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Yale Daily News

The Yale Daily News is an independent student newspaper published by Yale University students in New Haven, Connecticut since January 28, 1878. It is the oldest college daily newspaper in the United States; the Yale Daily News has been ranked among the top college daily newspapers in the country. Financially and editorially independent of Yale University since its founding, the paper is published by a student editorial and business staff five days a week, Monday through Friday, during Yale's academic year. Called the YDN, the paper is produced in the Briton Hadden Memorial Building at 202 York Street in New Haven and printed off-site at Turley Publications in Palmer, Massachusetts; the newspaper's first editors wrote: Each day, reporters freshmen and sophomores, cover the university, the city of New Haven and sometimes the state of Connecticut. An expanded sports section is published on Monday, a two-page opinion forum on Friday, "Weekend", an arts and living section on Friday; the News prints an arts and culture spread on Wednesdays and a science and technology spread on Tuesdays.

Staff members are elected as editors on the managing board during their junior year. A single chairman led the News until 1970. Today, the editor-in-chief and publisher act as co-presidents of the Yale Daily News Publishing Company; the "News' View," a staff editorial, represents the position of the majority of the editorial board. In 1969, Yale College became coeducational, by 1972, Mally Cox and Lise Goldberg were elected as the first female members of the YDN editorial board. Andy Perkins was elected as the first female editor-in-chief in 1981, Amy Oshinsky was elected as the first female publisher in 1977; the paper version of the News is distributed for free throughout Yale's campus and the city of New Haven and is published online. The paper was once a subscription-only publication, delivered to student postal boxes for $40 a year. Subscriptions declined after the 1986 founding of the weekly Yale Herald student newspaper, bottoming out at 570 in 1994; the News switched to free distribution that year.

In 1978, the Oldest College Daily Foundation was created following a capital campaign to prevent the university from buying the Briton Hadden Memorial Building. The News survived for a century "solely on the income generated by subscription and ad sales."The News serves as a training ground for journalists at Yale, has produced a steady stream of professional reporters, who work at newspapers and magazines including The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, The Los Angeles Times, Newsweek, The New Yorker and The Economist. In addition to the newspaper, the Yale Daily News Publishing Company produces a monthly Yale Daily News Magazine. In 1920, the News began to report on national news and viewpoints. In 1940 and 1955, when professional dailies were not operating due to unrest among its workers, the News continued to report on national topics. Today, "World" sections publish stories and photos from the Associated Press. On September 3, 2008, the "Oldest College Daily" "premiere a new look" designed by Mario Garcia of Garcia Media and Pegie Stark Adam of Stark Adam Design.

The News' front page design for November 5, 2008, the day after Barack Obama's victory in the 2008 Presidential Election was featured in the Poynter Institute book: President Obama Election 2008: Collection of Newspaper Front Pages by the Poynter Institute. In 2009, the Yale Daily News won the Associated Collegiate Press Newspaper Pacemaker Award. On September 10 of that year the News broke the news of the murder of Annie Le, a Yale graduate student reported missing and subsequently found murdered in the basement of her laboratory. In April 2016, the News broke the story of the University's decision to retain the namesake of Calhoun College but eliminate the title "master", as well as of the Yale Corporation's commitment to the namesake of Benjamin Franklin College three years before its public announcement. In summer 2010, the 78-year-old Briton Hadden Memorial Building was renovated, increasing the amount of usable space in the basement and adding a multimedia studio in the heart of the newsroom.

The Sterling Memorial Library at Yale University has a copy of every issue published between 1890 and 1959. The library's extensive historical archives, in addition to the archives of the Yale Club of New York City, amounting to some 20,263 issues published between 1878 and 1995, have been published in an indexed and searchable public database; the News, founded in 1878, calls itself the "oldest college daily" in the United States, a claim contested by other student newspapers. The Harvard Crimson calls itself "the oldest continuously published college daily", but it was founded in 1873 as a fortnightly publication called The Magenta and did not appear daily until 1883; the Daily Targum at Rutgers University was founded in 1869 but was published as a monthly newspaper and did not gain independence from the University until 1980. The Columbia Daily Spectator, founded one year earlier than the YDN in 1877, calls itself the second-oldest college daily, but was not independent until the 1960s; the Daily Californian at the University of California, was founded in 1871 but did not achieve independence until 1971.

The Cornell Daily Sun, launched in 1880, calls itself the "oldest independent college newspaper"

2012 Campeonato Alagoano

The 2012 Campeonato Alagoano de Futebol was the 82nd season of Alagoas's top professional football league. The competition began on January 14 and ended on May 12. CRB won the championship for the 26th time, while Associação Atlética Coruripe and Penedense were relegated; the tournament consists of a double round-robin format, in which all twelve teams play each other twice, with classification split in two stages. Each round counts as one stage; the four better-placed teams of each stage will face themselves in playoffs matches, the first stage champion will face the second stage champion. If the same team win both stages, it will be considered the champion; the bottom two teams on overall classification will be relegated. ASA won 6-1 on aggregated CRB won 6-1 on aggregated CSA won 3-2 on aggregated ASA won 6-3 on aggregated Official site

Trailer Choir

Trailer Choir is an American country music duo composed of vocalists Marc Fortney and Vinny Hickerson, known by their respective stage names Butter and Big Vinny. The group began as a trio with Crystal Hoyt and was signed to Show Dog Nashville, a label owned by Toby Keith, in 2007. After recording the song "Off the Hillbilly Hook" for the soundtrack to Keith's film Beer for My Horses, Trailer Choir charted the singles "What Would You Say", "Rockin' the Beer Gut" and "Rollin' Through the Sunshine" on the Billboard Hot Country Songs charts; these singles were followed by an extended play called Off the Hillbilly Hook and an album called Tailgate. Hoyt departed the group in February 2011; the remaining members took a small hiatus in 2012, but started touring again in 2013. Trailer Choir was founded in 2004 by Marc Fortney, known as Butter, along with Vinny Hickerson and Crystal Hoyt, who are known as Big Vinny and Crystal in the group. Trailer Choir had started as a loose association of musicians including Fortney and Hickerson, that played cover shows at fraternities and clubs in order to make some money and have some fun, rather than as an intended career path.

Wanting to add original music without losing the audience led the group to writing and playing the party anthem style they are known for. They started performing original shows during the week, while continuing to play the frat houses and clubs on the weekend. At one performance in late 2006, a fan named Crystal Hoyt jumped on the stage and took over Hickerson’s microphone, thus becoming a member of the band until she parted ways with them in early 2011. Not long after Hoyt joined them, Toby Keith showed up at one of their original performances on "The Billy Block Show" at a club called 12th & Porter; when Billy Block told them that Toby Keith was there wanting to talk with them, they at first thought he was joking. The trio signed to Show Dog Nashville, a label owned by Toby Keith, in June 2007. After Keith had them play for the staff of his record label, they were offered a deal on the spot, after signing on a Tuesday, they were on a tour bus by Thursday as part of Keith’s Big Dog Daddy tour.

Keith left it up to them to make it work, so they played anywhere they could find fans, including side stages, beer stands, parking lots. Hickerson reports averaging 50 pop worms a day. Trailer Choir's first recording for Show Dog was the track "Off the Hillbilly Hook", included in the soundtrack to the 2008 film Beer for My Horses, in which Toby Keith starred. Shortly afterward, "Off the Hillbilly Hook" was released as a single and was made into a music video. Trailer Choir released a digital EP on November 4. In 2009, Trailer Choir issued its second single, "What Would You Say." This became the group's first chart entry, peaking at No. 43 on the Billboard Hot Country Songs charts in May 2009. On June 9, 2009, the group released a physical extended play entitled Off the Hillbilly Hook, which included all four songs from the digital EP and two more songs. After its release came the trio's third single, "Rockin' the Beer Gut", which became the group's first Top 40 hit on the country charts in mid-2009.

The song's music video features Wolf from American Gladiators. In December 2009, "Rockin' the Beer Gut" re-entered the charts following a "Holla Day Version" released for the Christmas season. "Rollin' Through the Sunshine" charted at No. 50 in early 2010, shortly before the release of the band's debut album, Tailgate. The band appears on the track "Don't Mind If I Don't" from Trace Adkins's album Cowboy's Back In Town, their song "Last Man Standing" has been used in promotions for the 2008 NASCAR "Chase for the Sprint Cup," and a high school football show known as "Rivalry Thursday." On February 1, 2011, Trailer Choir announced that Crystal Hoyt has left the group to pursue other interests. In November 2011, Trailer Choir released a new single called "Love Me First" through their own Hollaville Records. On September 2, 2012 it was announced on Facebook. In reply to a follower post that same day inquiring about Trailer Choir he explained that "Butter decided to leave the band due to his new baby."

Hickerson would be going by the stage name Vinny Van-Zant. In July 2015 it was reported that Fortney and Hickerson had signed with Average Joes Entertainment and were working on an album for the new label. Fortney was raised in Ashtabula, where he grew up on rock music. In high school, Fortney was interested in baseball until the audience reaction he got playing John Mellencamp’s "Small Town" for the school talent show made an impression on him. Although he had played guitar for a while, he didn’t start writing music until he wrote a song for a friend’s funeral, he says of it, “That was the first time I put words and melody together. I realized in the future, what I was going to be.” His interest in country music arose while a student at Middle Tennessee State. As a student there, he started playing fraternity parties in The Butter Band Sometime after Hickerson joined them, Fortney started calling the group Trailer Choir. Fortney worked a variety of other jobs around Nashville during this period.

While working as an intern for a record label, he had gotten nicknamed ‘Butter’ by people that related his dancing and goofing around to him being like butter. Fortney married Emily Robertson of Carter's Chord in a surprise ceremony September 6, 2010 in Nashville, Tennessee; the couple had met. On October 16, 2012 Emily gave birth to their first child, a son named Tug Ryder Fortney, their second son, Hutch Robertson Fortney, was born March 17, 2015. Hickerson was raised Vencent VanZant Hickerson in the tiny Middle-Tenness

FFC Cambridge process

The FFC Cambridge Process is an electrochemical method in which solid metal compounds oxides, are cathodically reduced to the respective metals or alloys in molten salts. It is thought that this process will be capable of producing metals or alloys more efficiently than by current conventional processes, such as titanium by the Kroll process; the FFC Cambridge process was developed by George Chen, Derek Fray and Tom Farthing between 1996 and 1997 at the University of Cambridge. They reduced oxide scales on titanium foils, as well as small pellets of titanium dioxide powder, to the metal by molten salt electrochemistry. A relevant process was patented in 1904 as German patent 150557; the intellectual property relating to the technology has been acquired by Metalysis. The process takes place between 900 and 1100 °C, with an anode and a cathode in a bath of molten CaCl2. Depending on the nature of the oxide it will exist at a particular potential relative to the anode, dependent on the quantity of CaO present in CaCl2.

The cathode is polarised to a more negative voltages versus the anode. This is achieved by imposing a voltage between the anode and cathode; when polarised to more negative voltages the oxide releases oxygen ions into the CaCl2 salt, which exists as CaO. To maintain charge neutrality, as oxygen ions are released from the cathode into the salt, so oxygen ions must be released from the salt to the anode; this is observed as CO2 being evolved at the carbon anode. In theory an inert anode could be used to produce oxygen; when negative voltages are reached, it is possible. Ca is reductive and would further strip oxygen from the cathode, resulting in calciothermic reduction. However, Ca dissolved into CaCl2 results in a more conductive salt leading to reduced current efficiencies; the electro-calciothermic reduction mechanism may be represented by the following sequence of reactions. MOx+ x Ca → M + x CaO When this reaction takes place on its own, it is referred to as the "calciothermic reduction". For example, if the cathode was made from TiO calciothermic reduction would appear as: TiO + Ca → Ti + CaO Whilst the cathode reaction can be written as above it is in fact a gradual removal of oxygen from the oxide.

For example, it has been shown that TiO2 does not reduce to Ti. It, in fact, reduces through the lower oxides to Ti; the calcium oxide produced is electrolyzed: x CaO → x Ca2+ + x O2− x Ca2+ + 2x e− → x Ca and x O2− → x/2 O2 + 2x e− Reaction describes the production of Ca metal from Ca2+ ions within the salt, at the cathode. The Ca would proceed to reduce the cathode; the net result of reactions and is the reduction of the oxide into metal plus oxygen: MOx→ M + x/2 O2 The use of molten CaCl2 is important because this molten salt can dissolve and transport the O2− ions to the anode to be discharged. The anode reaction depends on the material of the anode. Depending on the system it is possible to produce either CO or CO2 or a mixture at the carbon anode: C + 2O2− → CO2 +4 e− C + O2− → CO + 2 e−However, if an inert anode is used, such as that of high density SnO2, the discharge of the O2− ions leads to the evolution of oxygen gas; however the use of an inert anode has disadvantages. Firstly, when the concentration of CaO is low, Cl2 evolution at the anode becomes more favourable.

In addition, when compared to a carbon anode, more energy is required to achieve the same reduced phase at the cathode. Inert anodes suffer from stability issues. 2O2− → O2 + 4 e− Salt extraction process R. Bhagat. "Production of Ti-Mo Alloys from Mixed Oxide Precursors via the FFC Cambridge Process". J. Electrochem. Soc. 155: E63–69. Doi:10.1149/1.2904454. R. Bhagat. "Production of Ti-W Alloys from Mixed Oxide Precursors via the FFC Cambridge Process". J. Electrochem. Soc. 156: E1–7. Doi:10.1149/1.2999340. Ryosuke O. Suzuki. "Calciothermic reduction of TiO2 and in situ electrolysis of CaO in the molten CaCl2". Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids. 66: 461–465. Bibcode:2005JPCS...66..461S. Doi:10.1016/j.jpcs.2004.06.041. Il Park. "Production of titanium powder directly from TiO2 in CaCl2 through an electronically mediated reaction". Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids. 66: 410–413. Bibcode:2005JPCS...66..410P. Doi:10.1016/j.jpcs.2004.06.052. X. Ge. "Copper extraction from copper ore by electro-reduction in molten CaCl2–NaCl".

Electrochimica Acta. 54: 4397–4402. Doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2009.03.015. YouTube video:Metalysis FFC processMetalysis Ltd. website

Grand Panorama of London from the Thames

The Grand Panorama of London from the Thames is an 1844 woodcut engraving depicting the north bank of the Thames river in London running from Western Stone Wharf by the unfinished Houses of Parliament to the Belfast, Cork and Glasgow Steam Wharf, just east of St Katharine Docks. An illustration, based on the engraving, was published as four separate supplements to the Pictorial Times and when joined together were 12 feet in length. Early-Victorian periodicals of the 1840s such as the Illustrated London News and Punch magazines used wood engravings to illustrate their stories; the Pictorial Times, founded in 1843 by Henry Vizetelly, with his elder brother James Thomas and Andrew Spottiswoode, was a rival to the Illustrated London News and presented the Grand Panorama of London from the Thames as a gift to its subscribers. The engraving was the brainchild of the Pictorial Times's editor, Henry Vizetelly, an artist and journalist and who had offered a similar gift whilst working with the Illustrated London News a few years previously.

His own sketches of London would be pieced together to form engravings. The Pictorial Times produced handbills in late 1844 announcing'for all persons, the largest engraving in the world, the Grand Panorama of London from the Thames, fourteen feet in length!' The panorama appeared on 11 January 1845. Though'Engraved by Henry Vizetelly' appeared on the panorama it is assumed that it was engraved at the Vizetelly establishment rather than by Henry Vizetelly himself. London had undergone rapid expansion in the early nineteenth century and the 1841 Census showed a population of two and a quarter million; the Panorama starts with the public buildings in the west and finishes with the busy docks and wharves of the East End. In between are the spires of churches and statues, mixed with the industry of the city shown as the chimneys; the engraving shows the original 1769 Blackfriars Bridge. Waterloo Bridge is shown as it was a toll bridge. London Bridge is depicted with the lamp posts cast from cannon captured from the French during the Peninsular War.

Some of the major buildings appearing on the engraving that were lost include Northumberland House. In 1849 an updated colourised version of the engraving was published by Whitelaw in London and was 6-inch by 18-foot-long and housed in 6 by 7 inch book; this went further east to the Isle of Dogs and covered the south bank of the Thames to the Royal Victualling Office at Deptford. This version made small changes to Hungerford Bridge, completed in 1845. Romantic-era panoramas Wyld's Great Globe A colourised version of the engraving from 1849 Video of the 1849 version

Westmarch, Paisley

Westmarch was a football stadium located on Greenhill Road in Ferguslie Park, Scotland. It was the home ground of St Mirren from 1883 to 1894. St Mirren moved to Westmarch from their Thistle Park ground in 1883; the first match was played on 25 August, with the visiting Queen's Park team beaten 2–1. St Mirren were amongst the founders of the Scottish Football League in 1890, the first league match at Westmarch was played on 20 September 1890, in which local rivals Abercorn beaten 4–2. By that time the ground had a stand at the western end of ground, some way from the pitch, surrounded by a racing and cycling track. On 22 October 1892 the club recorded its highest league attendance at Westmarch when 8,000 saw a 3–1 defeat to Celtic. In 1894 the club decided to move. After attempting to buy their former Shortroods ground, a site was found and developed on Love Street; the final league match was played at Westmarch on 17 February 1894, with St Mirren beating Dundee 10–3 the highest scoring league game to have been played at the ground.

The final game was against Abercorn in the final of the Paisley Charity Cup, a match that ended in a 10–0 victory for St Mirren. The ground was subsequently used for trotting before being purchased by the Caledonian Railway in order to build a line between Paisley St James and Barrhead; the new line opened on 1 October 1902