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Yangon

Yangon known as Rangoon, is the capital of the Yangon Region and the largest city of Myanmar. Yangon served as the capital of Myanmar until 2006, when the military government relocated the administrative functions to the purpose-built city of Naypyidaw in central Myanmar. With over 7 million people, Yangon is Myanmar's most populous city and its most important commercial centre. Yangon boasts the largest number of colonial-era buildings in Southeast Asia, has a unique colonial-era urban core, remarkably intact; the colonial-era commercial core is centered around the Sule Pagoda, reputed to be over 2,000 years old. The city is home to the gilded Shwedagon Pagoda – Myanmar's most sacred Buddhist pagoda; the mausoleum of the last Mughal Emperor is located in Yangon, where he had been exiled following the Indian Mutiny of 1857. Yangon suffers from inadequate infrastructure compared to other major cities in Southeast Asia. Though many historic residential and commercial buildings have been renovated throughout central Yangon, most satellite towns that ring the city continue to be profoundly impoverished and lack basic infrastructure.

The name Yangon is derived from the combination of the Burmese words yan and koun, which mean'enemies' and'run out of', respectively. This word combination is translated as'End of Strife'; the city's colonial era name, Rangoon is derived from the Anglicization of the Arakanese pronunciation of Yangon, which is. Yangon was founded as Dagon in the early 11th century by the Mon people, who dominated Lower Burma at that time. A Mon princess named Maha Dewi ruled Dagon as Governor of Dagon from 1364 to 1392, her grandniece, Shin Sawbu ascended the throne of Hanthawaddy Kingdom in 1545 and would become the only female ruler in the recorded history of Myanmar. Queen regnant Shin Sawbu built a palace next to the Shwedagon Pagoda in the town in 1460 and spent her semi-retired life at that palace until her passing in 1471. In 1755, King Alaungpaya, the founder of the Konbaung Dynasty captured Dagon, renamed it "Yangon", added settlements around Dagon. In the 1790s, the East India Company opened a factory in Yangon.

The estimated population of Yangon in 1823 was about 30,000. The British captured Yangon during the First Anglo-Burmese War, but returned it to Burmese administration after the war; the city was destroyed by a fire in 1841. The British seized Yangon and all of Lower Burma in the Second Anglo-Burmese War of 1852, subsequently transformed Yangon into the commercial and political hub of British Burma. After the war, the British moved the capital of British Burma from Moulmein to Yangon. Yangon was the place where the British sent Bahadur Shah II, the last Mughal emperor, to live after the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Based on the design by army engineer Lt. Alexander Fraser, the British constructed a new city on a grid plan on delta land, bounded to the east by the Pazundaung Creek and to the south and west by the Yangon River. Yangon became the capital of all British-ruled Burma after the British had captured Upper Burma in the Third Anglo-Burmese War of 1885. By the 1890s Yangon's increasing population and commerce gave birth to prosperous residential suburbs to the north of Royal Lake and Inya Lake.

The British established hospitals including Rangoon General Hospital and colleges including Rangoon University. Colonial Yangon, with its spacious parks and lakes and mix of modern buildings and traditional wooden architecture, was known as "the garden city of the East." By the early 20th century, Yangon had public services and infrastructure on par with London. Before World War II, about 55% of Yangon's population of 500,000 was Indian or South Asian, only about a third was Bamar. Karens, the Chinese, the Anglo-Burmese and others made up the rest. After World War I, Yangon became the centre of Burmese independence movement, with leftist Rangoon University students leading the way. Three nationwide strikes against the British Empire in 1920, 1936 and 1938 all began in Yangon. Yangon was under Japanese occupation, incurred heavy damage during World War II; the city was retaken by the Allies in May 1945. Yangon became the capital of the Union of Burma on 4 January 1948 when the country regained independence from the British Empire.

Soon after Burma's independence in 1948, many colonial names of streets and parks were changed to more nationalistic Burmese names. In 1989, the current military junta changed the city's English name to "Yangon", along with many other changes in English transliteration of Burmese names. Since independence, Yangon has expanded outwards. Successive governments have built satellite towns such as Thaketa, North Okkalapa and South Okkalapa in the 1950s to Hlaingthaya and South Dagon in the 1980s. Today, Greater Yangon encompasses an area covering nearly 600 square kilometres. During Ne Win's isolationist rule, Yangon's infrastructure deteriorated through poor maintenance and did not keep up with its increasing population. In the 1990s, the current military government's more open market policies attracted domestic and foreign investment, bringing a modicum of modernity to the city's infrastructure; some inner city residents were forcibly relocated to new satellite towns. Many colonial-period buildings were demolished to make way for high-rise hotels

Wentworth Wooden Puzzles

The Wentworth Wooden Jigsaw Company manufactures jigsaw puzzles with'whimsical' shaped pieces reflecting the theme of the image portrayed on the puzzle. It was founded in 1994 by Kevin Wentworth Preston and is based in the village of Pinkney near Malmesbury, Wiltshire, an area of England known as the Cotswolds; the venture was established on an existing dairy farm, forced to diversify into other sources of income when milk production became uneconomical to sustain. Some of the old buildings were converted into industrial use, the farm became an industrial estate housing many other traders, as well as the new puzzle enterprise. Traditionally jigsaws are manufactured using a thin flexible cutting blade driven by a motor known as a bandsaw; this method of cutting thin wood requires a degree of manual dexterity and patience to avoid spoiling the work. An alternative solution to this labour-intensive method of cutting intricate shapes in wood was required using modern technology solutions; the advent of the commercial medium-power Laser device has enabled many industries to use this tool to cut many different types of material speedily.

The puzzle-manufacturing process uses a laser-cutting method invented and perfected by the founder, Kevin Wentworth Preston, in 1994. Wentworth production can now focus on the quality of manufacture and design innovation that this new tooling provides; the high-speed production technique allows the small company to supply in excess of 250,000 puzzles a year to destinations in over 35 countries throughout the world. The design team produces each cutout style individually, most of the designs are unique "whimsy" jigsaw shapes. Whimsies are specially shaped pieces cut into puzzles "on a whim" by Victorian-era hand cutters, an era when jigsaw puzzles became a popular pastime. Wentworth retained this older style of manufacture, is one of the remaining companies still producing puzzles using these Victorian techniques; the ‘Whimsy’ laser-cut wooden puzzles feature unique, individual, “whimsical” cut-out shapes that reflect the theme of the image used on the face of the puzzle. All puzzles are supplied in a cotton draw-string bag within a lidded box.

These wooden puzzles are cut from 3mm thick wooden boards to ensure they will survive the rigours of use for a long time. Puzzles are supplied to the customer with the option of an image of the puzzle's subject matter printed on the box. With no reference image there is the added difficulty of assembling the pieces into the correct pattern, the element of surprise concerning the subject matter when the puzzle's image is reassembled. Manufacture: 3mm wooden board derived from sustainable managed forests. Features: include corner pieces or two pieces of the same shape.'whimsical' shapes: which reflect the theme of the image in all standard puzzles. Packaging: a cloth bag inside a sturdy box made from recycled material. All traditional puzzles include the unique whimsy pieces. Common sizes included are 250, 500, 1,000 and 1,500 pieces; the ability to use a photograph or image design is a feature that Wentworth's puzzles make available in all the various sizes. Text may be added at the image creation process to include such messages as'Happy Birthday' and'Happy Anniversary' etc.

The Tessellation puzzles range use jigsaw pieces in which all the pieces are all identical in pattern. Some utilise pieces shaped like animals, such as deer. Other subjects include repetitive plant shapes such as holly cuts. Puzzles shapes and styles are designed to suit all ages and ability, including images specially suited for children, which are traditionally constructed with larger, more manageable pieces with simpler pattern and shape design; the company was awarded recognition for its production in this section of the market in 2008. Https://books.google.com/books?id=MWQo2r0sFjEC&pg=PA176&dq=%22wentworth+wooden%22&hl=en&ei=jalqTZTpKsH68Aaa_fjICw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CEMQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=%22wentworth%20wooden%22&f=false http://menmedia.co.uk/macclesfieldexpress/news/s/394/394009_what_a_guy.html http://www.newsweek.com/2009/07/18/the-corner-room.html http://www.telegraph.co.uk/family/5478432/The-puzzling-power-of-jigsaws.html Wentworth Wooden Puzzles Official Website

Altenglanerpeton

Altenglanerpeton is an extinct genus of microsaur amphibian from the Late Carboniferous or Early Permian of Germany. Altenglanerpeton was named in 2012 after the Altenglan Formation; the type and only species is A.. Schroederi. Altenglanerpeton is known from a single partial skeleton from an outcrop of the Altenglan Formation, part of the Saar–Nahe Basin; the Altenglan Formation dates back to the Carboniferous-Permian transition, about 299 million years ago. The skeleton was discovered sometime in the 1870s in the village of Werschweiler, was first described by German paleontologist Eckart Schröder in 1939. Schröder tentatively assigned the specimen to the microsaur Microbrachis, although its classification as a microsaur was questioned in years; the holotype skeleton includes a crushed skull preserved in dorsal or top view, a straight length of vertebrae and associated ribs that are poorly preserved. The forelimbs and parts of the pectoral girdle are preserved; the hind limbs and tail are missing.

Altenglanerpeton has a robust skull with small spaced eye sockets. The skull appears triangular from above as well as from the side, since it has a narrow and pointed snout. One distinguishing feature of Altenglanerpeton is the extension of the jugal bones far in front of the eye sockets. Unlike many other microsaurs, Altenglanerpeton lacks a network of lateral line grooves across its skull. Altenglanerpeton has an elongated body with around 30 simple spool-shaped vertebrae and small, poorly developed limbs, it is similar in appearance to the ostodolepids Micraroter and Pelodosotis, both of which have long bodies and tiny limbs. Altenglanerpeton belongs to a group of early amphibians called microsaurs, characterized by their small size and simple vertebrae; when Altenglanerpeton was first named in 2012, a phylogenetic analysis was conducted to determine its relationship with other lepospondyls. In support of Schröder's original assignment, Altenglanerpeton was placed as a microsaur. "Microsauria" is now considered to be a paraphyletic grouping, meaning that it does not form a true clade.

Altenglanerpeton belongs to a similar group called Recumbirostra, a clade. Altenglanerpeton was found to be most related to Tambaroter, named in 2011 from the Early Permian Tambach Formation of Germany. According to the analysis and Tambaroter form a clade, the sister taxon to the family Brachystelechidae. Altenglanerpeton is most similar in appearance to ostodolepids, although both are members of Recumbirostra, Ostodolepidae is only distantly related to Altenglanerpeton. Below is a cladogram showing the phylogenetic position of Altenglanerpeton from Glienke: The layer of the Altenglan Formation in which Altenglanerpeton was found is thought to have been deposited in a lake environment that of Hauptkalk Lake, a large, shallow body of water that covered much of the Saar–Nahe Basin at the Carboniferous-Permian transition. Sedimentation rates in the lake were low. Besides the Altenglanerpeton skeleton, only three tetrapod fossils are known from Hauptkalk Lake deposits: two specimens of the temnospondyl Apateon pedestris and a skull of the temnospondyl Sclerocephalus bavaricus.

The microsaur Batropetes is known from the Saar-Nahe Basin, but it comes from the younger Odernheim Subformation. The presence of Altenglanerpeton in a lake deposit suggests; the long body and reduced limbs would have facilitated lateral undulation as a form of swimming. Although it is not preserved in the holotype specimen, the tail may have had an elongated tadpole-like fin. In contrast, the robust skull and lack of lateral line grooves in Altenglanerpeton suggest that it was terrestrial. While most aquatic amphibians have large, forward-facing eyes and three-dimensional vision for capturing prey underwater, Altenglanerpeton has small, laterally-directed eyes that would have been more suitable for burrowing, as in living caecilians. With its elongated body, Altenglanerpeton may have undulated through soil and leaf litter