Yakutsk is the capital city of the Sakha Republic, located about 450 kilometers south of the Arctic Circle. Yakutsk, with an average temperature of −8.8 °C, is the second coldest city with more than 100,000 inhabitants in the world after Norilsk, although Yakutsk experiences colder temperatures in the winter. Yakutsk is the largest city located in continuous permafrost and one of the largest that cannot be reached by road. Yakutsk is a major port on the Lena River, it is served by the Yakutsk Airport as well as the smaller Magan Airport. The Yakuts known as the Sakha people, migrated to the area during the 13th and 14th centuries from other parts of Siberia; when they arrived they mixed with other indigenous Siberians in the area. The Russian settlement of Yakutsk was founded in 1632 as an ostrog by Pyotr Beketov. In 1639, it became the center of a voyevodstvo; the Voyevoda of Yakutsk soon became the most important Russian official in the region and directed expansion to the east and south. With an extreme subarctic climate, Yakutsk has the coldest winter temperatures for any major city on Earth.
Average monthly temperatures in Yakutsk range from +19.5 °C in July to −38.6 °C in January, only Norilsk has a lower mean annual temperature than any other settlement of over 100,000. Yakutsk is the largest city built on continuous permafrost, many houses there are built on concrete piles; the lowest temperatures recorded on the planet outside Antarctica occurred in the basin of the Yana River to the northeast of Yakutsk, making it the coldest major city in the world. Although winters are cold and long – Yakutsk has never recorded a temperature above freezing between 10 November and 14 March inclusive – summers are warm, with daily maximum temperatures exceeding +30 °C, making the seasonal temperature differences for the region the greatest in the world at 105 °C; the lowest temperature recorded in Yakutsk was −64.4 °C on 5 February 1891 and the highest temperatures +38.4 °C on 17 July 2011 and +38.3 °C on 15 July 1943. The hottest month in records going back to 1834 has been July 1894, with a mean of +23.2 °C, the coldest, January 1900, which averaged −51.2 °C.
Yakutsk has a distinct inland location, being 1,000 kilometres from the Pacific Ocean, which coupled with the high latitude means exposure to severe winters and lack of temperature moderation. July temperatures soar to an above-normal average for this parallel, with the average being several degrees hotter than such more southerly Far East cities as Vladivostok or Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk; the July daytime temperatures are hotter than some marine subtropical areas. The warm summers ensure; the climate is quite dry, with most of the annual precipitation occurring in the warmest months, due to the intense Siberian High forming around the cold continental air during the winter. However, summer precipitation is not heavy since the moist southeasterly winds from the Pacific Ocean lose their moisture over the coastal mountains well before reaching the Lena valley. With the Lena River navigable in the summer, there are various boat cruises offered, including upriver to the Lena Pillars, downriver tours which visit spectacular scenery in the lower reaches and the Lena delta.
Yakutia Airlines has its head office in the city. There are several theaters in Yakutsk: the State Russian Drama Theater, named after A. S. Pushkin. There are a number of museums as well: the National Fine Arts Museum of Sakha; the annual Ysyakh summer festival takes place the last weekend in June. The traditional Yakut summer solstice festivities include a celebration of the revival and renewal of the nature and beginning of a new year, it is accompanied by national Yakut rituals and ceremonies, folk dancing, horse racing, Yakut ethnic music and singing, national cuisine, competitions in traditional Yakut sports. There is a local punk scene in Yakutsk, with many bands. Shows can bring up to 300 people, young but older too. Yakutsk is the capital of the Sakha Republic; as an inhabited locality, Yakutsk is classified as a city under republic jurisdiction. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with the settlement of Zhatay and eleven rural localities, incorporated as the city of republic significance of Yakutsk—an administrative unit with a status equal to that of the districts.
As a municipal division and the eleven rural localities are incorporated as Yakutsk Urban Okrug. The settlement of Zhatay is not a part of Yakutsk Urban Okrug and is independently incorporated as Zhatay Urban Okrug. Divisional source:Population source:*Administrative centers are shown in bold Yakutsk is a destination of the Lena Highway; the city's connection to that highway is only usable by ferry in the summer, or in the dead of winter, by driving directly over the frozen Lena River, since Yakutsk lies on its western bank, there is no bridge anywhere in the Sakha Republic that crosses the Lena. The river is impassable for long periods of the year when it contains loose ice, when the ice cover is not thick enough to support traffic, or when the water level is too high and the river is turbulent with spring f
Khabarovsk Novy Airport
Khabarovsk Novy Airport is located at the eastern part of Khabarovsk, Khabarovsk Krai, Russia. Khabarovsk Novy Airport was the main hub for the Russian airline Dalavia, shut down by the government due to large debts. Vladivostok Air replaced the role of Dalavia, Khabarovsk was "upgraded" into a secondary hub for Vladivostok Air. Vladivostok Air was merged into Aurora. In 2015, Khabarovsk Novy International Airport carried 1,821,694 passengers. A small airfield is adjacent to the west side of Khabarovsk Novy, is known as Khabarovsk MVL, it handles charter and general aviation operations, has a runway length of 960 m. By 1931, hydroports in the area were not enough to serve the growing demand for air travel, got the need to find a place to build a new airport; the first airport in the current location was opened in 1938. The year 1953 saw the Commissioning of runway with artificial turf with size of 2500 x 80m. On March 21, 1954 a terminal with a capacity of 400 passengers per hour was put into operations.
In 1964 a new, larger terminal was built. In 1970 the airport was given international status and completed first charter international flight Khabarovsk - Osaka: On board were the participants of the international exhibition Expo'70 In 2016, the old, unfunctioning terminal was demolished, on its site, the construction of a new terminal commenced, later; the new terminal is planned to be equipped by new air-bridges and escalators and it will be integrated with current Soviet-built terminal, which will be re-constructed in future after the new one will commence its operations. The new terminal is planned to serve domestic flights; the new terminal construction is planned to be finished by the end of 2019. List of the busiest airports in Russia List of the busiest airports in the former USSR "Khabarovsk - Novy Airport". A-Z Publications. Retrieved 2008-05-23. Airport Khabarovsk Aviateka. Handbook Media related to Khabarovsk Novy Airport at Wikimedia Commons Airport information for UHHH at World Aero Data.
Data current as of October 2006
Novosibirsk Tolmachevo Airport is situated in the town of Ob, 16 kilometres from the center of Novosibirsk, an industrial and scientific center in Siberia and Russia's third-largest city. There are two active runways in Tolmachevo Airport, along with one large passenger terminal with two connected sections, 2 cargo terminals and 61 aircraft stands. Runway 16 is equipped with an ILS CAT II, which enables aircraft operations in low ceiling and visibility; the airport is situated in the middle of the route from some important East-Asian cities to Europe which makes it attractive for cargo airlines to use it for refueling stops. It serves as a diversion airport on Polar route 1. Tolmachevo is the seventh-busiest airport in Russia, it is the busiest regional transit airport in Russia after Moscow MOW. In 2018, the airport handled 31,933 tons of cargo. Detailed data for years 2003–2018 is in the Traffic Statistics section below; the Tolmachevo Airport is operated by Novaport since 2011. Operations began on July 12, 1957 with the first passenger flight of Tupolev Tu-104 from Novosibirsk to Moscow.
The airport was owned by United Tolmachevo Aviation Enterprise and Ministry of Civil Aviation of the USSR until 1992. The airport became a joint stock company in 1995, with 51% owned by the state; the domestic terminal was renovated in 2006. Tolmachevo Airport is the first Russian airport to receive ISO 9002-96 certificate. On November 29, 2012, first time in history the airport received its three-millionth annual passenger. During 2014-2015 the former international terminal was enlarged and merged with the domestic terminal which allowed to double its passenger capacity; the airport celebrated its four-millionth annual passenger on December 21, 2016. In the last hours of 2017 another milestone was reached: on December, 31, 2017 the airport handled its five-millionth annual passenger. Plans for its further development include construction of a new rapid-exit taxiway and 4 stands for wide-body aircraft; as well as a further expansion of the terminal with 10,000 square metres in 2018-2019 and 25,000 square metres until 2022.
The airport is home to the 337th Independent Helicopter Regiment flying Mil Mi-24P's and Mil Mi-8AMTSh-V's. Preliminary Data. Source: Tolmachevo media centre Public transportation to the city is provided by a number of bus routes, as well as by private and municipal taxis. Shuttle bus service runs between the airport and the Ob railway station at the Trans-Siberian Railway - a stop for Elektrichka local commuter trains and some long-distance trains in the direction of Omsk. Novosibirsk Elitsovka Airport Novosibirsk Severny Airport List of the busiest airports in Russia List of the busiest airports in the former USSR List of the busiest airports in Europe Novosibirsk Tolmachevo Airport at Russian Airports Database Media related to Tolmachevo Airport at Wikimedia Commons Tolmachevo Airport Official website Accident history for OVB at Aviation Safety Network Current weather for UNNT at NOAA/NWS Historical Weather Records for Novosibirsk
International Airport Irkutsk
Irkutsk International Airport is an airport on the outskirts of Irkutsk, Russia, at a distance of 60 kilometers from Lake Baikal. The airport has daily domestic flights to Moscow, Krasnoyarsk, Yakutsk, Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg and regional daily flights to Ust-Kut, Bodaybo and other Russian cities. Due to its proximity to the Angara Reservoir, the airport is subject to a microclimate of foggy weather; when the airport is closed due to bad weather conditions, Bratsk Airport, Ulan-Ude Airport, Irkutsk Northwest Airport, Belaya serve as diversion airports. 24 June 1925 is considered the official birth date of Irkutsk airport. 6 aircraft — participants of great flight on the route Moscow — Irkutsk — Ulan-Bator — Beijing arrived at Irkutsk Airport that day. Of these 6 planes, 4 were domestic and 2 were foreign; this flight was headed by pilot Mr. I. P. Shmidt; the event was the beginning of aviation service in Siberia. On August 10–13, 1928 the first postal-passengers flight on the hydro-aviation route Irkutsk — Bodaybo on the aircraft Junkers F 13 «Mossovet» was performed.
August 1932 the greatest major air route Moscow — Vladivostok was opened. Irkutsk aviators started to perform flights on the route Irkutsk — Mogocha. January 1948 - daily flights on the air routes Irkutsk — Moscow, Irkutsk — Bodaybo — Yakutsk were started. On December 30, 1954 Irkutsk Airport was elevated to international status by means of Government of the Soviet Union № 2412–1153. On September 15, 1956 the jet aircraft Tupolev Tu-104 first arrived at Irkutsk aerodrome by tech-flight from Beijing; the Tupolev Tu-104-operated Moscow — Irkutsk route initiated on that day marked the first Soviet jet-airliner-operated passenger route. The flight was performed by Moscow crew headed by captain Mr. E. P. Barabash. On March 7, 1975; the first aircraft of the second generation of civil jets Tupolev Tu-154 landed in Irkutsk. April 4, 1975; the first flight to Moscow on Tupolev Tu-154 was performed. November 11, 1980 The first Il-76 CCCP-76525 arrived in Irkutsk; the crew consisted of: flight instructor МГА Mr. M. V. Ptitsyn, the commander УТО Mr. V. F. Podshivalov, captain-probationer A.
V. Bobylkov and other flying experts. December 19, 1980 The first flight was performed on the route Irkutsk — Polyarnyi using Il-76, it was headed by air detachment commander Mr. v. I. Sviridov. April 1, 1992 According to order № 238 d.d. 30 March Irkutsk United Air Group was reorganized. There were: State Enterprise " Irkutsk Airport " and Public Corporation «Air company «Baikal» October 28, 1994; the certificate № 045-А-М of Intergovernmental Aviation Committee for accordance with certification requirements was given. The airport was accepted as suitable for international flights. December 16, 1994 The acting terminal of international flights was put in commission. April 12, 2002 Aerodrome operator changed its name to Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Irkutsk Airport". July 14, 2004 The aerodrome got the certificate to accept international flight and landing-minimum 1 category ICAO 60. On October 14, 2008 the work for lengthening the runway was completed. April 10, 2009 Re-opening of the domestic terminal after reconstruction.
The terminal is called "Crystal Gate". November 13, 2009 - International Airport "Airport Irkutsk" held its first aircraft spotting session, becoming the third large city in Russia; the event has become a tradition. July 2, 2010 - Airport "Irkutsk" celebrated its 85th anniversary. March 1, 2011 - Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Airport Irkutsk" transformed into an open Joint-stock company International airport "Irkutsk". Irkutsk International Airport has a rather unusual layout, with the passenger terminals being off the western end of the airfield's only runway, at an exact 270* heading; the airport's runway is coated with a substance known as "armobetonnym", but is rather steep, featuring a 30 metre vertical drop between the west and east runway ends. The total capacity of the two passenger terminals is 1450 passengers / hour. For loads up to 30 tons, the cargo terminal has at its disposal diesel forklifts, hoists, a container platform, electronic/mechanical weigh scales; the airport complex includes the airport hotel "Air Harbour", a service of aviation service repair facility and medical services.
There is a VIP lounge in the international terminal building. Passenger capacity: Domestic terminal: 800 passengers/hour International terminal: 650 passengers/hourCargo terminal: area = 2.2 hectares with a capacity of 150 tonnes per day. Fire fighting equipment: cat VIII The class of the artificial landing strip - B Corresponding to the first category of ICAO. Irkutsk airport serves as a diversion airport for transcontinental flights and Polar route 2; the airport is located within the city. At the airport there are two paid parking area: 80 spaces. At air terminals equipped with three stops for complex urban public transport. In addition, three times daily shuttle buses number 306 to Angarsk. Airport publishes its own regional industry newspaper "Irkutsk sky", dedicated to civil aviation in Irkutsk region; the publication contains interviews with the heads of airlines, airline news column, analytical materials. The newspaper is published bimonthly and distributed free in the airport terminals and the airlines' offices in Irkutsk.
On 25 July 1971, Aeroflot Flight 1912 crashed. 97 of the 118 people on board perished in the crash. Of the 126 people on board the airc
Chulman Neryungri Airport
Chulman Neryungri Airport is a civilian airport in Yakutia, Russia located 8 km north of Chulman and 40 km north of Neryungri. The IATA code NER and the Russian internal code НРГ refers to the city of Neryungri; the airport services up to medium-sized airliners. Chulman is designated as one of several emergency airfields for commercial airline cross-polar routes or ETOPS 180/207 Diversion airport. Airport Neryungri Aviateka. Handbook
MAKS (air show)
MAKS is an international air show held at Zhukovsky International Airport, the home of the Gromov Flight Research Institute in Zhukovsky, 40 km southeast of Moscow, Russia. The event was organized by the Russian Ministry of Industry and Trade until 2009, more by the Government of Moscow and Aviasalon; the first show, Mosaeroshow-92, was held in 1992. Since 1993, the air show is held biennially on odd years. MAKS is an important event for the Russian aviation industry and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Although it started as an entertainment event, the show soon became a marketplace where Russian aerospace companies could negotiate export contracts and Russian air carriers could make foreign contacts; the air show's history traces back to 1911, when one was held in Mikhailovskiy Square in Saint Petersburg. The Soviet Union held annual air shows on the Tushino Airfield in Moscow 22 years later, its history in Zhukovskiy, began much with the Engineering Show by the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute in 1990.
The objective of the MAKS air show is to demonstrate leading technologies and to open up the Russian aerospace industry to the international market. A large portion of the show is dedicated to holding scientific conferences and symposia, under the auspices of Russia's Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute; the air show is held in the city of Zhukovsky, at Zhukovsky International Airport, the home of the Gromov Flight Research Institute. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, many aviation companies moved to Zhukovsky, using the Gromov Flight Research Institute's airfield for MosAeroShow-92 held on 11–16 August 1992. A second show was held in 1993, now renamed MAKS. Since the air show has been held biannually, it lasts for six days. Most of previous MAKS air shows were systematic: it opens with the attendance of the President of Russia, followed by company talks, concludes with aircraft demonstrations by aerobatic teams such as the Russian Knights and the foreign Patrouille de France as well as Frecce Tricolori.
Some highlights include: The first public unveiling of the forward-swept-wing S-37 Berkut at MAKS-1999. The scandal of implementing corporate programs in order to reduce over all costs which made EADS refuse to attend the same airshow, damaging the image of the airshow substantially; the first inclusion of American aircraft at MAKS-2003. The leasing of Plesetsk cosmodrome for launching 5 German SAR-Lupe satellites at MAKS-2003, the first aerospace contract signed throughout the MAKS history; the unveiling of Kliper cosmic vessel at MAKS-2005. The tribute flight of 4 Su-27s from the Russian Knights to pay tribute to the team's commander, Igor Tkachenko at MAKS-2009, who died in his aircraft after a collision with another Su-27 during a flight training 2 days prior to the opening of the airshow; the unveiling of Sukhoi Su-57 prototype at MAKS-2011. The first inclusion of other foreign aerobatic teams such as the August 1st from China and the Baltic Bees from Latvia at MAKS-2013. A main criticism of the airshow is the large influx of visitors.
According to some sources, the administration is not doing enough to withstand such a massive number of visitors, together with tight security, caused problems such as long queues and transportation problems. The high cost of public electricity and the lack of air conditioning in the exhibition halls are subject to criticism; some critics accused the organizers for still showing outdated Soviet-era aircraft. Critics believe that MAKS is still inferior to other leading airshows of the world, do not agree with other parts of Russian and western press. Conversely, the Danish daily newspaper Børsen has commented that MAKS is not worse than the Le Bourget and the Farnborough shows. A number of authoritative international organizations such as the Union of Aerospace Industry in Germany and the Chamber of Commerce in France noted the high quality of the event in the official review for MAKS-2009; the airshow administration argues that the airshows are conducted in a organized fashion, are a hallmark of Russia.
From a financial perspective, the head of the state corporation "Rostekhnologia", Sergey Chemezov, has stated the price of participation in MAKS-2009 was quite acceptable as the rented space was about 10% lower than that at the Le Bourget airshow and 1.1 to 1.8 times lower than that at Farnborough. The educational "MAKSyata" club for teenagers was established in 2001, bringing children born in Zhukovskiy in the days of the air show. At MAKS-2009, employees from the Moscow department of the Federal Bailiff Service of the Russian Federation, in coordination with the staff of the Internal Affairs Directorate carried out a raid on debtors hiding among the visitors of the airshow. Bailiffs stationed near the Vereya village of the Ramenskoye village and intercepted debtors, with a poster that read: "Debtor, do you want to experience the feeling of flying?! Pay your debts and fly!". A total of more than 12 million rubles was recovered from debtors; the prototype Beriev Be-103 amphibious aircraft crashed on the day before the opening of MAKS-1997.
After takeoff at 11:14 local time, at an altitude of about 100 meters, the pilot attempted to stay in his designated flight zone by a steep turn, which unintentionally set the aircraft into a steep climb, causing a stall at a supercritical angle of attack without adequate altitude to recover. The pilot was killed. On August 16, 2009, while preparing for the MA
The Tupolev Tu-154 is a three-engine medium-range narrow-body airliner designed in the mid-1960s and manufactured by Tupolev. A workhorse of Soviet and Russian airlines for several decades, it carried half of all passengers flown by Aeroflot and its subsidiaries, remaining the standard domestic-route airliner of Russia and former Soviet states until the mid-2000s, it was exported to 17 non-Russian airlines and used as a head-of-state transport by the air forces of several countries. With a cruising speed of 850 kilometres per hour the Tu-154 is one of the fastest civilian aircraft in use and has a range of 5,280 kilometres. Capable of operating from unpaved and gravel airfields with only basic facilities, it was used in the extreme Arctic conditions of Russia's northern/eastern regions where other airliners were unable to operate. Designed for a 45,000 hour service life but capable of 80,000 hours with upgrades, it was expected to continue in service until 2016, although noise regulations have restricted flights to western Europe and other regions.
In January 2010 Russian flag carrier Aeroflot announced the retirement of its Tu-154 fleet after 40 years, with the last scheduled flight being Aeroflot Flight 736 from Ekaterinburg to Moscow on 31 December 2009. Since 1968 there have been 39 fatal incidents involving the Tu-154, most of which were caused either by factors unrelated to the aircraft, incorrect maintenance, or by its extensive use in demanding conditions. Few of the Tu-154 accidents appear to have involved technical failure; the Tu-154 was developed to meet Aeroflot's requirement to replace the jet-powered Tu-104 and the Antonov An-10 and Ilyushin Il-18 turboprops. The requirements called for either a payload capacity of 16–18 tonnes with a range of 2,850–4,000 kilometres while cruising at 900 km/h, or a payload of 5.8 tonnes with a range of 5,800–7,000 kilometres while cruising at 850 km/h. A takeoff distance of 2,600 metres at maximum takeoff weight was stipulated as a requirement. Conceptually similar to the British Hawker Siddeley Trident, which first flew in 1962, the American Boeing 727, which first flew in 1963, the medium-range Tu-154 was marketed by Tupolev at the same time as Ilyushin was marketing the long-range Ilyushin Il-62.
The Soviet Ministry of Aircraft Industry chose the Tu-154 as it incorporated the latest in Soviet aircraft design and best met Aeroflot's anticipated requirements for the 1970s and 1980s. The first project chief was Sergey Yeger. In 1975, the project lead role was turned over to Aleksandr S. Shengardt; the Tu-154 first flew on 4 October 1968. The first deliveries to Aeroflot were in 1970 with freight services beginning in May 1971 and passenger services in February 1972. There was still limited production of the 154M model as of January 2009 despite previous announcements of the end of production in 2006. 1025 Tu-154s have been built, 214 of which were still in service as of 14 December 2009. The last serial Tu-154 was delivered to the Russian Defense Ministry on 19 February 2013 from the Aviakor factory, equipped with upgraded avionics, a VIP interior and a communications suite; the factory has four unfinished hulls in its inventory which can be completed if new orders are received. The Tu-154 is powered by three rear-mounted low-bypass turbofan engines arranged to those of the Boeing 727, but it is larger than its American counterpart.
Both the 727 and the Tu-154 use an S-duct for the middle engine. The original model was equipped with Kuznetsov NK-8-2 engines, which were replaced with Soloviev D-30KU-154 in the Tu-154M. All Tu-154 aircraft models have a high thrust-to-weight-ratio which give excellent performance, at the expense of lower fuel efficiency; this became an important factor in decades as fuel costs grew. The flight deck is fitted with conventional dual yoke control columns. Flight control surfaces are hydraulically operated; the cabin of the Tu-154, although of the same six-abreast seating layout, gives the impression of an oval interior, with a lower ceiling than is common on Boeing and Airbus airliners. The passenger cabin accommodates 128 passengers in a two-class layout and 164 passengers in single-class layout, up to 180 passengers in high-density layout; the layout can be modified to what is called a winter version where some seats are taken out and a wardrobe is installed for passenger coats. The passenger doors are smaller than on its Airbus counterparts.
Luggage space in the overhead compartments is limited. Like the Tupolev Tu-134, the Tu-154 has a wing swept back at 35° at the quarter-chord line; the British Hawker Siddeley Trident has the same sweepback angle, while the Boeing 727 has a smaller sweepback angle of 32°. The wing has anhedral, a distinguishing feature of Russian low-wing airliners designed during this era. Most Western low-wing airliners such as the contemporary Boeing 727 have dihedral; the anhedral means that Russian airliners have poor lateral stability compared to their Western counterparts, but have weaker Dutch roll tendencies. Heavier than its predecessor Soviet-built airliner the Ilyushin Il-18, the Tu-154 was equipped with an oversized landing gear to reduce ground load, enabling it to operate from the same runways; the aircraft has two six-wheel main bogies fitted with large low-pressure tires that retract into pods extending from the trailing edges of the wings, plus a two-wheel noseg