak Arad, who had served in this position for 21 years. The Director General is Dorit Novak; the Head of the Internatio
A scraper bike is a bicycle, modified by its owner with decorated spokes with matching body and wheel colors, using tinfoil, re-used cardboard, candy wrappers and paint. The bike frames themselves are modified with BMX frames, heightened seats, or custom pieces to create unique bicycles. Scraper Bikes are an offshoot of the 90's era scraper culture of car modification.“A scraper bike is a piece of art, every artist builds up their bike from scratch using different material, different colors to customize it to fit the artist inside.” - Baybe Champ, 2016. Scraper bikes gained notoriety in 2007 due to the YouTube music video "Scraper Bikes" by Trunk Boiz; the Original Scraper Bike Team was founded by Tyrone “Baybe Champ” Stevenson Jr. aka Scraper Bike King, in 2006 in Oakland, California. Stevenson views the scraper bike movement as a way for local youth to stay active and avoid getting caught up in crime or violence, he wants scraper bikes to be a positive alternative to the struggles which defined his troubled upbringing.
In 2010, Stevenson was profiled in a mini documentary Scrapertown, part of a larger series of documentaries called California is a place created by Drea Cooper and Zackary Canepari. In the documentary, claims to have founded the scraper bike movement and says about the practice: "Scraper bikes is a hobby, as long as you take your time out of your day to make that bike, that you put the correct material on the spokes, you spray paint your bike a beautiful color... or put something that means something to you, you know, in a decorative way on your bicycle, that makes you a scraper bike."In 2011, Stevenson received a National Jefferson Award for his public service, honored as one of ten GlobalChangers. In 2016, with support from Oakland Public Library and Bike East Bay, the Original Scraper Bike Team opened up the Bike Shed in East Oakland; the Bike Shed, a youth-led, no-fee bike shop, is run by “Chef Boy RB” Burnette Jr. aka Scraper Bike President. Members of the Original Scraper Bike Team were featured in Boots Riley’s 2018 film Sorry to Bother You as background extras.
In 2018, members of the team reported being harassed by San Leandro police, sometimes having their bikes taken. SLPD did not respond to requests to comment on the incidents, but the bikers suspected SLPD officers thought they were breaking traffic laws, or that their bikes were stolen. On February 11th, 2019, rideshare company Lyft invested $700,000 dollars in the East Bay’s public transit system; the deal included a partnership with the Original Scraper Bike Team, funding a free bike sharing program run out of their bike shed at the MLK Jr. Library Branch. Outline of cycling SCRAPER BIKE - Trunk Boiz
The Signs Gospel or the semeia source is a hypothetical gospel account of the life of Jesus Christ which some scholars have suggested could have been a primary source document for the Gospel of John. This theory has its basis in source criticism. Since the commentary of Rudolf Bultmann was published in 1941, the hypothesis of a semeia source has gained some acceptance. One possible construction of the "internal evidence" states that the Beloved Disciple wrote an account of the life of Jesus. However, this disciple died unexpectedly. In other words, it may be that John “is the source" of the Johannine tradition but "not the final writer of the tradition." Therefore, scholars are no longer looking for the identity of a single writer but for numerous authors whose authorship has been absorbed into the gospel's development over a period of time and in several stages. The hypothesis of the Gospel of John being composed in layers over a period of time originated in the work of Rudolf Bultmann in 1941.
Bultmann suggested that the author of John depended in part on an author who wrote an earlier account. This hypothetical "Signs Gospel" listing Christ's miracles was independent of, not used by, the synoptic gospels, it was believed to have been circulating before the year 70 AD. Bultmann's conclusion was so controversial that heresy proceedings were instituted against him and his writings; this hypothesis has not disappeared. Scholars such as Raymond E. Brown believe the original author of the Signs Gospel to be the Beloved Disciple, they argue that the disciple who formed this community was both a historical person and a companion of Jesus Christ. Brown suggests that the Beloved Disciple had been a follower of John the Baptist before joining Jesus, it is now agreed that the Gospel of John draws upon a tradition of Miracles of Jesus, independent of the three synoptic gospels. Robert Fortna, a member of the Jesus Seminar, argued that there are at least two distinct writing styles contained in the Gospel of John.
The style contains developed and sophisticated midrash and theological essays attached superficially - "mechanically" at some points - to the former source. The other - earlier - style is the original 2-part Signs Gospel, consisting of a Signs Source and a Passion Source, it is simple and historical in style and can be reconstructed as follows: List of Gospels Text of the Signs Gospel