He is widely cited in both libertarian and conservative circles. Henry Hazlitt was born in Philadelphia and raised in Brooklyn and he was a collateral descendant of the British essayist William Hazlitt, but grew up in relative poverty, his father having died when Hazlitt was an infant. His early heroes were Herbert Spencer and William James, and his first ambition was for a career in psychology. He attended New Yorks City College, but left only a short time in order to support his twice-widowed mother. Hazlitt started his career at The Wall Street Journal as secretary to the editor when he was still a teenager. His studies led him to The Common Sense of Political Economy by Philip Wicksteed which, Hazlitt published his first book, Thinking as a Science, at the age of 21. During World War I, he served in the Army Air Service, while residing in Brooklyn, he enlisted in New York City on February 11,1918 and served with the Aviation Section of the Signal Enlisted Reserve Corps until July 9,1918.
He returned to New York, residing at Washington Square Park for many years. Later, when the publisher W. W. Norton suggested he write a biography of their author Bertrand Russell, Hazlitt spent a good deal of time, as he described it. After a series of debates with socialist Louis Fischer, Hazlitt. In the same year, he became H. L, due to increasing differences with the publisher, Alfred A. Knopf, Sr. Hazlitt opposed the Bretton Woods Agreement, primarily fearing the risk of inflation. After agreeing not to write on the topic, he looked for another venue for his work, deciding on Newsweek magazine, for which he wrote a column, Business Tides. Along with the efforts of his friends, Max Eastman and John Chamberlain and he was the founding vice-president of the Foundation for Economic Education, which acquired his large personal library in the 1980s. Established by Leonard Read in 1946, FEE is considered to be the first think tank for free market ideas and he was one of the original members of the classical liberal Mont Pelerin Society in 1947.
Flynn, Frank Meyer, Raymond Moley, Morrie Ryskind and George Sokolsky, Hazlitt himself was on the masthead of National Review, either as a Contributing Editor or, later, as Contributor, from its inception in 1955 until his death in 1993. There were differences between the journals, The Freeman under Hazlitt was more secular and presented a range of foreign policy opinion than the National Review. The two became admirers of Hazlitt and of one another, Hazlitt became well known both through his articles and by frequently debating prominent politicians on the radio, Vice President Henry A. Wallace, Secretary of State Dean Acheson, and U. S. Senators Paul Douglas and Hubert H. Humphrey, the future Vice President, at the invitation of philosopher Sidney Hook, he was a participating member of the American Committee for Cultural Freedom in the 1950s
Ludwig von Mises
Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises was a theoretical Austrian School economist. Mises wrote and lectured extensively on behalf of classical liberalism and he is best known for his work on praxeology, a study of human choice and action. Mises emigrated from Austria to the United States in 1940, since the mid-20th century, the libertarian movement in the United States has been strongly influenced by Misess writings. Misess student, Friedrich Hayek, viewed Mises as one of the figures in the revival of liberalism in the post-war era. Hayeks work, The Transmission of the Ideals of Freedom pays high tribute to the influence of Mises in the twentieth century liberal movement, Misess Austrian School was a leading group of economists. Many of its alumni, including Hayek and Oskar Morgenstern, emigrated from Austria to the United States, Mises has been described as having approximately seventy close students in Austria, and the Austrians as the insiders of the Chicago School of economics. The Ludwig von Mises Institute was founded in the United States to continue his teachings, Ludwig von Mises was born to Jewish parents in the city of Lemberg, in Galicia, Austria-Hungary.
The family of his father Arthur Edler von Mises had been elevated to the Austrian nobility in the 19th century, ludwigs mother, was a niece of Dr. Joachim Landau, a Liberal Party deputy to the Austrian Parliament. Arthur von Mises was stationed in Lemberg as an engineer with the Czernowitz railway company. By the age of twelve, Ludwig spoke fluent German and French, read Latin, Mises had a younger brother, Richard von Mises, who became a mathematician and a member of the Vienna Circle, and a probability theorist. When Ludwig and Richard were still children, their family moved back to Vienna, in 1900, Ludwig Von Mises attended the University of Vienna, becoming influenced by the works of Carl Menger. Three years later, Mises was awarded his doctorate from the school of law in 1906, in the years from 1904 to 1914, Mises attended lectures given by Austrian economist Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk. He graduated in February 1906 and started a career as a servant in Austrias financial administration. After a few months, he left to take a position in a Vienna law firm.
During that time, Mises began lecturing on economics, and in early 1909, he joined the Vienna Chamber of Commerce, during World War I, Mises served as a front officer in the Austro-Hungarian artillery and as an economic adviser to the War Department. Mises was chief economist for the Austrian Chamber of Commerce and was an adviser of Engelbert Dollfuss. Later he was adviser to Otto von Habsburg, the Christian democratic politician. In 1934, Mises left Austria for Geneva, where he was a professor at the Graduate Institute of International Studies until 1940, while in Switzerland, Mises married Margit Herzfeld Serény, a former actress and widow of Ferdinand Serény
Anchor Bible Series
Their works offer discussions that reflect a range of viewpoints across a wide theological spectrum. The Anchor Bible project continues to produce volumes that keep readers current on recent scholarship and are grounded in analysis, as of 2005, more than 120 volumes had been published, each edited by David Noel Freedman, General Editor and published by Doubleday, Freedman died in 2008. Since John J. Collins has served as the General Editor, in 2007, Yale University Press purchased the Anchor Bible Series. Yale now publishes backlist titles and new titles as the Anchor Yale Bible Series, the Anchor Bible Commentary Series, created under the guidance of William Foxwell Albright, comprises a translation and exegesis of the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament and the Intertestamental Books. Lengthy or complex biblical books are covered in more than one volume, a work in progress, as of 2006, the series has produced over 80 volumes, some of which are updates of earlier works. The series is 99% complete, the half of Exodus was released in early December 2006.
Others such as II Chronicles and Revelation are under contract, the Anchor Bible Dictionary contains more than 6,000 entries from 800 international scholars. It has illustrations and line-art throughout, and is available for download from Logos Bible Software or Accordance Bible Software. Works in the Anchor Yale Bible commentary series include, boling, Robert G. Wright, G. Ernest. Replaced Campbell, Edward F. Jr. Ruth, mcCarter, P. Kyle, Jr.1 Samuel. McCarter, P. Kyle, Jr.2 Samuel, replaced Myers, Jacob M.1 Chronicles. Knoppers, Gary N.1 Chronicles 1–9, Gary N.1 Chronicles 10–29. Myers, Jacob M. Ezra - Nehemiah, Marvin H. Song of Songs. Hartman, Louis F. DiLella, Alexander A, Carol L. Meyers, Eric M. Haggai and Zechariah 1–8. Meyers, Carol L. Meyers, Eric M. Zechariah 9–14, Albright, W. F. Mann, C. S. Matthew. Replaced Orr, William F. Walther, James Arthur, the First and Second Letters to Timothy. The Epistles of James and Jude, Jerome H.2 Peter and Jude. Skehan, Patrick W. Wisdom of Ben Sira, Jacob M.1 and 2 Esdras
Yale School of Architecture
The Yale School of Architecture is one of the constituent professional schools of Yale University. Yales architecture programs are an outgrowth of a commitment to the teaching of the fine arts in the university. Art was first taught at an American college or university in 1869 when the Yale School of the Fine Arts was established. Yale alumnus and educator Andrew Dickson White was offered the post as the first dean of the school, even earlier, in 1832, Yale opened the Trumbull Art Gallery, the first college-affiliated gallery in the country. The Department of Architecture was established in the School of the Fine Arts in 1916, in 1959 the School of Art and Architecture, as it was known, was made into a fully graduate professional school. In 1972 Yale designated the School of Architecture as its own professional school. The School is housed in the masterwork of its former Dean, the school offers joint-degree programs with the School of Management and School of Forestry. Additionally, a course of study for undergraduates in Yale College leads to a Bachelor of Arts, Yales core program has always stressed design as a fundamental discipline.
While initially associated with Beaux Arts pedagogy, the adopted a close affiliation with other modes of fine art, including sculpture, graphic design, painting. One of its most illustrious graduates, Eero Saarinen, produced a wide variety of student projects ranging from medals and currency to campus. When the Art and Architecture Building became its home, Paul Rudolphs design reflected this close integration between various fine art departments, the famed department of Graphic Design contributed consistently to architecture posters and exhibits, particularly to Perspecta, Yales ground breaking student journal. Another distinguishing element in the Yale core program has been the Yale Building Project, in years the program focused more on New Haven and Southern Connecticut. A recent book on the documents the extraordinary breadth and significance of the work produced by students, many of whom went on to become renowned architects. One of the first of its kind, made it possible for architects, only recently have the design professions embraced this wider field of study, spurred by the movement towards sustainability and inter-disciplinarity.
Notable recipients of the degree included William J. Mitchell, dean at MIT, and Steven Izenour, the Yale Urban Design Workshop is a community design center affiliated with the Yale School of Architecture. It was established in 1992 by School of Architecture professor Alan Plattus, as of 2016, the programs ten-year average ranking, places it 4th, overall, on DesignIntelligences ranking of programs accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board. Conversely, DesignIntelligences ten-year median ranking places the program 3rd, * denotes tie The school maintains an active publications program. It supports two student-edited journals and Retrospecta, a news magazine and publishes books
Yale College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Yale University. Founded in 1701, it is the school of the university. Originally established to train Congregationalist ministers, the college began teaching humanities, at the same time, students began organizing extracurricular organizations, first literary societies, and publications, sports teams, and singing groups. By the mid-19th century, it was the largest college in the United States, in 1847, it was joined by another undergraduate degree-granting school at Yale, the Sheffield Scientific School, which was absorbed into the college in the mid-20th century. The most distinctive feature of life is the schools system of residential colleges, established in 1932. All undergraduates live in these colleges after their year, when most live on the schools Old Campus. The Collegiate School was founded in 1701 by a charter drawn by ten congregationalist ministers led by James Pierpont, originally situated in Abraham Piersons home in Killingworth, the college moved to New Haven in 1718 and was renamed for Elihu Yale, an early benefactor.
Founded as a school to train ministers, original curriculum included only coursework in theology, in the century, William Graham Sumner, the first professor of sociology in the United States, introduced studies in the social sciences. The relaxation of curriculum came in tandem with expansion in the extracurriculum and leadership in these groups was an important social signifier and a route to induction into prestigious senior societies. Thus extracurricular participation became central to student life and social advancement, by 1870, Yale was the largest undergraduate institution in the country. Two additional colleges were built by 1940, and two more in the 1960s, for most of its history, study at Yale was almost exclusively restricted to white Protestant men, often the children of alumni. Documented exceptions to this paradigm include Hawaiian native Henry ʻŌpūkahaʻia, who became a student of Yale President Timothy Dwight in 1809, who was allowed to audit theology courses in 1837. Moses Simons, a descendent of a slave-holding South Carolinian family, has suggested to be the first Jew to graduate from Yale.
Though his maternal ancestry is disputed, he may have been the first person of African American descent to graduate from any American college. In the early 20th century, the student body was predominately old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, by the 1970s it was much more diversified. Enrollment at Yale only became competitive in the early 20th century, as late as the 1950s, tests and demographic questionnaires for admission to the college worked to exclude non-Christian men, especially Jews, as well as non-white men. By the mid-1960s these processes were becoming more meritocratic, focusing on recruitment of a racially and geographically diverse student body and this meritocratic transition encouraged the university to establish the first need-blind admissions policy in the United States. After several decades of debate about coeducation, Yale College admitted its first class of women in 1969, in recent years, the college has focused on international recruitment, quadrupling the fraction of international students admitted between 1993 and 2013
A paperback is a type of book characterized by a thick paper or paperboard cover, and often held together with glue rather than stitches or staples. In contrast, hardcover or hardback books are bound with cardboard covered with cloth, inexpensive books bound in paper have existed since at least the 19th century in such forms as pamphlets, dime novels, and airport novels. Modern paperbacks can be differentiated by size, in the US there are mass-market paperbacks and larger, more durable trade paperbacks. In the UK, there are A-format, B-format, and the largest C-format sizes, Paperback editions of books are issued when a publisher decides to release a book in a low-cost format. Cheaper, lower quality paper, glued bindings, and the lack of a cover may contribute to the lower cost of paperbacks. Paperbacks can be the medium when a book is not expected to be a major seller or where the publisher wishes to release a book without putting forth a large investment. Examples include many novels, and newer editions or reprintings of older books, first editions of many modern books, especially genre fiction, are issued in paperback.
Best-selling books, on the hand, may maintain sales in hardcover for an extended period in order to reap the greater profits that the hardcovers provide. These paper bound volumes were offered for sale at a fraction of the historic cost of a book, the Routledges Railway Library series of paperbacks remained in print until 1898, and offered the traveling public 1,277 unique titles. The German-language market supported examples of cheap books, Bernhard Tauchnitz started the Collection of British. These inexpensive, paperbound editions, a precursor to mass-market paperbacks. Reclam published Shakespeare in this format from October 1857 and went on to pioneer the mass-market paper-bound Universal-Bibliothek series from 10 November 1867, the German publisher Albatross Books revised the 20th-century mass-market paperback format in 1931, but the approach of World War II cut the experiment short. The first released book on Penguins 1935 list was André Maurois Ariel, Lane intended to produce inexpensive books.
He purchased paperback rights from publishers, ordered large print runs to keep prices low. Booksellers were initially reluctant to buy his books, but when Woolworths placed a large order, after that initial success, booksellers showed more willingness to stock paperbacks, and the name Penguin became closely associated with the word paperback. In 1939, Robert de Graaf issued a similar line in the United States, the term pocket book became synonymous with paperback in English-speaking North America. In French, the term livre de poche was used and is still in use today, de Graaf, like Lane, negotiated paperback rights from other publishers, and produced many runs. His practices contrasted with those of Lane by his adoption of illustrated covers aimed at the North American market, in order to reach an even broader market than Lane, he used distribution networks of newspapers and magazines, which had a lengthy history of being aimed at mass audiences
New Haven, Connecticut
New Haven, in the U. S. state of Connecticut, is the principal municipality in Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut. It is the second-largest city in Connecticut, with a population of 129,779 people as of the 2010 United States Census, according to a census of 1 July 2012, by the Census Bureau, the city had a population of 130,741. New Haven was founded in 1638 by English Puritans, and a year eight streets were laid out in a four-by-four grid, the central common block is the New Haven Green, a 16-acre square, and the center of Downtown New Haven. The Green is now a National Historic Landmark and the Nine Square Plan is recognized by the American Planning Association as a National Planning Landmark, New Haven is the home of Yale University. The university is an part of the citys economy, being New Havens biggest taxpayer and employer. Health care, professional services, financial services, and retail trade help to form a base for the city.
The city served as co-capital of Connecticut from 1701 until 1873, New Haven has since billed itself as the Cultural Capital of Connecticut for its supply of established theaters and music venues. New Haven is the birthplace of George W. Bush, New Haven had the first public tree planting program in America, producing a canopy of mature trees that gave New Haven the nickname The Elm City. The area was visited by Dutch explorer Adriaen Block in 1614. Dutch traders set up a trading system of beaver pelts with the local inhabitants, but trade was sporadic. In 1637 a small party of Puritans reconnoitered the New Haven harbor area, the Quinnipiacs, who were under attack by neighboring Pequots, sold their land to the settlers in return for protection. By 1640, the theocratic government and nine-square grid plan were in place. However, the north of New Haven remained Quinnipiac until 1678. The settlement became the headquarters of the New Haven Colony, at the time, the New Haven Colony was separate from the Connecticut Colony, which had been established to the north centering on Hartford.
Economic disaster struck the colony in 1646, when the town sent its first fully loaded ship of goods back to England. This ship never reached the Old World, and its disappearance stymied New Havens development in the face of the rising power of Boston. In 1660, founder John Davenports wishes were fulfilled, and Hopkins School was founded in New Haven with money from the estate of Edward Hopkins, in 1661, the judges who had signed the death warrant of Charles I of England were pursued by Charles II
Yale School of Nursing
Yale School of Nursing is the nursing school of Yale University, located in West Haven, Connecticut. It is among the top 20 graduate schools in the country, in addition to the top 20 tier overall ranking, the school’s midwifery specialty had the second-highest score nationally as ranked by peer institutions. Yale School of Nursing’s psychiatric-mental health specialty ranked sixth, and its pediatric nurse practitioner specialty came in at fifth in a three-way tie, yale’s School of Nursing remains among the most selective in the nation, with only 29% of applicants accepted. Established in 1923 in New Haven, Connecticut, YSN moved in 2013 to Yale Universitys West Campus, located in West Haven and Orange, CT. The school has the Graduate Entry Prespecialty in Nursing program, joint degree programs are available with Yale School of Public Health and Yale Divinity School. In addition to programs, YSN offers pre and post doctoral research training. The Yale School of Nursing was founded in 1923 with funding from the Rockefeller Foundation and it celebrated its 90th anniversary in 2013.
It had its own Dean, faculty and required a standardized degree, annie Warburton Goodrich was appointed the first Dean of YSN and was the first woman Dean at Yale University. In 1934, bachelors degrees were required for admission and Yale Corporation authorized the Master of Nursing degree and this program, allowing students with no prior background in nursing graduate entry, would continue until 1956 when the Master of Science in Nursing program began. The MSN required students to have a background in nursing in order to gain entry into the program. The Nurse Practitioner track within the MSN degree was established in 1971 with the offering of the Pediatric Nurse Practitioner specialty and this was expanded in 1972, when the Family Nurse Practitioner specialty began. By 1975 YSN offered 10 specialty programs and tracks, and was at the vanguard of the education of nurse practitioners at the level along with clinical nurse specialists. In 1974, YSN reopened admission for students with no background in nursing through its Three-Year Program for Non-Nurse College Graduates
Sterling Professor is the highest academic rank at Yale University, awarded to a tenured faculty member considered one of the best in his or her field. It is akin to the rank of university professor at other universities, the position was established through a 1918 bequest from John William Sterling, and the first Sterling Professor was appointed in 1920. The professorships are named for and funded by a $15-million bequest left by John W. Sterling, partner in the New York law firm Shearman & Sterling, sterlings trustees eventually left the university more than $5 million for this purpose—about $225,000 per chair. By the mid-1920s, the endowment allowed eighteen Sterling Professors to be appointed, in 1958, the Yale Corporation capped the number of simultaneous appointments at 27, but further endowment growth allowed this number to expand to 40 by 2011. In addition to currently appointed faculty, a number of former Sterling Professors retain emeritus appointments at the university, the first woman to be named Sterling Professor was cell biologist Marilyn Farquhar, in 1987.
After Farquhar left Yale in 1989, Middle English scholar Marie Borroff and geneticist Carolyn Slayman were the next women appointed, joan Steitz and Thomas Steitz, biochemists appointed in 1999 and 2001 respectively, are the only married couple to have both held the appointment
Nicholas A. Basbanes
Nicholas Andrew Basbanes is an American author who writes and lectures widely about books and book culture. Nicholas Basbanes is the son of two first-generation Greek-Americans and he graduated from Lowell High School in 1961, and earned a bachelor’s degree in English from Bates College in Lewiston, Maine, in 1965. Discharged from active duty in 1971, Basbanes went to work as a general assignment reporter for The Evening Gazette in Worcester, two selections of his literary journalism were collected in Editions & Impressions and About the Author. Basbanes first book, A Gentle Madness, Bibliophiles and its topic is book collecting, but its focus is human nature – what Basbanes calls the “gentle madness” of bibliomania. A Gentle Madness was named a New York Times notable book of the year, in 2010, the Wall Street Journal named it one of the most influential works about book collecting published in the twentieth century. In 2012, a paperback edition and a new electronic version of the book were published.
By 2003, with the publication of A Splendor of Letters, Basbanes was already acknowledged as an authority on books. The eight-year project, which was released in October 2013, was supported in part by the award of a National Endowment for the Humanities Research Fellowship in 2008, in addition to his books, Basbanes writes for numerous newspapers and journals. He writes the “Gently Mad” column for Fine Books & Collections magazine, the Public Scholar program is designed to promote the publication of scholarly nonfiction books for general audiences. The Cushing Memorial Library and Archives of Texas A&M University acquired Basbanes papers as the Nicholas A. Basbanes Collection in December 2015, the collection includes archives of Basbanes’ professional career as an author and literary journalist, as well as a significant portion of his personal library. Highlights of the collection include materials related to the writing of his nine books. On Paper, The Everything of Its Two-Thousand-Year History, New York, durham, NC, Fine Books Press,2012 “Bibliophilia, Still No Cure in Sight”, New York Times, April 14,1991.
A Voice Revived Dorothy West Was Part Of The Harlem Renaissance In The 20s And 30s, now, At Age 87, She Has A New Novel - Her First In Nearly 50 Years, Philadelphia Inquirer, February 22,1995. “Fragile Guardians of Culture”, Los Angeles Times, January 12,2004, “A Bitter End for Hub Gem”, Boston Globe, Feb.29. “Honorable Death for a Rusty Warrior”, Los Angeles Times, May 6,2004, “Bibliophiles Inside the Wire”, Los Angeles Times, April 24,2006. “Iraq, The Cradle of the Written Word”, Christian Science Monitor, “When We Said Goodbye to the USS Oriskany”, Christian Science Monitor, May 26,2006. “Famous Once Again”, February 2007, “The Bard Out Loud”, Bates Magazine, June 2007, reprinted from The Book That Changed My Life,71 Remarkable Writers Celebrate the Books That Matter Most to Them. “The Paper Trail, Hand Papermaking in China”, Fine Books & Collections, Los Angeles Times, December 8,2013
Yale Law School
Yale Law School is the law school of Yale University, located in New Haven, United States. The schools small size and prestige make its admissions process the most selective of any law school in the United States, Yale has the lowest acceptance rate among all law schools. Roughly 8 in 10 admits ultimately matriculate, which marks the best yield rate among the top U. S. law schools, established in 1824, Yale Law offers the J. D. LL. M. M. S. L. and Ph. D. degrees in law, Yale Law has been ranked the number one law school in the country by U. S. News and World Report every year since the magazine began publishing law school rankings, through 2017. Yale Law School is widely considered to be the preeminent law school in the nation and is one of the most prestigious law schools in the world, Yale Law has produced a significant number of luminaries in law and politics, including United States presidents Gerald Ford and Bill Clinton. Former president William Howard Taft was a professor of law at Yale Law School from 1913 until he resigned to become chief justice of the United States in 1921.
Each class in Yale Laws three-year J. D. program enrolls approximately 200 students, Yales flagship law review is the Yale Law Journal. Another feature of Yale Laws culture since the 1930s, among both faculty and student graduates, has been an emphasis on the importance of spending at least a few years in government service, a similar emphasis has long been placed on service as a judicial law clerk upon graduation. Its 7.6,1 student-to-faculty ratio is the third lowest among U. S. law schools, Yale Law does not have a traditional grading system, a consequence of student unrest in the late 1960s. Instead, it grades first-semester first-year students on a simple Credit/No Credit system, for their remaining two-and-a-half years, students are graded on an Honors/Pass/Low Pass/Fail system. Similarly, the school does not rank its students and it is notable for having only a single semester of required classes, instead of the full year most U. S. schools require. Students publish nine law journals that, unlike those at most other schools, although the Journal identifies a target maximum number of members to accept each year, it is not a firm number.
Other leading student-edited publications include the Yale Law and Policy Review, the Yale Journal on Regulation, the Yale Journal of Law and Technology, and the Yale Journal of International Law. In November 2013, it was announced that a $25 million donation would bring student dormitory living back onto campus, with renovations to begin in 2018. Yale Law has been ranked the number one law school in the country by U. S. News and it is currently ranked as the second best law school in U. S and fourth in the world by the 2016 QS Rankings. Additionally, a 2010 survey of scholarly impact, measured by per capita citations to faculty scholarship, the School began in the New Haven law office of Seth P. Staples in the 1800s, who began training lawyers, by 1810 he was operating a law school. He took on a student, Samuel J. Hitchcock as a law partner