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Yakima, Washington

Yakima is a city in and the county seat of Yakima County and the state's eleventh-largest city by population. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 91,067 and a metropolitan population of 243,231; the unincorporated suburban areas of West Valley and Terrace Heights are considered a part of greater Yakima. Yakima is about 60 miles southeast of Mount Rainier in Washington, it is situated in the Yakima Valley, a productive agricultural region noted for apple and hop production. As of 2011, the Yakima Valley produces 77% of all hops grown in the United States; the name Yakima originates from the Yakama Nation Native American tribe, whose reservation is located south of the city. The Yakama people were the first known inhabitants of the Yakima Valley. In 1805, the Lewis and Clark Expedition came to the area and discovered abundant wildlife and rich soil, prompting the settlement of homesteaders. A Catholic Mission was established in Ahtanum, southwest of present-day Yakima, in 1847.

The arrival of settlers and their conflicts with the natives resulted in the Yakima War. The U. S. Army established Fort Simcoe in 1856 near present-day White Swan as a response to the uprising; the Yakamas were forced to relocate to the Yakama Indian Reservation. Yakima County was created in 1865; when bypassed by the Northern Pacific Railroad in December 1884, over 100 buildings were moved with rollers and horse teams to the nearby site of the depot. The new city was dubbed North Yakima and was incorporated and named the county seat on January 27, 1886; the name was changed to Yakima in 1918. Union Gap was the new name given to the original site of Yakima. On May 18, 1980, the eruption of Mount St. Helens caused a large amount of volcanic ash to fall on the Yakima area. Visibility was reduced to near-zero conditions that afternoon, the ash overloaded the city's wastewater treatment plant. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 27.69 square miles, of which, 27.18 square miles is land and 0.51 square miles is water.

Yakima is 1095 feet above mean sea level. The city of Yakima is located in the Upper Valley of Yakima County; the county is geographically divided by Ahtanum Ridge and Rattlesnake Ridge into two regions: the Upper and Lower valleys. Yakima is located in the more urbanized Upper Valley, is the central city of the Yakima Metropolitan Statistical Area; the unincorporated suburban areas of West Valley and Terrace Heights are considered a part of greater Yakima. Other nearby cities include Moxee, Cowiche, Wiley City, Tampico and Naches in the Upper Valley, as well as Wapato, Zillah, White Swan, Buena, Granger, Mabton and Grandview in the Lower Valley; the primary irrigation source for the Yakima Valley, the Yakima River, runs through Yakima from its source at Lake Keechelus in the Cascade Range to the Columbia River at Richland. In Yakima, the river is used for both recreation. A 10-mile walking and cycling trail, a park, a wildlife sanctuary are located at the river's edge; the Naches River forms the northern border of the city.

Several small lakes flank the northern edge of the city, including Myron Lake, Lake Aspen, Bergland Lake and Rotary Lake. These lakes are popular with swimmers during the summer. Yakima has a semi-arid climate with a Mediterranean precipitation pattern. Winters are cold, with December the coolest month, with a mean temperature of 28.5 °F. Annual average snowfall is 21.6 inches, with most occurring in December and January, when the snow depth averages 2 to 3 in. There are 22 days per year in which the high does not surpass freezing, 2.3 mornings where the low is 0 °F or lower. Springtime warming is gradual, with the average last freeze of the season May 13. Summer days are hot, but the diurnal temperature variation is large, averaging 34.6 °F in July, sometimes reaching as high as 50 °F during that season. Autumn cooling is rapid, with the average first freeze of the season occurring on September 30. Due to the city's location in a rain shadow, precipitation, at an average of 8.25 inches annually, is low year-round, but during summer.

Extreme temperatures have ranged from −25 °F on February 1, 1950, to 110 °F on August 10, 1971. As of the census of 2010, there were 91,067 people with 33,074 households, 21,411 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,350.5 people per square mile. There were 34,829 housing units at an average density of 1,281.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 67.1% Caucasian, 1.7% African American, 2.0% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 23.3% from other races, 4.4% from two or more races. 41.3% were Hispanic or Latino, of any race. 19.1 % of the population had higher. There were 33,074 households of which 33.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.7% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 35.3% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.3.

28.3% of the population was under the age of 18 and 13.1% were 65 years or older. The median age was 33.9 years. 50.7% of the population was female. The median household income was $39,706. The

Tyrolean Folk Art Museum

The Tyrolean Folk Art Museum is considered one of the finest regional heritage museums in Europe. Located next to the Hofkirche and across from the Hofburg in the Altstadt section of Innsbruck, the museum contains the most important collection of cultural artifacts from the Tyrol region; the Tyrolean Folk Art Museum is housed in four wings of a former Franciscan monastery around an arcaded Renaissance courtyard. The permanent exhibition includes an extensive collection of old handicrafts, traditional costumes, household items and pottery, peasant furniture, tools and religious and secular folk art from the various regions of Tyrol; the museum houses several restored wood-paneled rooms from the Gothic and Baroque periods, that came from actual farms and noble houses. The museum contains an extensive collection of mangers made of wood, wax and paper, dating back to the eighteenth century. Tiroler Landesmuseum

R v Jordan

R v Jordan 40 Cr App R 152 is an English criminal law case establishing that exceptional medical negligence may constitute a novus actus interveniens, capable of absolving a defendant of liability for any subsequent injury or death. The appellant and three others – all serving members of the United States Airforce – became involved in a disturbance at a café in Hull, with the appellant stabbing a man named Beaumont, subsequently admitted to hospital, it was conceded by the defence that the appellant had stabbed Beaumont, but after uncovering medical evidence not available at trial, an appeal was lodged on the grounds that the medical treatment the victim had received was so negligent as to break the appellant's liability. Ordinarily, the circumstances and medical treatment following serious bodily harm are not relevant in establishing a defendant's liability for his acts. Where the original wound or injury caused by the defendant is still an'operating cause' of death, negligent medical treatment will not constitute a novus actus interveniens.

However, in the judgment of Hallett J, it was conceded that the death of the victim was not "consequent upon the wound inflicted." Hallett summed up the fresh medical evidence as such: The Court took the view that based on these facts – and that the original stab wound had healed – a reasonable jury would not be satisfied that the defendant's acts had been the material cause of the victim's death. As such, the conviction was quashed; the defendant was not liable because the origina would have healed and the medical treatment was'palpably wrong' thus breaking the link between the defendant's act and the victim's death. R v Smith R v Cheshire