Yama or Yamarāja is a god of death, the south direction, the underworld, belonging to an early stratum of Rigvedic Hindu deities. In Sanskrit, his name can be interpreted to mean "twin". In the Zend-Avesta of Zoroastrianism, he is called "Yima". According to the Vishnu Purana, Yama is the son of sun-god Surya and Sandhya, the daughter of Vishvakarma. Yama is the brother of Sraddhadeva Manu and of his older sister Yami, which Horace Hayman Wilson indicates to mean the Yamuna. According to the Vedas, Yama is said to have been the first mortal. By virtue of precedence, he became the ruler of the departed, is called "Lord of the Pitrs". Mentioned in the Pāli Canon of Theravada Buddhism, Yama subsequently entered Buddhist mythology in East Asia, Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka as a Dharmapala under various transliterations, he is otherwise called as "Dharmaraja". In Hinduism, Yama is the son of Surya. Three hymns in the 10th book of the Rig Veda are addressed to him. In Puranas, Yama is described as having four arms, protruding fangs, complexion of storm clouds with a wrathful expression.
He wields a noose. Yama is the son of Saranyu, he is the twin brother of Yami, brother of Shraddhadeva Manu and the step brother of Shani and his son was Katila. There are several temples across India dedicated to Yama. In Buddhism, Yama is a dharmapala, a wrathful god or the Enlightened Protector of Buddhism, considered worldly, said to judge the dead and preside over the Narakas and the cycle of rebirth; the Buddhist Yama has, developed different myths and different functions from the Hindu deity. In Pali Canon Buddhist myths, Yama takes those who have mistreated elders, holy spirits, or their parents when they die. Contrary though, in the Majjhima Nikaya commentary by Buddhagosa, Yama is a vimānapeta – a preta with occasional suffering. In other parts of Buddhism, Yama's main duty is to watch over purgatorial aspects of Hell, has no relation to rebirth, his sole purpose is to maintain the relationships between spirits that pass through the ten courts, similar to Yama's representation in several Chinese religions.
He has spread and is known in every country where Buddhism is practiced, including China, Vietnam, Bhutan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and United States. In Chinese texts, Yama only holds transitional places in Hell where he oversaw the deceased before he, the Generals of Five Paths, were assigned a course of rebirth. Yama was placed as a King in the Fifth Court when texts led to the fruition of the underworld that marked the beginnings of systemizations. Yama can be found in one of the oldest Japanese religious works called Nipponkoku Genpō Zenaku Ryōiki, a literary work compiled by the Monk Keikai in 822. Yama was introduced to Japan through Buddhism, he holds the same position title as other works depict him – a judge who imposes decisions on the dead who have mistreated others. Naraka in Hinduism serves only as a temporary purgatory where the soul is purified of sin by its suffering. In Hindu mythology, Naraka holds many hells, Yama directs departed souls to the appropriate one. Elevated Mukti-yogyas and Nitya-samsarins can experience Naraka for expiation of sins.
Although Yama is the lord of Naraka, he may direct the soul to a Swarga or return it to Bhoomi. As good and bad deeds are not considered to cancel each other out, the same soul may spend time in both a hell and a heaven; the seven Swargas are: Bhuvas, Tharus, Savithaa and Maha. The idea of Naraka in Sikhism is like the idea of Hell. One's soul, however, is confined to 8.4 million life cycles before taking birth as a human, the point of human life being one where one attains salvation, the salvation being sach khand. The idea of khand comes in multiple levels of such heavens, the highest being merging with God as one; the idea of Hell comes in multiple levels, hell itself can manifest within human life itself. The Sikh idea of hell is where one is apart from the Guru's charana. Without naama one is damned. Naama is believed to be a direct deliverance by God to humanity in the form of Guru Nanak. A Sikh is hence required to take the Amrit from gurubani, panj pyare to come closer to naama. A true Sikh of the Gurus has the Guru himself takes that person into sach khand.
In the Jātakas the Narakas are mentioned as Yama's abode. It is noted that all of Samsāra is subject to Yama's rule, escape from samsāra means escape from Yama's influence; the Vetaranī River is said to form the boundary of Yama's kingdom. Elsewhere, it is referred to as consisting of Ussadaniraya, the four woeful planes, or the preta realm. Naraka is translated into English as "hell" or "purgatory". A Naraka differs from the hells of western religions in two respects. First, beings are not sent to Naraka as the result of a divine punishment. Instead, a being is born into a Naraka as a direct result of his or her previous karma, resides there for a finite length of time until his karma has exhausted its cumulate effect
The General Méndez Vigo Bridge is a brick barrel vault bridge that brings what is now Puerto Rico Highway 14 across the Río Las Minas near Coamo, Puerto Rico. Known as Bridge #173 and as Puente Rio las Minas, it was built in the year 1862 as part of Puerto Rico's Carretera Central; the bridge is significant for its association with the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers and its role in the Spanish–American War of 1898, it is the only surviving masonry bridge in the southern section of the Carretera Central. In the Puerto Rican Campaign, American forces landed in the south of Puerto Rico and attacked up the Carretera Central; this bridge, like some others, was destroyed by Spanish troops under Commander Rafael Martinez-Illescas to delay the American troops, which worked. S. Army column commanded by Major General James H. Wilson, approaching from Ponce, Puerto Rico, was held up; the Wisconsin troops subsequently participated in a pincer movement at the Battle of Coamo in which Martinez-Illescas was killed.
The destroyed arch was rebuilt in 1898 by the US Corps of Engineers. Keystones of the arch "embody its history": one side shows a castle, the symbol of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, the other provides inscription that it was reconstructed in 1898 by the First Regiment of the Fifth Battalion of the Corps; the arch is otherwise decorated by geometrical designs in relief. Abutments of the bridge are from the 1862 original construction; the bridge is named for General Santiago Mendez Vigo, governor of Puerto Rico, for Spain, during 1840 to 1844. It cost 15,405 pesos, it is located near kilometer 30.4 of Route 14
The 2006 season was SK Brann's 98th season and their 20th consecutive season in the Norwegian Premier League. The season opened on 10 April, with a tie in Fredrikstad, in a match best remembered by an amazing scissor kick goal from Charlie Miller. 8 month on 10 December, Brann finished the season with a tie against Helsingborgs IF in their last group stage match in the 2006-07 Royal League. Manager: Mons Ivar MjeldeLeague: Norwegian Premier LeagueShirt supplier: Umbro Shirt sponsor: Sparebanken VestHighest league attendance: 19,348 Lowest league attendance: 13,528 Average league attendance: 16,707 League: Silver Norwegian Cup: 4th roundEurope: UEFA Cup, second qualifying roundRoyal League: Quarter finals Top goalscorer league: Bengt Sæternes, 10 goalsTop goalscorer season: Bengt Sæternes, 11 goalsPlayer of the year: Håkon Opdal Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. SK Brann entered the summer break as undefeated league leaders.
Their win/loss record in the league was 7-4-0 with 19 goals for and 7 goals against. 10 April: Opening day of the season. Brann plays a 1-1 draw against Fredrikstad FK in Fredrikstad, best remembered by an amazing scissor kick goal from Charlie Miller. 30 April: Brann beats the reigning champions, Vålerenga 3-1 in Bergen. 5 June: Rosenborg-Brann 0-0 in front of 19,215 spectators. 8 June: After knockin FBK Voss out of the Norwegian Cup, SK Brann enteres the summer break as undefeated league leaders. Their win/loss record in the league is 7-4-0 with 19 goals for and 7 goals against. 2 July: Brann resumes the season in the worst possible way. They lose 0-4 in Hamar against the relegation-fighting Ham-Kam. 20 July: Brann is eliminated from the Norwegian Cup after a 1-3 los in Kristiansand against IK Start. 27 July: Brann advances to the 2nd UEFA Cup qualifying round, after winning 1-0 against Glentoran FC in both legs. 2 August: Brann loses 0-2 against their biggest rival in the race for Premiership-gold, Lillestrøm SK. 24 August: Brann gets knocked-out of the UEFA Cup after a defeat on aggregate against the amateurs from the Swedish Åtvidabergs FF. 17 September: Brann keeps the gold-dream alive with a 5-3 victory against Sandefjord Fotball.
15 October: Brann loses to FC Lyn Oslo. Their two previous matchtes gave them one defeat; the gold-race seems to come down to the match between Brann in Bergen. Brann have to win for the dream og gold to live on, while Rosenborg is guaranteed the goldmedals with a victory over their rivals in Brann. 22 October: The Brann-Rosenborg showdown saw Rosenborg win 3-1, taking them six points clear of Brann with two rounds left. With an advantage of +13 over Brann in goal difference, Rosenborg are assured of the title, can remove any doubt by picking up one point in either of their remaining matches. 29 October: Brann beats Ham-Kam 2-0 and secures the silver medals. Rosenborg beats Viking FK, take home the Norwegian Premier League trophy for the 20th time. 2 November: Sport Director Per Ove Ludvigsen resigned after four year as chief in Brann. 5 November: Brann is defeated in Stavanger, when Viking F. K. won 5-0. Brann's Premiership statistics were. Winn/loss: 14-4-7, goals scored: 39 goals against: 36, points: 46.
6 November: Brann prepares for the Royal League-group stage. Brann is in group 1 with the Norwegian champions Rosenborg, the bronzemedalist from Denmark, Odense Boldklub and the number 4 in the Swedish league, Helsingborgs IF. 9 November: Brann wins 3-1 at the Royal League 2006-07 opening game against Rosenborg. 24 November: Roald Bruun-Hanssen is hired as new Sports Director. 26 November: Brann-Helsingborg 2-2, in the 2nd round of the Royal League. Cato Guntveit played his first match since 24 August, after being troubled with injuries most of the season. 7 December: Brann qualified for the quarterfinals in the Royal League, after defeating Rosenborg 3-2 at home. 10 December: Brann tied with Helsingborg in the last group stage match in the 2006-07 Royal League. The match was Henrik "Henke" Larsson's last match before his loan-transfer to Manchester United. Both Brann and Helsingborg qualified for the quarterfinal in the Royal League, while Odense finished 3rd and qualified to the quarterfinal as one of the two best 3rd placed teams in the groupstage.
Rosenborg was eliminated from the tournament. Matches and goal are for matches in the Norwegian Premier League, Norwegian Cup, Royal League and European Cup/UEFA Cup, was last updated after the seasons last game 10 December
Apache Cassandra is a free and open-source, wide column store, NoSQL database management system designed to handle large amounts of data across many commodity servers, providing high availability with no single point of failure. Cassandra offers robust support for clusters spanning multiple datacenters, with asynchronous masterless replication allowing low latency operations for all clients. Avinash Lakshman, one of the authors of Amazon's Dynamo, Prashant Malik developed Cassandra at Facebook to power the Facebook inbox search feature. Facebook released Cassandra as an open-source project on Google code in July 2008. In March 2009 it became an Apache Incubator project. On February 17, 2010 it graduated to a top-level project. Facebook developers named their database after the Trojan mythological prophet Cassandra, with classical allusions to a curse on an oracle. Releases after graduation include 0.6, released Apr 12 2010, added support for integrated caching, Apache Hadoop MapReduce 0.7, released Jan 08 2011, added secondary indexes and online schema changes 0.8, released Jun 2 2011, added the Cassandra Query Language, self-tuning memtables, support for zero-downtime upgrades 1.0, released Oct 17 2011, added integrated compression, leveled compaction, improved read-performance 1.1, released Apr 23 2012, added self-tuning caches, row-level isolation, support for mixed ssd/spinning disk deployments 1.2, released Jan 2 2013, added clustering across virtual nodes, inter-node communication, atomic batches, request tracing 2.0, released September 4, 2013, added lightweight transactions, improved compactions 2.1 released Sep 10 2014 2.2 released July 20, 2015 3.0 released November 11, 2015 3.1 through 3.10 releases were monthly releases using a tick-tock-like release model, with even-numbered releases providing both new features and bug fixes while odd-numbered releases will include bug fixes only.
3.11 released June 23, 2017 as a stable 3.11 release series and bug fix from the last tick-tock feature release. Distributed Every node in the cluster has the same role. There is no single point of failure. Data is distributed across the cluster, but there is no master as every node can service any request. Supports replication and multi data center. Cassandra is designed as a distributed system, for deployment of large numbers of nodes across multiple data centers. Key features of Cassandra’s distributed architecture are tailored for multiple-data center deployment, for redundancy, for failover and disaster recovery. Scalability Designed to have read and write throughput both increase linearly as new machines are added, with the aim of no downtime or interruption to applications. Fault-tolerant Data is automatically replicated to multiple nodes for fault-tolerance. Replication across multiple data centers is supported. Failed nodes can be replaced with no downtime. Tunable consistency Cassandra is classified as an AP system, meaning that availability and partition tolerance are considered to be more important than consistency in Cassandra and reads offer a tunable level of consistency, all the way from "writes never fail" to "block for all replicas to be readable", with the quorum level in the middle.
MapReduce support Cassandra has Hadoop integration, with MapReduce support. There is support for Apache Pig and Apache Hive. Query language Cassandra introduced the Cassandra Query Language. CQL is a simple interface for accessing Cassandra, as an alternative to the traditional Structured Query Language. Eventual Consistency Cassandra manages eventual consistency of reads and deletes through Tombstones. Cassandra introduced the Cassandra Query Language. CQL is a simple interface for accessing Cassandra, as an alternative to the traditional Structured Query Language. CQL adds an abstraction layer that hides implementation details of this structure and provides native syntaxes for collections and other common encodings. Language drivers are available for Java, Node. JS, Go and C++. Below an example of keyspace creation, including a column family in CQL 3.0: Which gives: Up to Cassandra 1.0, Cassandra was not row level consistent, meaning that inserts and updates into the table that affect the same row that are processed at the same time may affect the non-key columns in inconsistent ways.
One update may affect one column while another affects the other, resulting in sets of values within the row that were never specified or intended. Cassandra 1.1 solved this issue by introducing row-level isolation. Deletion markers called "Tombstones" are known to cause performance degradation up to severe consequence levels. Cassandra is wide column store, and, as such a hybrid between a key-value and a tabular database management system, its data model is a partitioned row store with tunable consistency. Rows are organized into tables. Other columns may be indexed separately from the primary key. Tables may be created and altered at run-time without blocking updates and queries. Cassandra can not do subqueries. Rather, Cassandra emphasizes denormalization through features like collections. A column family resembles a table in an RDBMS. Column families contain columns; each row is uniquely identified by a row key. Each row has multiple columns, each of which has a name, a timestamp. Unlike a table in an RDBMS, different rows
Joseph Meek was an English professional footballer who played for Newcastle Co-op, Seaton Delaval, Middlesbrough, Bradford Park Avenue, Tottenham Hotspur and Swansea Town. Meek played non-League football for Newcastle Co–op and Seaton Delaval before having an unsuccessful trial at Liverpool in 1927. Meek, an inside right, had spells at Middlesbrough. In 1930 he joined Gateshead where he featured in 135 netted 50 goals. After playing for Bradford Park Avenue, Meek signed for Tottenham Hotspur. Between 1935–38 he played a total 51 matches and scored on 16 occasions in all competitions for the Spurs. Meek ended his career at Swansea Town
Extended Play is the fifth studio album by East Coast hip hop producer Statik Selektah. The album was released on June 2013, by Duck Down Music Inc. and Showoff Records. The album features guest appearances from Action Bronson, Tony Touch, Joey Badass, Black Thought, N. O. R. E. Sean Price, Mac Miller, Mike Posner, Freddie Gibbs, Styles P, Bun B, Hit-Boy, Joell Ortiz, Lecrae, Talib Kweli, Flatbush Zombies among others; the first single "Bird's Eye View" featuring Raekwon, Joey Badass and Black Thought was released on April 16, 2013. The second single "21 & Over" featuring Mac Miller and Sean Price was released on May 14, 2013. On June 5, 2013, the music video was released for "Over" featuring Mac Miller and Sean Price; the third single "Game Break" featuring Lecrae and Posdnuos was released on June 4, 2013. On September 28, 2013, the music video was released for "Gz, Hustlers" featuring Wais P. Extended Play received positive reviews from music critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted mean rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 83, based on 5 reviews, which indicates "universal acclaim".
Jason Lymangrover of AllMusic said, "Turntable scratching and a glaring lack of digital manipulation make this feel more like a throwback, but despite the fact that this is the fifth album completed in six years, Statik Selektah's Extended Play doesn't seem sloppily thrown together. Instead, it's a dense, imaginative outing that pays tribute to classic East Coast hip-hop lovingly." Mark Bozzer of Exclaim! stated, "Extended Play warrants repeated listens in the whip. Hands down, the best track is lead single "Bird's Eye View," which has the venerable Raekwon and "top 5 MC of all time" Black Thought spitting knowledge with young gun Joey Bada$$ over Seleketah's shimmering soul. Other tracks that stand out are are "21 & Over," which finds Sean P linking with Mac Miller, testosterone-fest "Funeral Season," featuring Styles P, Bun B and Hit Boy shitting on everybody in their way. Do yourself a favor and cop this release. Rap is good nowadays, so indulge."Jay Balfour of HipHopDX said, "Extended Play reads much like Statik’s past full-length showcase records—this is the fifth of its kind since 2007—but with 18 tracks and a whopping 38 guests, some of whom make more than one appearance, it’s an inherently tiring listen.
At just over 60 minutes, the album is too dense to let the feature production breathe much on its own, the three separate guest verses per song template dominates much of the project. While the album might incite a little listener’s fatigue in a single session absorption, it functions well as an inspiringly crowded display case of quality Rap in 2013. Statik’s individual partnerships might yield more compelling full-length projects on their own but albums like Extended Play are fine platforms for a little showing off. Matthew Sanderson of AllHipHop stated, "All in all the effort is solid. However, with such a roster of ill MCs, there seems to be some lack luster spitters that should not be on the same track as the others. Feels like a little bit of filler. Maybe Statik is trying to shed some limelight to his buddies and I cannot be against that. However, for example, I rather have had extra bars from both the Ghost and Bun on Funeral session, if you get my drift; the beats are there, the greats are on there too.
Why not have the All Stars rap the whole piece and X out the gold string?" Steve'Flash' Juon of RapReviews gave the album a 7.5 out of 10, saying "Extended Play has the comfortable feel of a mid-to-late 1990's DJ Premier P-P-P-Premier mixtape though so I'm not mad at it - I just want Statik to knock his next one out of the stratosphere." The album debuted at number 121 on the Billboard 200 chart, with first-week sales of 3,600 copies in the United States. All tracks produced by Statik Selektah except track 16, co-produced by The Alchemist. Credits for Extended Play adapted from AllMusic. Managerial Visuals and imagery Performance credits Technical and production