Buddhism in Vietnam
Buddhism in Vietnam, as practised by the ethnic Vietnamese, is of the Mahayana tradition. Buddhism may have first come to Vietnam as early as the 3rd or 2nd century BCE from the Indian subcontinent or from China in the 1st or 2nd century CE. Vietnamese Buddhism has had a syncretic relationship with certain elements of Taoism, Chinese spirituality and the Vietnamese folk religion. There are conflicting theories regarding whether Buddhism first reached Vietnam during the 3rd or 2nd century BCE via delegations from India, or during the 1st or 2nd century from China. In either case, by the end of the second century CE, Vietnam had developed into a major regional Mahayana Buddhist center centering on Luy Lâu in modern Bắc Ninh Province, northeast of the present day capital city of Hanoi. Luy Lâu was the capital of the Han region of Jiaozhi and was a popular place visited by many Indian Buddhist missionary monks en route to China; the monks followed the maritime trade route from the Indian sub-continent to China used by Indian traders.
A number of Mahayana sutras and the āgamas were translated into Classical Chinese there, including the Sutra of Forty-two Chapters and the Anapanasati. Jiaozhi was the birthplace of Buddhist missionary Kang Senghui, of Sogdian origin. Over the next eighteen centuries and China shared many common features of cultural and religious heritage; this was due to geographical proximity to one Vietnam being annexed twice by China. Vietnamese Buddhism is thus related to Chinese Buddhism in general, to some extent reflects the formation of Chinese Buddhism after the Song dynasty. Theravada Buddhism, on the other hand, would become incorporated through the southern annexation of Khmer people and territories. During the Đinh dynasty, Buddhism was recognized by the state as an official faith, reflecting the high esteem of Buddhist faith held by the Vietnamese monarchs; the Early Lê dynasty afforded the same recognition to the Buddhist church. The growth of Buddhism during this time is attributed to the recruitment of erudite monks to the court as the newly independent state needed an ideological basis on which to build a country.
Subsequently, this role was ceded to Confucianism. Vietnamese Buddhism reached its zenith during the Lý dynasty beginning with the founder Lý Thái Tổ, raised in a pagoda. All of the kings during the Lý dynasty sanctioned Buddhism as the state religion; this endured with the Trần dynasty but Buddhism had to share the stage with the emerging growth of Confucianism. By the 15th century, Buddhism fell out of favor with the court during the Later Lê dynasty, although still popular with the masses. Officials like Lê Quát attacked it as wasteful, it was not until the 19th century that Buddhism regained some stature under the Nguyễn dynasty who accorded royal support. A Buddhist revival movement emerged in the 1920s in an effort to reform and strengthen institutional Buddhism, which had lost grounds to the spread of Christianity and the growth of other faiths under French rule; the movement continued into the 1950s. From 1954 to 1975, Vietnam was split into South Vietnam. In a country where surveys of the religious composition estimated the Buddhist majority to be 50 to 70 percent, President Ngô Đình Diệm's policies generated claims of religious bias.
As a member of the Catholic Vietnamese minority, he pursued pro-Catholic policies that antagonized many Buddhists. In May 1963, in the central city of Huế, where Diệm's elder brother Ngô Đình Thục was the archbishop, Buddhists were prohibited from displaying Buddhist flags during Vesak celebrations yet few days earlier, Catholics were allowed to fly religious flags at a celebration in honour of the newly seated archbishop; this led to widespread protest against the government. This led to mass rallies against Diệm's government, termed as the Buddhist crisis; the conflicts culminated in Thích Quảng Đức's self-immolation. President Diệm's younger brother Ngô Đình Nhu favored strong-armed tactics and Army of the Republic of Vietnam Special Forces engaged in the Xá Lợi Pagoda raids, killing estimated hundreds. Dismayed by the public outrage, the US government withdrew support for the regime. President Diệm was killed in the 1963 coup. Political strength of the Buddhists grew in the 1960s as the different schools and orders convene to form the Unified Buddhist Church of Vietnam.
Leaders of the Church like Thích Trí Quang had considerable sway in national politics, at times challenging the government. With the fall of Saigon in 1975, the whole nation came under Communist rule. In the North the government had created the United Buddhist Sangha of Vietnam, co-opting the clergy to function under government auspices but in the South, the Unified Buddhist Sangha of Vietnam still held sway and challenged the communist government; the Sangha leadership was thus imprisoned. In its place was the newly created Buddhist Sangha of Vietnam, designed as the final union of all Buddhist organizations, now under full state control. Since Đổi Mới many reforms have allowed Buddhism to be practiced unhindered by the individuals; however no organized sangha is allowed to function independent of the state. It was not until 2007 that Pure Land Buddhism, the most widespread type of Buddhism practiced in Vietnam, was recognized as a religion by the government. Thích Quảng Độ the Patriarch of the Unified Buddhist Sangha, once imprisoned, remains under surveill
Ox-Head and Horse-Face
Ox-Head and Horse-Face are two guardians or types of guardians of the Underworld in Chinese mythology. As indicated by their names, both have the bodies of men, but Ox-Head has the head of an ox while Horse-Face has the face of a horse, they are the first beings. In the Chinese classical novel Journey to the West, Ox-Head and Horse-Face are among the underworld denizens whom Sun Wukong overpowers after his soul is dragged to hell in his sleep, he crosses out his name and those of all primates on earth from the record of living souls, hence granting a second level of immortality to himself and general immortality to his monkey children. In Japanese mythology, Ox-Head and Horse-Face are known as "Gozu" and "Mezu" respectively. Chinese mythology in popular culture Diyu Heibai Wuchang Horse in Chinese mythology List of supernatural beings in Chinese folklore Minotaur Ox in Chinese mythology Youdu
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana. Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood. Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the path to liberation, the relative importance and canonicity assigned to the various Buddhist texts, their specific teachings and practices. Observed practices include taking refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha, observance of moral precepts, monasticism and the cultivation of the Paramitas.
Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Myanmar and Thailand. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism and Tiantai, is found throughout East Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region and Kalmykia. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of the Buddha born Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Tathāgata and Sakyamuni. Early texts have his personal name as "Gautama" or "Gotama" without any mention of "Siddhārtha," which appears to have been a kind of honorific title when it does appear; the details of Buddha's life are mentioned in many Early Buddhist Texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. The evidence of the early texts suggests that he was born as Siddhārtha Gautama in Lumbini and grew up in Kapilavasthu, a town in the plains region of the modern Nepal-India border, that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother was Queen Maya, he was born in Lumbini gardens. However, scholars such as Richard Gombrich consider this a dubious claim because a combination of evidence suggests he was born in the Shakyas community – one that gave him the title Shakyamuni, the Shakya community was governed by a small oligarchy or republic-like council where there were no ranks but where seniority mattered instead; some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, claims about the society he grew up in may have been invented and interpolated at a time into the Buddhist texts. According to the Buddhist sutras, Gautama was moved by the innate suffering of humanity and its endless repetition due to rebirth, he set out on a quest to end this repeated suffering. Early Buddhist canonical texts and early biographies of Gautama state that Gautama first studied under Vedic teachers, namely Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, learning meditation and ancient philosophies the concept of "nothingness, emptiness" from the former, "what is neither seen nor unseen" from the latter.
Finding these teachings to be insufficient to attain his goal, he turned to the practice of asceticism. This too fell short of attaining his goal, he turned to the practice of dhyana, which he had discovered in his youth, he famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in the Gangetic plains region of South Asia. He gained insight into the workings of karma and his former lives, attained enlightenment, certainty about the Middle Way as the right path of spiritual practice to end suffering from rebirths in Saṃsāra; as a enlightened Buddha, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his life teaching the Dharma he had discovered, died at the age of 80 in Kushinagar, India. Buddha's teachings were propagated by his followers, which in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE became over 18 Buddhist sub-schools of thought, each with its own basket of texts containing different interpretations and authentic teachings of the Buddha.
The Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, but there is a way to liberation from this endless cycle to the state of nirvana, namely following the Noble Eightfold Path. The truth of dukkha is the basic insight that life in this mundane world, with its clinging and craving to impermanent states and things is dukkha, unsatisfactory. Dukkha can be translated as "incapable of satisfying," "the unsatisfactory nature and the general insecurity of all conditioned phenomena". Dukkha is most translated as "suffering," but this is inaccurate, since it refers not to episodic suffering, but to the intrinsically unsat
Mara, in Buddhism, is the demon that tempted Prince Siddhartha by trying to seduce him with the vision of beautiful women who, in various legends, are said to be Mara's daughters. In Buddhist cosmology, Mara is associated with death and desire. Nyanaponika Thera has described Mara as "the personification of the forces antagonistic to enlightenment." The word "Māra" comes from the Sanskrit form of the verbal root mṛ. It takes a causative form mārayati. Māra is a verbal noun from the causative root and means'causing death' or'killing', it is related to other words for death from the same root, such as: mṛtyu. The latter is sometimes identified with Yama; the root mṛ is related to the Indo-European verbal root *mer meaning "die, disappear" in the context of "death, murder or destruction". It is "very wide-spread" in Indo-European languages suggesting it to be of great antiquity, according to Mallory and Adams. In traditional Buddhism, four metaphorical forms of "māra" are given: Kleśa-māra, or Ma̋ra as the embodiment of all unskillful emotions, such as greed and delusion.
Mṛtyu-māra, or Māra as death. Skandha-māra, or Māra as metaphor for the entirety of conditioned existence. Devaputra-māra, the deva of the sensuous realm, who tries to prevent Gautama Buddha from attaining liberation from the cycle of rebirth on the night of the Buddha´s enlightenment. Early Buddhism acknowledged both a psychological interpretation of Mara. Specially Mara is described both as an entity having an existence in Kāma-world, just as are shown existing around the Buddha, is described in pratītyasamutpāda as the guardian of passion and the catalyst for lust and fear that obstructs meditation among Buddhists. "Buddha defying Mara" is a common pose of Buddha sculptures. The Buddha is shown with his left hand in his lap, palm facing upwards and his right hand on his right knee; the fingers of his right hand touch the earth, to call the earth as his witness for defying Mara and achieving enlightenment. This posture is referred to as the bhūmisparśa "earth-witness" mudra. In some accounts of the Buddha's enlightenment, it is said that the demon Māra didn't send his three daughters to tempt but instead they came willingly after Māra's setback in his endeavor to eliminate the Buddha's quest for enlightenment.
Mara's three daughters are identified as Taṇhā, Raga. For example, in the Samyutta Nikaya's Māra-saṃyutta, Mara's three daughters were stripping in front of Buddha; some stories refer to the existence of Five Daughters, who represent not only the Three Poisons of Attraction and Delusion, but include the daughters Pride, Fear. The story "Dying in Bangkok" by Dan Simmons, in his 1993 collection Lovedeath, features Mara and her demonic daughter as supernatural creatures who tempt men with the ultimate in sexual pleasures. Mara has been prominently featured in the Megami Tensei video game series as a demon. Within the series, Mara is portrayed as a large, phallic creature shown riding a golden chariot, his phallic body and innuendo-laden speech is based on a pun surrounding the word mara, a Japonic word for "penis", attested as early as 938 CE in the Wamyō Ruijushō, a Japanese dictionary of Chinese characters. According to the Sanseido dictionary, the word was used as a euphemism for "penis" among Buddhist monks, which makes it likely that it was meant as a direct reference to Mara the demon Mara appears in Roger Zelazny's novel Lord of Light as a God of Illusion.
Demiurge Eros Grīmekhalaṃ Kamadeva Mare Marzanna Mors Thanatos Anubis Izanami Hades Ah Puch Id, ego and super-ego The Temptation of St. Anthony Maravijaya Buddha Bodhi, Bhikkhu; the Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Pubs. ISBN 0-86171-331-1. Saddhatissa, H.. The Sutta-Nipāta. London: RoutledgeCurzon Press. ISBN 0-7007-0181-8. Boyd, James W.. "Symbols of Evil in Buddhism". The Journal of Asian Studies. 31: 63–75. Doi:10.2307/2053052. JSTOR 2053052. – via JSTOR Guruge, Ananda W. P.. "The Buddha's encounters with Mara, the Tempter: their representation in Literature and Art". Indologica Taurinensia. 17–18: 183–208. Archived from the original on November 22, 2014. Ling, Trevor O.. Buddhism and the Mythology of Evil: A Study in Theravada Buddhism. London: Allen and Unwin The Buddha's Encounters with Mara the Tempter: Their Representation in Literature and Art Taming the Mara Mara, the Evil One_99
Karma means action, work or deed. Good intent and good deeds contribute to good karma and happier rebirths, while bad intent and bad deeds contribute to bad karma and bad rebirths; the philosophy of karma is associated with the idea of rebirth in many schools of Indian religions as well as Taoism. In these schools, karma in the present affects one's future in the current life, as well as the nature and quality of future lives - one's saṃsāra. Karma is the executed "deed", "work", "action", or "act", it is the "object", the "intent". Wilhelm Halbfass explains karma by contrasting it with another Sanskrit word kriya; the word kriya is the activity along with the steps and effort in action, while karma is the executed action as a consequence of that activity, as well as the intention of the actor behind an executed action or a planned action. A good action creates good karma. A bad action creates bad karma. Karma refers to a conceptual principle that originated in India descriptively called the principle of karma, sometimes as the karma theory or the law of karma.
In the context of theory, karma is difficult to define. Different schools of Indologists derive different definitions for the karma concept from ancient Indian texts. Other Indologists include in the definition of karma theory that which explains the present circumstances of an individual with reference to his or her actions in past; these actions may be those in a person's current life, or, in some schools of Indian traditions actions in their past lives. The law of karma operates any process of divine judgment. Difficulty in arriving at a definition of karma arises because of the diversity of views among the schools of Hinduism. Buddhism and Jainism have their own karma precepts, thus karma has not multiple definitions and different meanings. It is a concept whose meaning and scope varies between Hinduism, Buddhism and other traditions that originated in India, various schools in each of these traditions. O'Flaherty claims that, there is an ongoing debate regarding whether karma is a theory, a model, a paradigm, a metaphor, or a metaphysical stance.
Karma theory as a concept, across different Indian religious traditions, shares certain common themes: causality and rebirth. A common theme to theories of karma is its principle of causality. One of the earliest association of karma to causality occurs in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad of Hinduism. For example, at 4.4.5-6, it states: The relationship of karma to causality is a central motif in all schools of Hindu and Buddhist thought. The theory of karma as causality holds that executed actions of an individual affects the individual and the life he or she lives, the intentions of an individual affects the individual and the life he or she lives. Disinterested actions, or unintentional actions do not have the same positive or negative karmic effect, as interested and intentional actions. In Buddhism, for example, actions that are performed, or arise, or originate without any bad intent such as covetousness, are considered non-existent in karmic impact or neutral in influence to the individual.
Another causality characteristic, shared by Karmic theories, is that like deeds lead to like effects. Thus good karma produces good effect on the actor; this effect may be material, moral or emotional — that is, one's karma affects one's happiness and unhappiness. The effect of karma need not be immediate; the consequence or effects of one's karma can be described in two forms: samskaras. A phala is the visible or invisible effect, immediate or within the current life. In contrast, samskaras are invisible effects, produced inside the actor because of the karma, transforming the agent and affecting his or her ability to be happy or unhappy in this life and future ones; the theory of karma is presented in the context of samskaras. Karmic principle can be understood, suggests Karl Potter, as a principle of psychology and habit. Karma seeds habits, habits create the nature of man. Karma seeds self perception, perception influences how one experiences life events. Both habits and self perception affect the course of one's life.
Breaking bad habits is not easy: it requires conscious karmic effort. Thus psyche and habit, according to Potter and others, link karma to causality in ancient Indian literature; the idea of karma may be compared to the notion of a person's "character", as both are an assessment of the person and determined by that person's habitual thinking and acting. The second theme common to karma theories is ethicization; this begins with the premise that every action has a consequence, which will come to fruition in either this or a future life.
Buddhism in Taiwan
Buddhism is one of the major religions of Taiwan. Taiwanese people predominantly practice Mahayana Buddhism, Confucian principles, local practices and Taoist tradition. Roles for religious specialists from both Buddhist and Taoist traditions exist on special occasions such as for childbirth and funerals. Of these, a smaller number identify more with Chinese Buddhist teachings and institutions, without eschewing practices from other Asian traditions. Around 35% of the population believes in Buddhism. Taiwanese government statistics distinguish Buddhism from Taoism, giving equal numbers for both. In 2005, the census recorded 8 million Buddhists and 7.6 million Taoists, out of a total population of 23 million. Many of Taiwan's self-declared "Taoists" observe the more syncretistic practices associated with Chinese traditional religion, based on Buddhism. Self-avowed Buddhists may be adherents of more localized faiths such as Yiguandao, which emphasize Buddhist figures like Guanyin or Maitreya and espouse vegetarianism.
Distinguishing features of Taiwanese Buddhism is the emphasis on the practice of vegetarianism, the influence of Humanistic Buddhism, the prominence of large centralized Buddhist organizations. Four Buddhist teachers who founded institutions that are influential are popularly referred to as the "Four Heavenly Kings of Taiwanese Buddhism", one for each cardinal direction, with their corresponding institutions referred to as the "Four Great Mountains", they are: North: Master Sheng-yen of Dharma Drum Mountain South: Master Hsing Yun of Fo Guang Shan East: Master Cheng Yen of the Tzu Chi Foundation West: Master Wei Chueh of Chung Tai Shan Following the Chinese Civil War, Buddhism experienced a rapid increase in popularity in Taiwan, attributed to Taiwan's economic miracle following the war and several major Buddhist organizations promoting modern values such as equality and reason, attractive to the country's growing middle class. Taiwanese Buddhist institutions are known for their involvement in secular society, including the providing of a number of public goods and services such as colleges and disaster relief.
Buddhism was brought to Taiwan in the era of Dutch colonialism by settlers from the Chinese provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. The Dutch, who controlled Taiwan from 1624 until 1663, discouraged Buddhism, since idol worship was punishable by public flogging and banishment by Dutch law at the time. In 1662, Koxinga drove the Dutch from Taiwan, his son Zheng Jing established the first Buddhist temple in Taiwan. During this period, Buddhist practice was not pervasive, with Buddhist monks only performing funeral and memorial services; when the Qing dynasty took control of Taiwan in 1683, large numbers of monks came from Fujian and Guangdong provinces to establish temples those devoted to Guanyin, a number of different Buddhist sects flourished. Monastic Buddhism, did not arrive until the 1800s. During the Japanese rule of Taiwan, many schools of Japanese Buddhism came to Taiwan to propagate their Buddhism teachings, such as Kegon, Shingon Buddhism, Rinzai school, Sōtō, Jōdo shū, Jōdo Shinshū and Nichiren Buddhism.
During the same period, most Taiwan Buddhist temples came to affiliate with one of three central temples: North: Yueh-mei Mountain, founded by Master Shan-hui Center: Fa-yun Temple, founded by Master Chueh-li South: Kai-yuan Temple founded by Chueh-liAs a Japanese colony, Taiwan fell under the influence of Japanese Buddhism. Many temples experienced pressure to affiliate with Japanese lineages, including many whose status with respect to Buddhism or Taoism was unclear. Attempts were made to introduce a married priesthood; these failed to take root, as emphasis on vegetarianism and/or clerical celibacy became another means of anti-Japanese protest. With Japan's defeat in World War II, Taiwan fell under the control of Chiang Kai-shek's government, resulting in contrary political pressures. In 1949, a number of mainland monks fled to Taiwan alongside Chiang's military forces, received preferential treatment by the new regime. During this period, Buddhist institutions fell under the authority of the government-controlled Buddhist Association of the Republic of China.
Established in 1947, it was dominated by "mainland" monks. Its authority began to decline in the 1960s, when independent Buddhist organizations began to be permitted. Buddhism experienced rapid growth in Taiwan following the war, attributed to the immigration of several Buddhist teachers from Communist China after the defeat of the nationalists in the Chinese Civil War and the growth of Humanistic Buddhism. ‘Humanistic Buddhism’ promotes a direct relationship between Buddhist communities and the wider society. Known as Socially Engaged Buddhism, its focuses on the improvement of society through participation in aspects such as environmental conservation. Humanistic Buddhism is the major distinguishing trait of modern Taiwanese Buddhism. Humanistic Buddhism traces its roots to Chinese monk Venerable Taixu, who wanted to reform the continuous focus on ritual and ceremony. Taixu promoted more direct contributions to society through the Buddhist community and was a significant influence for Master Ying Shun, considered to be the figure who brought Humanistic Buddhism to Taiwan.
Diyu is the realm of the dead or "hell" in Chinese mythology. It is loosely based on a combination of the Tamil concept of Naraka, traditional Chinese beliefs about the afterlife and a variety of popular expansions and reinterpretations of these two traditions. Diyu is depicted as a subterranean maze with various levels and chambers, to which souls are taken after death to atone for the sins they committed when they were alive; the exact number of levels in Diyu and their associated deities differ between Buddhist and Taoist interpretations. Some speak of three to four "courts"; each court deals with a different aspect of different punishments. According to ideas from Taoism and traditional Chinese folk religion, Diyu is a purgatory that serves to punish and renew spirits in preparation for reincarnation. Many deities, whose names and purposes are the subject of conflicting accounts, are associated with Diyu; some early Chinese societies speak of people going to Mount Tai, Jiuquan or Fengdu after death.
At present and the temples on Mount Tai have been rebuilt into tourist attractions, incorporating artistic depictions of hell and the afterlife. Some Chinese folk religion planchette writings, such as the Taiwanese novel Journeys to the Under-World, say that new hells with new punishments are created as the world changes and that there is a City of Innocent Deaths designed to house those who died with grievances that have yet to be redressed; the concept of the "Ten Courts of the hell" began after Chinese folk religion was influenced by Buddhism. In Chinese mythology, the Jade Emperor put Yama in charge of overseeing the affairs of Diyu. There are 12,800 hells located under the earth – eight dark hells, eight cold hells and 84,000 miscellaneous hells located at the edge of the universe. All will go to Diyu after death but the period of time one spends in Diyu is not indefinite – it depends on the severity of the sins one committed. After receiving due punishment, one will be sent for reincarnation.
In the meantime, souls pass from stage to stage at Yama's decision. Yama reduced the number of hells to ten, he divided Diyu into ten courts, each overseen by a "Yama King", while he remained as the sovereign ruler of Diyu. Among the various other geographic features believed of Diyu, the capital city has been thought to be named Youdu, it is conceived as being similar to a typical Chinese capital city, such as Chang'an, but surrounded with and pervaded with darkness. The concept of the eighteen hells started in the Tang dynasty; the Buddhist text Wen Diyu Jing mentioned 134 worlds of hell, but was simplified to the Eighteen Levels of Hell for convenience. Sinners feel pain and agony just like living humans when they are subjected to the tortures listed below, they cannot "die" from the torture because when the ordeal is over, their bodies will be restored to their original states for the torture to be repeated. The following is a list of common punishments and tortures in the hells: Mountain of Knives: Sinners are thrown off cliffs and land on mountainous terrain with sharp blades sticking out.
Some depictions show offenders climbing trees with knives or sharp thorns sticking out of trunks and branches. Cauldron torture: Sinners are fried in cauldrons of oil. Dismemberment: Sinners are dismembered by various means, including sawing, slicing into half, mashing/pounding into pulp, being crushed by rocks/boulders, being run over by vehicles, etc. Grinding torture: Sinners are put into a grinding machine and ground into a bloody pulp. Burning: Sinners are set aflame or cast into infernos. Paolao torture: Sinners are stripped naked and tied to a large hollow metal cylinder with a fire lit at its base. Boiling liquid torture: Boiling liquids are forced down sinners' throats or poured on parts of their bodies. Tortures involving removal of body parts or organs: Tongue ripping, eye gouging, teeth extraction, heart digging, skinning, etc. Ice World: Sinners are frozen in ice; some depictions show unclothed sinners suffering frostbite in an icy world. Their bodies fall apart or break into pieces.
Scales and hooks torture: Sinners are pierced with hooks and hung upside-down. Some depictions show sinners having nails hammered into their bodies. Pool of Blood: Sinners are cast into a pool of filthy blood, where they drown. Blood spills from all bodily orifices. Tortures involving animals: Sinners are trampled by cattle, gored by animals with horns or tusks, mauled or eaten by predators, stung or bitten by poisonous species, etc. Avīci: The period of suffering in this chamber is the longest, it is reserved for sinners. Some literature refers to eighteen hells for each type of punishment; some religious or literature books say that wrongdoers who were not punished when they were alive are punished in the hells after death. Among the more common Chinese names for the Underworld are: Difu, "Earth Mansion". Huangquan, "Yellow Springs", called yomi in Japanese. Yinjian, "Land of Shade". Yinfu (simplified Chine