Yahoo! is an American web services provider headquartered in Sunnyvale and owned by Verizon Media. The original Yahoo! company was founded by Jerry Yang and David Filo in January 1994 and was incorporated on March 2, 1995. Yahoo was one of the pioneers of the early Internet era in the 1990s, it provides or provided a Web portal, search engine Yahoo! Search, related services, including Yahoo! Directory, Yahoo! Mail, Yahoo! News, Yahoo! Finance, Yahoo! Groups, Yahoo! Answers, online mapping, video sharing, fantasy sports, its social media website. At its height it was one of the most popular sites in the United States. According to third-party web analytics providers Alexa and SimilarWeb, Yahoo was the most read news and media website – with over 7 billion views per month – ranking as the sixth-most-visited website globally in 2016. Once one of the largest internet companies, Yahoo declined starting in the late 2000s, in 2017 Verizon Communications acquired most of Yahoo's Internet business for $4.48 billion, excluding its stakes in Alibaba Group and Yahoo!
Japan, which were transferred to Yahoo's successor company Altaba. Despite its decline from prominence, Yahoo domain websites are still among the most popular, ranking 10th in the world according to the Alexa rankings as of October 2019. In January 1994, Yang and Filo were electrical engineering graduate students at Stanford University, when they created a website named "Jerry and David's guide to the World Wide Web"; the site was a directory of other websites, organized in a hierarchy, as opposed to a searchable index of pages. In March 1994, "Jerry and David's Guide to the World Wide Web" was renamed "Yahoo!". The human-edited Yahoo! Directory, provided for users to surf through the Internet, became their first product and the company's original purpose; the "yahoo.com" domain was created on January 18, 1995. The word "yahoo" is a backronym for "Yet Another Hierarchically Organized Oracle" or "Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle"; the term "hierarchical" described. The term "oracle" was intended to mean "source of truth and wisdom", the term "officious", rather than being related to the word's normal meaning, described the many office workers who would use the Yahoo database while surfing from work.
However and Yang insist they selected the name because they liked the slang definition of a "yahoo": "rude, uncouth." This meaning derives from the Yahoo race of fictional beings from Gulliver's Travels. In 1995, a search engine function, called Yahoo! Search, was introduced; this allowed users to search Yahoo! Directory. Yahoo soon became the first popular online search engine on the World Wide Web. Yahoo grew throughout the 1990s. Yahoo went public in April 1996 and its stock price rose by 600 percent within two years. Like many search engines and web directories, Yahoo added a web portal, putting it in competition with services like Excite and America Online. By 1998, Yahoo was the most popular starting point for web users, the human-edited Yahoo Directory the most popular search engine, receiving 95 million page views per day, triple the number compared to rival Excite, it made many high-profile acquisitions. Yahoo began offering free e-mail from October 1997 after the acquisition of RocketMail, renamed to Yahoo!
Mail. In 1998, Yahoo decided to replace AltaVista as the crawler-based search engine underlying the Directory with Inktomi. Yahoo's two biggest acquisitions were made in 1999 – that of Geocities for $3.6 billion, Broadcast.com for $5.7 billion. Its stock price skyrocketed during the dot-com bubble, Yahoo stocks closing at an all-time high of $118.75 a share on January 3, 2000. However, after the dot-com bubble burst, it reached a post-bubble low of $8.11 on September 26, 2001. Yahoo began using Google for search in 2000. Over the next four years, it developed its own search technologies, which it began using in 2004 using technology from its $280 million acquisition of Inktomi in 2002. In response to Google's Gmail, Yahoo began to offer unlimited email storage in 2007; the company struggled with several large layoffs. In February 2008, Microsoft Corporation made an unsolicited bid to acquire Yahoo for $44.6 billion. Yahoo formally rejected the bid, claiming that it "substantially undervalues" the company and was not in the interest of its shareholders.
By 2011, Yahoo had a market capitalization of $22.24 billion. Carol Bartz replaced Yang as CEO in January 2009. In September 2011, she was removed from her position at Yahoo by the company's chairman Roy Bostock, CFO Tim Morse was named as Interim CEO of the company. In early 2012, after the appointment of Scott Thompson as CEO, rumors began to spread about looming layoffs. Several key executives left, including Chief Product Officer Blake Irving. On April 4, 2012, Yahoo announced about 14 percent of its 14,100 workers; the cut was expected to save around $375 million annually after the layoffs were completed at end of 2012. In an email sent to employees in April 2012, Thompson reiterated his view that customers should come first at Yahoo, he completely reorganized the company. On May 13, 2012, Yahoo issued a press release stating that Thompson was no longer with the company, would be replaced on an interim basis by Ross Levinsohn appointed head of Yahoo's new Media group. Thompson's total compensation for his 130-day tenure with Yahoo was at least $7.3 million.
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Nostoc commune is a species of cyanobacterium in the family Nostocaceae. Common names include witch's butter, mare's eggs, fah-tsai and facai, it is cosmopolitan in distribution. Nostoc commune is a colonial species of cyanobacterium, it forms a small, hollow gelatinous globule which grows and becomes leathery and convoluted, forming a gelatinous mass with other colonies growing nearby. Inside the thin sheath are numerous unbranched hair-like structures called trichomes formed of short cells in a string; the cells are bacteria and thus have no internal membrane system. To multiply, they form two new cells. Along the trichomes, larger specialist nitrogen-fixing cells called heterocysts occur between the ordinary cells; when wet, Nostoc commune is bluish-green, olive green or brown but in dry conditions it becomes an inconspicuous, crisp brownish mat. Nostoc commune is found in many countries around the world, it is able to survive in extreme conditions in arid areas. It is a terrestrial or freshwater species and forms loose clumps on soil and paved surfaces, among mosses and between cobbles.
In Singapore, Nostoc commune is found growing on alkaline soils, in brackish water, in paddy fields, on cliffs and on wet rocks. Nostoc commune can fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and can therefore live in locations where no nitrogenous compounds are available from the substrate. Nostoc commune contains photosynthetic pigments and the energy storing photosystems in membrane structures called thylakoids located in cytoplasm of the cells, it contains pigments that absorb long and medium wavelength ultraviolet radiation, which enables it to survive in places with high levels of radiation. Under adverse conditions, Nostoc commune can remain dormant for an extended period of time and revive when conditions improve and water becomes available; the desiccated colony is resistant to heat and to repeated patterns of freezing and thawing and produces no oxygen while dormant. It has been found that extracellular polysaccharides are vital to its stress tolerance and ability to recover. Nostoc commune can occur in pockets in the thallus of hornworts such as Phaeoceros.
Nostoc commune is eaten as a salad in the Philippines and is eaten in Indonesia and China. In Taiwan, it is nicknamed 雨來菇 yǔ lái gū. Nostoc commune var. flagelliforme is known as 发菜 fàcài in China which forms part of the food traditionally served at the Lunar New Year. Research indicates that consumption of Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides, in addition to consumption of other cyanobacteria, may be beneficial by means of an anti-inflammatory mechanism
Eucalyptus neglecta known as Omeo gum, is a species of small tree, endemic to a small area of Victoria, Australia. Older plants have rough, fibrous bark on the trunk, otherwise smooth grey to brownish bark, a crown of lance-shaped, egg-shaped or oblong leaves arranged in opposite pairs, flower buds in groups of between seven and fifteen, white flowers and cup-shaped or conical fruit. Eucalyptus neglecta is a tree, sometimes a mallee that grows to a height of 6–7 m and forms a lignotuber, it has smooth grey to brownish bark, but older specimens have fibrous grey to brown bark on the trunk. The crown of the tree is composed of sessile, juvenile leaves that are arranged in opposite pairs, with some intermediate and adult leaves. Juvenile leaves are greyish green, broadly elliptic to round, up to 110 mm long and 70 mm wide. Adult leaves are lance-shaped, the same shade of green on both sides, 80–150 mm long and 25–35 mm wide on a petiole up to 23 mm long; the flower buds are arranged in leaf axils in groups of between seven and fifteen on an unbranched peduncle up to 5 mm long, the individual buds sessile.
Mature buds are oval. Flowering occurs between November and February and the flowers are white; the fruit is a woody, cup-shaped or conical capsule 3–4 mm long and 4–7 mm wide with the valves near rim level. Eucalyptus neglecta was first formally described in 1904 by Joseph Maiden in The Victorian Naturalist from specimens collected near Omeo by Alfred William Howitt; the specific epithet is from the Latin neglectus meaning "neglected" because the species was not recognised as distinct at first. Omeo gum grows on river flats along creeks in the Victorian high country, including near Omeo and Bright. Although rare, it is recognised because of the unusual foliage in its crown. List of Eucalyptus species