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The shinbashira refers to a central pillar at the core of a pagoda or similar structure. The shinbashira has long been thought to be the key to the Japanese pagoda's notable earthquake resistance, when newer concrete buildings may collapse. Hōryū-ji, the world's oldest wooden structure, was found to have in 2001 a shinbashira from a tree felled in 594 CE, their examples continue in impending centuries in other tō like the Hokkiji in Nara in 8th century, Kaijūsenji of Kyoto. The pillar structure is made out of straight trunks of Japanese Cypress; the pillar runs the entire length of the pagoda, juts out of the top'layer' of the pagoda, where it supports the finial of the pagoda. The initial architectural forms included the pillar ingrained deep within the foundation Hōryūji Gojū-no-tou 法隆寺五重塔, was found to be 3m below ground level. At this time, pillars were tapered and became circular from the point where they rose beyond the roof, starting as hexagonal from the base; this shaping was necessary.
Uses starting 12c involve them suspended just above the ground, thus making them suspensions like the Nikkō Tōshōgū Gojū-no-tū 日光東照宮五重塔 in Tochigi prefecture. Size had a bearing on the fragmentation of the pillars found in the 8th century; the central pillar of Gojuu-no-tou at Hōryūji has a height of 31.5 m with a diameter of 77.8 cm at base, 65.1 cm in the middle and 24.1 cm at the midpoint on the spire. Such huge pillars had to be divided into three sections: from the base stone to the third floor; the shaft of a three-storied pagoda, is divided between the second and third stories and again where the spire begins. During the 8c, shinbashira were erected on a base stone set at ground level. Example: Hokkiji Sanjuu-no-tou 法起寺三重塔 in Nara. Japan is an earthquake prone nation, yet records show that only two of the pagodas have collapsed during the past 1,400 years owing to an earthquake. Hanshin earthquake in 1995 killed 6,400 people, toppled elevated highways, flattened office blocks and devastated the port area of Kobe.
Yet it left the magnificent five-storey pagoda at the Tō-ji Temple in nearby Kyoto unscathed, though it levelled a number of lower buildings in the neighbourhood. The reason traditionally attributed. Overall deductions have not been simplistic; some of structural engineer Shuzo Ishida's model pagodas have a simulated shinbashira attached to the ground, as was common in pagodas built during the sixth to eighth centuries. Others simulate designs with the shinbashira resting on a beam on the second floor or suspended from the fifth. Compared with a model with no shinbashira at all, Ishida finds that the one with a central column anchored to the ground survives longest, is at least twice as strong as any other shinbashira arrangement. Studies about shinbashira and their quake resistant attributes have been many; these studies are now materializing in brick-and-mortar buildings like the Tokyo Skytree. Pursuant studies of the shinbashira structure, its utility in quake-resistance has made it to be used anew in structures including the Tokyo Skytree.
A central feature of the tower is a system to control swaying used for the first time, has been dubbed "shinbashira" after the central pillar found in traditional five-story pagodas. The 375-meter-long, steel-reinforced concrete shinbashira is not directly connected to the tower itself and is designed to cancel out the swaying of the needle-like tower during an earthquake. According to an official with Nikken Sekkei, which designed the structure, the concept was developed on the basis that pagodas topple during earthquakes. More in San Francisco, the renovation of 680 Folsom Street, a fourteen-story 1960s steel building, inspired an ultra-modern iteration of the shinbashira: an 8-million-pound structural concrete core that can pivot atop a single sliding friction-pendulum bearing during a large earthquake. Tipping Mar, the engineering firm behind the design, used performance-based design and nonlinear time-history analysis to prove that the solution would meet the goals of the California Building Code.
Buddhist temples in Japan Hōryūji Japanese Buddhist architecture List of earthquakes in Japan Pagoda Tō-ji The Japanese page on the architecture of the 5-tier pagoda of Japan contains sections about the debated reason behind pagodas' quake-resistance – one of the two theories is the Shinbashira, lists the types of styles in which the Shinbashira is employed in the building of the structure. Shinbashira
East Asian Yogācāra
East Asian Yogācāra refers to the traditions in East Asia which represent the Yogacara system of thought. The term Fǎxiàng itself was first applied to this tradition by the Huayan teacher Fazang, who used it to characterize Consciousness Only teachings as provisional, dealing with the phenomenal appearances of the dharmas. Chinese proponents preferred the title Wéishí, meaning "Consciousness Only"; this school may be called Wéishí Yújiāxíng Pài or Yǒu Zōng. Yin Shun introduced a threefold classification for Buddhist teachings which designates this school as Xūwàng Wéishí Xì. Like the parent Yogācāra school, the Faxiang school teaches that our understanding of reality comes from our own mind, rather than actual empirical experience; the mind projects it as reality itself. In keeping with Yogācāra tradition, the mind is divided into the Eight Consciousnesses and the Four Aspects of Cognition, which produce what we view as reality. Faxiang Buddhism maintained the Five Natures Doctrine which brought it into doctrinal conflict with the Tiantai school in China.
Translations of Indian Yogācāra texts were first introduced to China in the early fifth century. Among these was Guṇabhadra's translation of the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra in four fascicles, which would become important in the early history of Chan Buddhism. During the sixth century CE, the Indian monk and translator Paramārtha propagated Yogācāra teachings in China, his translations include the Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra, the Madhyāntavibhāga-kārikā, the Triṃśikā-vijñaptimātratā, the Mahāyānasaṃgraha. Paramārtha taught on the principles of Consciousness Only, developed a large following in southern China. Many monks and laypeople traveled long distances to hear his teachings those on the Mahāyānasaṃgraha. Although Yogācāra teachings had been propagated most look to Xuanzang as the most important founder of East Asian Yogācāra. At the age of 33, Xuanzang made a dangerous journey to India in order to study Buddhism there and to procure Buddhist texts for translation into Chinese; this journey was the subject of legend and fictionalized as the classic Chinese novel Journey to the West, a major component of East Asian popular culture from Chinese opera to Japanese television.
Xuanzang spent over ten years in India studying under various Buddhist masters. These masters included Śīlabhadra, the abbot of the Nālandā Mahāvihāra, 106 years old. Xuanzang was tutored in the Yogācāra teachings by Śīlabhadra for several years at Nālandā. Upon his return from India, Xuanzang brought with him a wagon-load of Buddhist texts, including important Yogācāra works such as the Yogācārabhūmi-śastra. In total, Xuanzang had procured 657 Buddhist texts from India. Upon his return to China, he was given government support and many assistants for the purpose of translating these texts into Chinese; as an important contribution to East Asian Yogācāra, Xuanzang composed the treatise Cheng Weishi Lun, or "Discourse on the Establishment of Consciousness Only." This work is framed around Vasubandhu's Triṃśikā-vijñaptimātratā, or "Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only." Xuanzang upheld Dharmapala of Nalanda's commentary on this work as being the correct one, provided his own explanations of these as well as other views in the Cheng Weishi Lun.
This work was composed at the behest of Xuanzang's disciple Kuiji, became a central representation of East Asian Yogācāra. Xuanzang promoted devotional meditative practices toward Maitreya Bodhisattva. Xuanzang's disciple Kuiji wrote a number of important commentaries on the Yogācāra texts and further developed the influence of this doctrine in China, was recognized by adherents as the first true patriarch of the school. In time, Chinese Yogācāra was weakened due to competition with other Chinese Buddhist traditions such as Tiantai, Huayan and Pure Land Buddhism, it continued to exert an influence, Chinese Buddhists relied on its translations and concepts absorbing Yogācāra teachings into the other traditions. Yogācāra teachings and concepts remained popular in Chinese Buddhism, including visions of the bodhisattva Maitreya and teachings given from him in Tuṣita observed by advanced meditators. One such example is that of Hanshan Deqing during the Ming dynasty. In his autobiography, Hanshan describes the palace of Maitreya in Tuṣita, hearing a lecture given by Maitreya to a large group of his disciples.
In a moment I saw that dignified monks were standing in line before the throne. A bhikṣu, holding a sutra in his hands, came down from behind the throne and handed the sutra to me, saying, "Master is going to talk about this sutra, he asked me to give it to you." I received it with joy but when I opened it I saw that it was written in gold Sanskrit letters which I could not read. I put it inside my robe and asked, "Who is the Master?" The bhiksu replied, "Maitreya." Hanshan recalls the teaching given as the following: Maitreya said, "Discrimination is consciousness. Nondiscrimination is wisdom. Clinging to consciousness will bring disgrace but clinging to wisdom will bring purity. Disgrace leads to birth and death but purity leads to Nirvana." I listened to him. His v
Glossary of Japanese Buddhism
This is the glossary of Japanese Buddhism, including major terms the casual reader might find useful in understanding articles on the subject. Words followed by an asterisk are illustrated by an image in one of the photo galleries. Within definitions, words set in boldface are defined elsewhere in the glossary. Agyō* – A type of statue with its mouth open to pronounce the sound "a", first letter of the Sanskrit alphabet and symbol of the beginning of all things. See ungyō. Amida Nyorai – Japanese name of Amitabha, deity worshiped by the Pure Land sect. arhat – see arakan. Arakan* – the highest level of Buddhist ascetic practice, or someone who has reached it; the term is shortened to just rakan. Bay – see ken. bettō – Previously the title of the head of powerful temples, e.g. Tōdai-ji, Kōfuku-ji, etc.. A monk, present at Shinto shrines to perform Buddhist rites until the Meiji period, when the government forbade with the shinbutsu bunri policy the mixing of Shinto and Buddhism. Bodai – from the Pāli and Sanskrit word for way or knowledge.satori, or Buddhist enlightenment.
Ceremonies and other efforts to ensure someone's happiness in the next world, after death. Bodaiji – lit. "bodhi temple". A temple which, generation after generation, takes care of a family's dead giving them burial and performing ceremonies in their favor. See for example the Tokugawa's Kan'ei-ji. Bon – See Bon Festival bosatsu A bodhisattva The historical Gautama Buddha, before enlightenment. In Mahayana Buddhism, someone who could enter paradise but chooses not to, to help others achieve enlightenment. Someone, in pursuit of satori. During the shinbutsu-shūgō period, an honorific used for Japanese kami, as for example in "Hachiman Bosatsu". Buddha – the term Buddha in the upper case can refer to: Shakyamuni Buddha, Indian spiritual and philosophical teacher and founder of Buddhism. One who has become enlightened Any of the other Buddhas named in Buddhist scriptures. A statue or image of any Buddha. Buddha – the term'buddha' in the lower case refers not to Gautama Buddha but to: a statue of Gautama Buddha any of the other buddhas named in Buddhist scriptures.
Buddha's footprints – see bussokuseki bussokuseki* – lit. Buddha's foot stone. A stone carved with footprints representing Buddha. Before the instruction of the human figure, Buddha was represented only indirectly through his footprints. Butsuden or Butsu-dō* – lit. "Hall of Buddha". A Zen temple's main hall. Seems to have two stories, but has in fact only one and measures either 3x3 or 5x5 bays. Any building enshrining the statue of Buddha or of a bodhisattva and dedicated to prayer. Butsudan* – a tabernacle used in homes to install Buddhist images and tablets recording the posthumous names of deceased family members. Buppō – see hō buttō – a stupa or one of its relatives. See tō, gorintō, hōkyōintō, sekitō and tahōtō. Chinju – the tutelary kami or tutelary shrine of a certain area or Buddhist temple. Chinjusha* – a small shrine built at a Buddhist temple and dedicated to its tutelary kami. chōzuya – see temizuya. Chūmon* – in a temple, the gate after the nandaimon connected to a kairō. See mon. Daihi Kannon -See Senju Kannon.
Dainichi Nyorai – Japanese name of Vairocana, of which the Japanese kami Amaterasu is considered an emanation. Danka – a family or individual affiliated to a particular temple is called one of its danka. See danka system danka system – a system in which a family contributes to the support of a particular Buddhist temple, which in return provides its services; this kind of temple affiliation became mandatory during the Edo period, when was used by the shogunate for political ends. -dō – Lit. hall. Suffix for the name of the buildings part of a temple; the prefix can be the name of a deity associated with it or express the building's function within the temple's compound. See Butsu-dō, hō-dō, hon-dō, jiki-dō, kaisan-dō, kō-dō, kon-dō, kyō-dō, mandara-dō, miei-dō, mi-dō, sō-dō, Yakushi-dō and zen-dō. Enma*, Emmaten or Emmaō – Japanese transliteration of Yama, the ruler of the underworld in Buddhist mythology. Enlightenment – see satori. Family temple – see bodaiji. Funeral temple – see bodaiji. Fuju-fuse-gi – the duty of a Nichiren sect member not to accept anything from, or give anything to a non-believer.
Five Mountain System – See Gozan Seido. Garan – see shichi-dō garan. Gejin – the portion of a hon-dō open to the public, as opposed to the naijin, reserved to the deity. Goma – a ritual involving making offerings into a consecrated fire. Initiated by the Shingon sect. Gozan Seido – A nationwide network of Zen temples, called Five Mountain system or Five Mountains in English, with at its top five temples in Kamakura and five in Kyoto, which during the Muromachi period was a de facto part of the government's infrastructure, helping rule the country. Gongen A Buddhist god that chooses to appear as a Japanese kami in order to take the Japanese to spiritual salvation. Name sometimes used for shrines before the shinbutsu bunri. Gorintō* – a type of stupa common in Buddhist temples and cemeteries consisting of five shapes one on top of the other representing the five elements of Buddhist cosmology. Haibutsu kishaku A current of thought, continuous in Japan's history, advocating the
Empress Jitō was the 41st monarch of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Jitō's reign spanned the years from 686 through 697. In the history of Japan, Jitō was the third of eight women to take on the role of empress regnant; the two female monarchs before Jitō were Kōgyoku/Saimei. The five women sovereigns reigning after Jitō were Genmei, Genshō, Kōken/Shōtoku, Meishō, Go-Sakuramachi. Empress Jitō was the daughter of Emperor Tenji, her mother was Ochi-no-Iratsume, the daughter of Minister Ō-omi Soga no Yamada-no Ishikawa Maro. She was the wife of Tenji's full brother Emperor Tenmu. Empress Jitō's given name was Unonosasara, or alternately Uno. Jitō took responsibility for court administration after the death of her husband, Emperor Tenmu, her uncle, she acceded to the throne in 687 in order to ensure the eventual succession of her son, Kusakabe-shinnō. Throughout this period, Empress Jitō ruled from the Fujiwara Palace in Yamato. In 689, Jitō prohibited Sugoroku, in 690 at enthronement she performed special ritual gave pardon and in 692 she travelled to Ise against the counsel of minister Miwa-no-Asono-Takechimaro.
Prince Kusakabe was named as crown prince to succeed Jitō. Kusakabe's son, Karu-no-o, was named as Jitō's successor, he would become known as Emperor Monmu. Empress Jitō reigned for eleven years. Although there were seven other reigning empresses, their successors were most selected from amongst the males of the paternal Imperial bloodline, why some conservative scholars argue that the women's reigns were temporary and that male-only succession tradition must be maintained in the 21st century. Empress Genmei, followed on the throne by her daughter, Empress Genshō, remains the sole exception to this conventional argument. In 697, Jitō abdicated in Mommu's favor. After this, her imperial successors who retired took the same title after abdication. Jitō continued to hold power as a cloistered ruler, which became a persistent trend in Japanese politics; the actual site of Jitō's grave is known. This empress is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine at Nara; the Imperial Household Agency designates this location as Jitō's mausoleum.
It is formally named Ochi-no-Okanoe no misasagi. Kugyō is a collective term for the few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time; these were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Jitō's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included: Daijō-daijin, Takechi-shinnō Sadaijin Udaijin Naidaijin Jitō's reign is not linked by scholars to any era or nengō; the Taika era innovation of naming time periods – nengō – languished until Mommu reasserted an imperial right by proclaiming the commencement of Taihō in 701. See Japanese era name – "Non-nengo periods" See Jitō period; however and Ishida's translation of Gukanshō offers an explanation which muddies a sense of easy clarity: "The eras that fell in this reign were: the remaining seven years of Shuchō. In the third year of the Taka era, Empress Jitō yielded the throne to the Crown Prince."
The Man'yōshū includes poems said to have been composed by Jitō: After the death of the Emperor Tenmu:Composed when the Empress climbed the Thunder Hill: One of the poems attributed to Empress Jitō was selected by Fujiwara no Teika for inclusion in the popular anthology Hyakunin Isshu: Emperor of Japan Imperial cult Japanese empresses List of Emperors of Japan Aston, William George.. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. OCLC 448337491 Brown, Delmer M. and Ichirō Ishida, eds.. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0. "Hyakunin-Isshu: Single Songs of a Hundred Poets" in Transactions of the Asia Society of Japan. Tokyo: Asia Society of Japan.... Click link for digitized, full-text copy __________.. Kokka taikan. Tokyo: Teikoku Toshokan, Meiji 30–34. [reprinted Shinten kokka taikan, 10 vols. + 10 index vols. Kadokawa Shoten, Tokyo, 1983–1992. ISBN 978-4-04-020142-9 Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkōkai..
Man'yōshū. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten. [reprinted by Columbia University Press, New York, 1965. ISBN 0-231-08620-2. Rprinted by Dover Publications, New York, 2005. ISBN 978-0-486-43959-4 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5.
Fujiwara-kyō was the Imperial capital of Japan for sixteen years, between 694 and 710. It was located in Yamato Province. However, the name Fujiwara-kyō was never used in the Nihon Shoki. During those times it was recorded as Aramashi-kyō; as of 2006, ongoing excavations have revealed construction on the site of Fujiwara-kyō as early as 682, near the end of the reign of Emperor Tenmu. With a brief halt upon Emperor Tenmu's death, construction resumed under Empress Jitō, who moved the capital in 694. Fujiwara-kyō remained the capital for the reigns of Emperor Monmu and Empress Genmei, but in 710 the Imperial court moved to the Heijō Palace in Nara, beginning the Nara period. Fujiwara was Japan's first capital built in a grid pattern on the Chinese model; the palace occupied a plot measuring about 1 km², was surrounded by walls 5 m high. Each of the four walls had three gates; the Daigokuden and other palace buildings were the first palace structures in Japan to have a tile roof in the Chinese style.
The area had been the domain of the Nakatomi clan, who oversaw the observation of Shintō rituals and ceremonies on behalf of the Imperial court. The city burnt down in 711, one year after the move to Nara, was not rebuilt. Archaeological excavations began in 1934, some portions of the palace were reconstructed. Close to 10,000 wooden tablets, known as mokkan, have been inscribed with Chinese characters; this waka, written by the Empress Jitō, describing Fujiwara in the summer, is part of the famous poem anthology, the Hyakunin Isshu: Which translates as Spring has passed, it seems, now summer has arrived. Fujiwara clan Frederic, Louis. "Japan Encyclopedia." Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Exhibition Room of Fujiwara Imperial Site Media related to Fujiwara-kyō at Wikimedia Commons
Emperor Tenmu was the 40th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. Tenmu's reign lasted from 673 until his death in 686. Tenmu was the youngest son of Emperor Jomei and Empress Kōgyoku, the younger brother of the Emperor Tenji, his name at birth was Prince Ōama. He was succeeded by Empress Jitō, both his niece and his wife. During the reign of his elder brother, Emperor Tenji, Tenmu was forced to marry several of Tenji's daughters because Tenji thought those marriages would help to strengthen political ties between the two brothers; the nieces he married included Princess Unonosarara, today known as Empress Jitō, Princess Ōta. Tenmu had other consorts whose fathers were influential courtiers. Tenmu had many children, including his crown prince Kusakabe by Princess Unonosarara. Through Prince Kusakabe, Tenmu had two empresses among his descendents. Empress Kōken was the last of these imperial rulers from his lineage. Emperor Tenmu is the first monarch of Japan, to whom the title Tennō was assigned contemporaneously—not only by generations.
The only document on his life was Nihon Shoki. However, it was edited by his son, Prince Toneri, the work was written during the reigns of his wife and children, causing one to suspect its accuracy and impartiality, he is mentioned in the preface to the Kojiki, being hailed as the emperor to have commissioned them. Tenmu's father died while he was young, he grew up under the guidance of Empress Saimei, he was not expected to gain the throne, because his brother Tenji was the crown prince, being the older son of their mother, the reigning empress. During the Tenji period, Tenmu was appointed his crown prince; this was because Tenji had no appropriate heir among his sons at that time, as none of their mothers was of a rank high enough to give the necessary political support. Tenji was suspicious that Tenmu might be so ambitious as to attempt to take the throne, felt the necessity to strengthen his position through politically advantageous marriages. Tenji was active in improving the military institutions, established during the Taika reforms.
In his old age, Tenji had Prince Ōtomo, by a low-ranking consort. Since Ōtomo had weak political support from his maternal relatives, the general wisdom of the time held that it was not a good idea for him to ascend to the throne, yet Tenji was obsessed with the idea. In 671 Tenmu felt himself to be in danger and volunteered to resign the office of crown prince to become a monk, he moved to the mountains in Yoshino, Yamato Province for reasons of seclusion. He took with him one of his wives, Princess Unonosarara, a daughter of Tenji. However, he left all his other consorts at the capital. A year Tenji died and Prince Ōtomo ascended to the throne as Emperor Kōbun. Tenmu assembled an army and marched from Yoshino to the east, to attack the capital of Omikyō in a counterclockwise movement, they marched through Yamato and Mino Provinces to threaten Omikyō in the adjacent province. The army of Tenmu and the army of the young Emperor Kōbun fought in the northwestern part of Mino. Tenmu's army won and Kōbun committed suicide, an incident known as the Jinshin War.
Post-Meiji chronology In the 10th year of Tenji, in the 11th month: Emperor Tenji, in the 10th year of his reign, designated his son as his heir. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Kōbun is said to have acceded to the throne. If this understanding were valid it would it would follow:In the 1st year of Kōbun: Emperor Kōbun, in the 1st year of his reign, died. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Tenmu could be said to have acceded to the throne. Pre-Meiji chronology Prior to the 19th century, Otomo was understood to have been a mere interloper, a pretender, an anomaly; as might be expected, Emperor Tenmu was no less active than former-Emperor Tenji in improving the Taika military institutions. Tenmu's reign brought many changes, such as: a centralized war department was organized. In 673 Tenmu moved the capital back to Yamato on the Kiymihara plain; the Man'yōshū includes a poem written after the Jinshin War ended: Our Sovereign, a god, Has made his Imperial City Out of the stretch of swamps, Where chestnut horses sank To their bellies.
– Ōtomo Miyuki At Asuka, Emperor Tenmu was enthroned. He elevated Unonosarara to be his empress. Events of his reign include: 674: Ambassadors of Tane no kuni were received in th