Mtwara Region is one of Tanzania's 31 administrative regions. The regional capital is the municipality of Mtwara. According to the 2012 national census, the region had a population of 1,270,854, lower than the pre-census projection of 1,374,767. For 2002-2012, the region's 1.2 percent average annual population growth rate was the 26th highest in the country. It was the fourteenth most densely populated region with 76 people per square kilometer; the boundary with Mozambique to the south is formed by the Ruvuma River. To the west, Mtwara is bordered by Ruvuma Region, to the north by Lindi Region, to the east is the Indian Ocean. Development of the Mtwara Region has been constrained by the lack of highway and energy infrastructures; the Dar es Salaam-Kibiti-Lindi-Mtwara road has been improved by the completion of the Mkapa Bridge over the Rufiji River. Mnazi Bay gas promises to provide reliable and adequate electricity for powering industrial and commercial activities in the region; the regional commissioner of the Mtwara Region is Anatoli A. Tarimo.
In 1948, the British Government formulated the "Tanganyika groundnut scheme" through the Overseas Food Corporation. The purpose was to alleviate the worldwide shortage of vegetable oils. In this region the exported crop was to go through the port of Mtwara, created for the scheme and linked to the growing areas near Nachingwea by a new railway; the region is administratively divided as five districts with Mtwara Municipal and Masasi Town having separate councils: https://web.archive.org/web/20140413063741/http://www.nbs.go.tz/sensa/popu2.php
The Ngoni people are an ethnic group living in the present-day Southern African countries of Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia. The Ngoni trace their origins to the Zulu people of kwaZulu-Natal in South Africa; the displacement of the Ngoni people in the great scattering following the Zulu wars had repercussions in social reorganization as far north as Malawi and Zambia. The rise of the Zulu nation to dominance in southern Africa in the early nineteenth century disrupted many traditional alliances. Around 1817, the Mthethwa alliance, which included the Zulu clan, came into conflict with the Ndwandwe alliance, which included the Nguni people from the kwaZulu-Natal. One of the military commanders of the Ndwandwe army, Zwangendaba Gumbi, was the head of the Jele or Gumbi clan, which itself formed part of the larger emaNcwangeni alliance in what is now north-east kwaZulu-Natal. In 1819, the Zulu army under Shaka defeated the Ndwandwe alliance at a battle on the Umhlatuze River, near Nkandla; the battle resulted in the diaspora of many indigenous groups in southern Africa.
In the following decades, Zwangendaba led a small group of his followers north through Mozambique and Zimbabwe to the region around the Viphya Plateau. In this region, present-day Zambia and Tanzania, he established a state, using Zulu warfare techniques to conquer and integrate local peoples; the date on which Zwengandaba's party crossed the River Zambezi, sometimes given in early writings as 1825, has been argued to have been on 20 November 1835. Following Zwangendaba's death in 1848, succession disputes split the Ngoni people. Zwangendaba's following and the Maseko Ngoni created seven substantial Ngoni kingdoms in Tanzania and Malawi. While the Ngoni were agriculturalists, cattle were their main goal for raiding expeditions and migrations northward, their reputation as refugees escaping Shaka is overstated. They raided north, their prestige became so great that by 1921, in Nyasaland alone, 245,833 people claimed membership as Ngoni although few spoke the Zulu dialect called Ngoni. The Ngoni integrated conquered subjects into their warfare and organization, becoming more a ruling class than an ethnic group, by 1906 few individuals were of pure Ngoni descent.
It was only after Ngoni status began to decline that tribal consciousness of the component groups began to rise along with their reported numbers. In the early 1930s, the Ngonde, Nyasa and other groups once again claimed their original tribal status. While the Ngoni have retained a distinct identity in the post-colonial states in which they live and acculturation has led to them adopting local languages. Mpezeni was the warrior-king of one of the largest Ngoni groups, based in what is now the Chipata District of Zambia, was courted by the Portuguese and British; the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes sent agents to obtain a treaty—Alfred Sharpe in 1889, Joseph Maloney in 1895, who were both unsuccessful. In 1897, with over 4,000 warriors, Mpezeni rose up against the British, who were taking control of Nyasaland and North-Eastern Rhodesia, was defeated. Mpezeni signed the treaty which allowed him to rule as Paramount Chief of the Ngoni in Zambia's Eastern Province and Malawi's Mchinji district.
His successors as chief take the title Paramount Chief Mpezeni to this day. The cruelty and ruthlessness of Mpezeni's raids can be understood from this account written by a British hunter who came across a Chewa village a few hours after a raid in 1897: On my arrival I found the male population all under arms, the women crying. A raiding party of Mpezeni’s people had attacked them that morning. Ten women were killed in the gardens and twenty-two were taken away as prisoners. An old man and one of the headman’s children had been wounded, their entrails hung out of frightfully torn wounds, inflicted most by barbed spears. It was a pitiful sight — the groans of the wounded, the women crying over their dead, whose bodies were brought from the gardens, the men standing about helplessly and depressed; as the raiding party could not have been far off, I proposed to the men to follow them up at once, try to release the prisoners, but they were disheartened by the misfortune that so had overtaken them.
The Ngoni people celebrate a festival of first fruits known as Nc'wala in late February at Mutenguleni about 25km from Chipata. Gazaland Mzilikazi Nguni people Matabele Zulu Kingdom Nwaezeigwe, Nwankwo. Ngoni Rau, William Eugene. Mpezeni's Ngoni of Eastern Zambia, 1870–1920, Ph. D. dissertation, 1974 Bauer, Andreus. Street of Caravans. Iliffe, John. Modern History of Tanganyika; the Illustrated Encyclopedia of Mankind Reader, John. Africa, a biography of the Continent Tew, Mary. People of the Lake Nyasa Region Media related to Ngoni people at Wikimedia Commons The revival of Malawian Chingoni, by Pascal J. Kishindo Ngoni history in Tanzania Ngoni People
The Portuguese Empire known as the Portuguese Overseas or the Portuguese Colonial Empire, was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history. It existed for six centuries, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415, to the handover of Portuguese Macau to China in 1999; the empire began in the 15th century, from the early 16th century it stretched across the globe, with bases in North and South America and various regions of Asia and Oceania. The Portuguese Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description given to the Spanish Empire; the Portuguese Empire originated at the beginning of the Age of Discovery, the power and influence of the Kingdom of Portugal would expand across the globe. In the wake of the Reconquista, Portuguese sailors began exploring the coast of Africa and the Atlantic archipelagos in 1418–19, using recent developments in navigation and maritime technology such as the caravel, with the aim of finding a sea route to the source of the lucrative spice-trade.
In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope, in 1498 Vasco da Gama reached India. In 1500, either by an accidental landfall or by the crown's secret design, Pedro Álvares Cabral discovered Brazil on the South American coast. Over the following decades, Portuguese sailors continued to explore the coasts and islands of East Asia, establishing forts and factories as they went. By 1571 a string of naval outposts connected Lisbon to Nagasaki along the coasts of Africa, the Middle East and South Asia; this commercial network and the colonial trade had a substantial positive impact on Portuguese economic growth, when it accounted for about a fifth of Portugal's per-capita income. When King Philip II of Spain inherited the Portuguese crown in 1580 there began a 60-year union between Spain and Portugal known to subsequent historiography as the Iberian Union; the realms continued to have separate administrations. As the King of Spain was King of Portugal, Portuguese colonies became the subject of attacks by three rival European powers hostile to Spain: the Dutch Republic and France.
With its smaller population, Portugal found itself unable to defend its overstretched network of trading posts, the empire began a long and gradual decline. Brazil became the most valuable colony of the second era of empire, until, as part of the wave of independence movements that swept the Americas during the early 19th century, it broke away in 1822; the third era of empire covers the final stage of Portuguese colonialism after the independence of Brazil in the 1820s. By the colonial possessions had been reduced to forts and plantations along the African coastline, Portuguese Timor, enclaves in India and China; the 1890 British Ultimatum led to the contraction of Portuguese ambitions in Africa. Under António Salazar, the Second Portuguese Republic made some ill-fated attempts to cling on to its last remaining colonies. Under the ideology of Pluricontinentalism, the regime renamed its colonies "overseas provinces" while retaining the system of forced labour, from which only a small indigenous élite was exempt.
In 1961 India annexed Goa and Dahomey annexed Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá. The Portuguese Colonial War in Africa lasted from 1961 until the final overthrow of the Estado Novo regime in 1974; the so-called Carnation Revolution of April 1974 in Lisbon led to the hasty decolonization of Portuguese Africa and to the 1975 annexation of Portuguese Timor by Indonesia. Decolonization prompted the exodus of nearly all the Portuguese colonial settlers and of many mixed-race people from the colonies. Portugal returned Macau to China in 1999; the only overseas possessions to remain under Portuguese rule, the Azores and Madeira, both had overwhelmingly Portuguese populations, Lisbon subsequently changed their constitutional status from "overseas provinces" to "autonomous regions". The origin of the Kingdom of Portugal lay in the reconquista, the gradual reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors. After establishing itself as a separate kingdom in 1139, Portugal completed its reconquest of Moorish territory by reaching Algarve in 1249, but its independence continued to be threatened by neighbouring Castile until the signing of the Treaty of Ayllón in 1411.
Free from threats to its existence and unchallenged by the wars fought by other European states, Portuguese attention turned overseas and towards a military expedition to the Muslim lands of North Africa. There were several probable motives for their first attack, on the Marinid Sultanate, it offered the opportunity to continue the Christian crusade against Islam. In 1415 an attack was made on Ceuta, a strategically located North African Muslim enclave along the Mediterranean Sea, one of the terminal ports of the trans-Saharan gold and slave trades; the conquest was a military success, marked one of the first steps in Portuguese expansion beyond the Iberian Peninsula, but it proved costly to defend against the Muslim forces that soon besieged it. The Portuguese were unable to use it as a base for further expansion into the hinterland, the trans-Saharan caravans shifted their routes to bypass Ceuta and/or used alternative Muslim ports. Although Ceuta proved to be a disappointment for the Portuguese
Economic history of Portugal
The economic history of Portugal covers the development of the economy throughout the course of Portuguese history. It has its roots prior to nationality, when Roman occupation developed a thriving economy in Hispania, in the provinces of Lusitania and Gallaecia, as producers and exporters to the Roman Empire; this continued under the Visigoths and Al-Andalus Moorish rule, until the Kingdom of Portugal was established in 1139. With the end of Portuguese reconquista and integration in the European Middle Age economy, the Portuguese were at the forefront of maritime exploration of the age of discovery, expanding to become the first global empire. Portugal became the world's main economic power during the Renaissance, introducing most of Africa and the East to European society, establishing a multi-continental trading system extending from Japan to Brazil. In 1822, Portugal lost Brazil; the transition from absolutism to a parliamentary monarchy involved a devastating Civil War from 1828 to 1834.
The governments of the Constitutional Monarchy were not able to industrialize and modernize the country. Portuguese territorial claims in Africa were challenged during the Scramble for Africa. Political chaos and economic problems endured from the last years of the monarchy to the first Republic of 1910–1926, which led to the installing of a national dictatorship in 1926. While Finance Minister António de Oliveira Salazar managed to discipline the Portuguese public finances, it evolved into a single-party corporative regime in the early 1930s—the Estado Novo—whose first three decades were marked by a relative stagnation and underdevelopment. Starting in the early 1960s, Portugal entered in a period of robust economic growth and structural modernization, owing to a liberalization of the economy; as an expression of such economic opening, in 1960 the country was one of the EFTA founding member states. Yearly growth rates sometimes with two digits, allowed the Portuguese GDP per capita to reach 56% of the EC-12 average by 1973.
This growth period ended in the mid-1970s, for that contributing the 1973 oil crisis and the political turnoil following the April 25, 1974 coup which led to the transition to democracy. From 1974 to the late 1970s, over a million Portuguese citizens arrived from the former African overseas colonies, most as destitute refugees—the retornados. After nearly a decade of economic troubles, during which Portugal received two IMF-monitored bailouts, in 1986 the country entered the European Economic Community; the European Union's structural and cohesion funds and the growth of many of Portugal's main exporting companies were leading forces in a new period of robust economic growth and socio-economic development which would last to the early 2000s. In 1991, GDP per capita surpassed the 1973 level and by 2000 it had achieved 70% of the EU-12 average, which nonetheless constituted an approach to the Western European standards of living without precedents in the centuries before. For several years Portuguese subsidiaries of large multinational companies ranked among the most productive in the world.
However, the economy has been stagnated since the early 2000s and was hardly hit by the effects of the Great Recession, which led to an IMF/EU-monitored bailout from 2011 to 2014. The country adopted the euro in 1999. Despite being both a developed country and a high income country, Portugal's GDP per capita was of about 80% of the EU-27 average; the Global Competitiveness Report of 2008–2009 ranked Portugal 43rd out of 134 countries and territories. Research by the Economist Intelligence Unit's Quality of Life survey in 2005 ranked Portugal 19th in the world. Portugal is home to a number of major companies with international reputation such as Grupo Portucel Soporcel, a major world player in the international paper market, Sonae Indústria, the largest producer of wood-based panels in the world, Corticeira Amorim, the world leader in cork production, Conservas Ramirez, the oldest canned fish producer in continuous operation. Before the arrival of Romans in Iberia, the peninsula had a rural-based subsistence economy with limited trade, with the exception of large cities on the Mediterranean coast, which had contact with Greek and Phoenician traders.
Pre-Celts and Celts were some of the first groups present in the territory, with the Celtic economy centered on cattle raising and metal working. The territory's mineral wealth made it an important strategic region during the early metal ages, one of the first objectives of the Romans when invading the peninsula was to access the mines and other resources. After the Second Punic War, from 29 BC to 411 AD, Rome governed the Iberian peninsula and diversifying the economy, extending trade with the Roman Empire. Indigenous peoples paid tribute to Rome through an intricate web of allegiances; the economy experienced a major production expansion, profiting from some of the best agricultural lands under Roman hegemony and fueled by roads, trade routes, the minting of coins, which eased commercial transactions. Lusitania developed. All mines belonged to the Roman Senate, were operated by slaves. Subsistence agriculture was replaced by large farming units producing olive oil and wine, rearing l
The Lugenda or Lujenda is a river of northern Mozambique. It flows in a south-north direction from Lake Amaramba/Lake Chiuta and is the largest tributary of the Ruvuma River, it joins the Luambala River at 13°26′12″S 36°18′20″E. The river valley is reported to be only 800 feet above sea level. North of Lake Chiuta, those on the west bank call it the Msambiti River. At one point, the Lugenda splits into several streams with islands between them, some of whom are populated such as the island Achemponda. Elephants loom large in the life of people of the Lugenda River Valley; the tribal people, inhabiting the river valley for several thousand years, are the Yao and Makua tribals. Other groups residing here are Ngoni and Matambwe people; the etymology of the word Lugenda in Yao language, a Bantu language spoken by the Yao people in Africa}, has the literal meaning “a large river.” The Lugenda River, which joins the main Ruvuma River system in its lower reaches from the south east, rises near Lake Chilwa, from the small Lake Chiuta.
The river flows for a length of 300 kilometres. Its origin is marked by a narrow wooded ridge ) that separates the swamps on the southern side of Chuta Lake from the Lake Chilwa; the stream at the outlet of the Lake Amaramba is about 80 metres wide. It is a swampy water body between its origin from the Chitwa Lake Amaramba. Mecula Mountain is the central mountain in the valley; the mountain is rich in vegetation and is considered an important botanical area of the preserve in the valley. The Legunda River and Mecula Mountain are thus the important tourist destinations in Mozambique's northern province; the river has a complex flow pattern. It flows in the westerly direction through "Pandanus palm-braided channels". On the east, its flow is through rocky gorge with the entire river vanishing into "slot canyons" displaying broad sandy waterways; this is the location of the breeding colonies of globally threatened African skimmers. The headwaters of the Lugenda River are in Lakes Chilwa and Chiuta on the border between Mozambique and Malawi, from where the river flows northeast along inferred depressions joining the Ruvuma River, on the Mozambique / Tanzania border, flowing to the Indian Ocean.
The flow contribution from the Lugenda River to the Ruvuma River is estimated to be 18 cubic kilometres. Most of the basin area of the river lies in the Niassa Province where the irrigation potential is reported to be 200,000 hectares, it is a slow-moving river and appears, as it emerges from the Lake Amaramba, as a lake due to its large expanse of water. The river valley has fertile alluvial soil with good water resources as it is fed by many perennial streams on both banks; the perennial water sources in the valley thus have good cultivation to sustain its inhabitants. Tobacco is grown on the river banks. Wild fig and other species of trees are found in the valley; the river is bridged at Luambala. The river valley formed by the Lugenda River, which flows within deep banks, is rich in iron ore intercalated in quartz and granite rock formations. Crystallized lime carbonate is found. Coal is extracted from two coal fields, located on both sides of the river, one close to the Pemba Bay and the other near Itule town.
Iron ore is extracted from large areas to the west of the Pemba Coalfield. Gold is found in the valley in upper reaches of the Rarico River, a tributary of the Lugenda River; the river valley, the Nissa Wild Life Preserve enclosed within it, has a history linked to World War I. Germans, under the command of General Von Letttow-Vorbeck, crossed the Ruvuma River at Negomano and entered the Portuguese held Mozambique in search of food for his troops. In December 1917, after crossing the river, the general with his army marched south along the Lugenda River and arrived at Metarica. One of the battalions dispatched towards the Mecula Mountain in search of food had to fight a fierce battle with the Portuguese. Witnesses to this battle are seen in the form of a few graves on the hill slopes at Mecula, the district capital of Nissa. Lugenda River Valley, formed by the river, is part of the rich ecological corridor comprising the Messalo and Rurumana Lugenda and Rumana rivers, which form the Niassa National Reserve and Lurio conservation area.
This route is being developed for game and ecotourism envisaging fishing, wildlife viewing, boat rides and so forth. Lugenda Wilderness Camp, part of the Wildlife Preserve, is on the eastern bank of the Lugenda river, amongst the Ngalongue Mountains; the camp is an integral component of the African wildlife ecosystem. Safaris are arranged from this camp for visits to the African wilderness; the camp has 16 east-African styled tents, a well turned out accommodation for visitors. Pemba Airport is the nearest airport to the Wilderness Camp and air services are operated by CFA Air Charters with light aircraft. At the eastern edge of the river, the camp has dirt roads well maintained for the purpose of safari tours to facilitate wild life tracking. Canoeing is a popular sport in the river, apart from climbing of the inselbergs in the park area from the "bush fly camps" along the river. There is a proposal to set up another ecotourism camp on the Lugenda River, about 200 kilometres away from Lichinga.
Fauna and flora Niassa Reserve, named after the
The Niassa Company or Nyassa Chartered Company was a royal company in the Portuguese colony of Mozambique known as Portuguese East Africa, that had the concession of the lands that include the present provinces of Cabo Delgado and Niassa between 1891 and 1929. In the late 19th century, Portugal’s dominance of Mozambique was threatened by the expansionist colonial ambitions of Great Britain and Germany. Although the borders of Mozambique had nominally been fixed by the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885, Portugal lacked the capital to exert effective control or exploitation of the territory. To help overcome this, in 1891 the Portuguese government authorised three private companies by royal charter to manage portions of Mozambique: the Mozambique Company, the Zambezi Company and the Niassa Company; the Niassa Company was given a concession which covered the current provinces of Cabo Delgado and Niassa, from the Ruvuma River to the Lúrio River and the Indian Ocean to Lake Niassa, a territory which covered more than 160,000 square km.
The terms of the concession were the same as for the Mozambique Company, except for a term of only 35 years. The official charter by the Portuguese government in March 1893. Although founded by Bernard Daupais, a merchant from Lisbon, his syndicate failed to raise the necessary capital for the Company's operations, so from 1892-1893 a consortium of French and British capitals bought the concession, moving its headquarters to London. Since most of the territory was Portuguese in name only and had not yet been occupied militarily, this consortium needed to obtain more funds for its operation. Between 1897 and 1908, three financial groups successively controlled the Niassa Company; the first was the "Ibo Syndicate" which raised enough funds to establish an administrative center in the village of Ibo in 1897. In 1899 the "Ibo Syndicate" became the "Ibo Investment Trust", which raised a small army provided by the Portuguese colonial administration, consisting of 300 Portuguese soldiers and 2800 "sepoys".
From 1900-1902, the Company was able to occupy the inland regions of the concession, including Metangula on the banks of Lake Niassa. In 1904 the Niassa Company founded the town Porto Amélia, now known as Pemba, Porto Amélia became the headquarters of the company. Around that time, the company discovered a lucrative source of income; the first local labor supply contracts were drawn up for the Witwatersrand Native Labour Association, as an official Mozambican recruiter for the mines in South Africa. The Niassa Company was dominated by "Nyassa Consolidated" from 1908, with strong participation of South African mining capital. By recruiting for the South African mines, the Niassa Company came into direct competition against the Moslem tribal chiefs, notably the Yao, who still exported slaves to Arabia. Further military action was required from 1909-1912 to suppress the slave trade. However, in 1913, the South African mines stopped the import of labor from north of latitude 22 deg South. Although the Niassa Company took steps to change its customers to the mines of Katanga in Belgian Congo, its South African investors lost interest.
In 1913-14, a German banking consortium bought a majority of the shares of the Niassa Company, aiming at a partition of Mozambique between Germany and Great Britain. With the outbreak of World War I, the British government confiscated German equities and handed them over to an English financial group led by Owen Philipps, chairman of the Union-Castle Line, which did much business in Portuguese East Africa, but which found the concession to be more of a liability. During the war, the Niassa Company's territory was the scene of several resistance operations by the local chiefs aided by the Germans. To resist this invasion, more than 300 kilometers of roads were opened; this meant the effective occupation of the Mueda Plateau, occupied by the heavily-armed Makonde people. The Niassa Company only managed to suppress the Makonde by the early 1920s, the tribe became the backbone of the FRELIMO movement in the 1960s and 1970s against continued Portuguese colonial rule. Although the Niassa Company created administrative structures, in the form of districts regulated by agents, the company existed for the profit of its shareholders and was not interested in the development of the territory other to that end.
Although one of its main obligations was to create light houses along the Mozambican Coast, the Niassa Company fell short of this goal. On 27 October 1929 the Portuguese government refused to grant an extension of the concession, the Niassa Company was abolished; the Niassa Company was never able to raise sufficient revenue from its investor to provide for a viable infrastructure to the area under its control. Its initial capitalization of 300,000 pounds was only a fraction of. Per contemporary colonial thought, the key to profitability would be a railroad from Port Amelia to Lake Niassa, which would open the interior of the territory to investments in agriculture and mines. However, the cost of such a railroad would be over 3 million pounds, which the company could never afford. For revenue, the company relied on the chibalo system, a corvée labor policy, which forced the natives to work on plantations, public works projects. Rubber and sisal were primary revenue crops; the chibalo system enabled the Niassa Company to establish plantations and to force peasants to work for them and prevent them from growing their own crops for sale.
In addition, the company relied on a hut tax, modelled after the system in British East Africa. Although theoretically a tax on each dwelling, in reality the tax was on each adult person, whi
Malawi the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa, known as Nyasaland. It is bordered by Zambia to the northwest, Tanzania to the northeast, Mozambique on the east and west. Malawi is over 118,000 km2 with an estimated population of 18,091,575. Lake Malawi takes up about a third of Malawi's area, its capital is Lilongwe, Malawi's largest city. The name Malawi comes from an old name of the Nyanja people that inhabit the area; the country is nicknamed "The Warm Heart of Africa" because of the friendliness of the people. The part of Africa now known as Malawi was settled by migrating Bantu groups around the 10th century. Centuries in 1891 the area was colonised by the British. In 1953 Malawi known as Nyasaland, a protectorate of the United Kingdom, became a protectorate within the semi-independent Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland; the Federation was dissolved in 1963. In 1964 the protectorate over Nyasaland was ended and Nyasaland became an independent country under Queen Elizabeth II with the new name Malawi.
Two years it became a republic. Upon gaining independence it became a totalitarian one-party state under the presidency of Hastings Banda, who remained president until 1994. Malawi has a democratic, multi-party government headed by an elected president Arthur Peter Mutharika; the country has a Malawian Defence Force that includes a navy and an air wing. Malawi's foreign policy is pro-Western and includes positive diplomatic relations with most countries and participation in several international organisations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, the African Union. Malawi is among the world's least-developed countries; the economy is based in agriculture, with a rural population. The Malawian government depends on outside aid to meet development needs, although this need has decreased since 2000; the Malawian government faces challenges in building and expanding the economy, improving education, environmental protection, becoming financially independent amidst widespread unemployment.
Since 2005, Malawi has developed several programs that focus on these issues, the country's outlook appears to be improving, with a rise in the economy and healthcare seen in 2007 and 2008. Malawi has a low life expectancy and high infant mortality. There is a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, a drain on the labour force and government expenditures. There is a diverse population of native peoples and Europeans, with several languages spoken and an array of religious beliefs. Although there was periodic regional conflict fuelled in part by ethnic divisions in the past, by 2008 it had diminished and the concept of a Malawian nationality had reemerged; the area of Africa now known as Malawi had a small population of hunter-gatherers before waves of Bantu peoples began emigrating from the north around the 10th century. Although most of the Bantu peoples continued south, some remained permanently and founded ethnic groups based on common ancestry. By 1500 AD, the tribes had established the Kingdom of Maravi that reached from north of what is now Nkhotakota to the Zambezi River and from Lake Malawi to the Luangwa River in what is now Zambia.
Soon after 1600, with the area united under one native ruler, native tribesmen began encountering, trading with and making alliances with Portuguese traders and members of the military. By 1700, the empire had broken up into areas controlled by many individual ethnic groups; the Arab slave trade reached its height in the mid- 1800s, when 20,000 people were enslaved and considered to be carried yearly from Nkhotakota to Kilwa where they were sold. Missionary and explorer David Livingstone reached Lake Malawi in 1859 and identified the Shire Highlands south of the lake as an area suitable for European settlement; as the result of Livingstone's visit, several Anglican and Presbyterian missions were established in the area in the 1860s and 1870s, the African Lakes Company Limited was established in 1878 to set up a trade and transport concern working with the missions, a small mission and trading settlement was established at Blantyre in 1876 and a British Consul took up residence there in 1883.
The Portuguese government was interested in the area so, to prevent Portuguese occupation, the British government sent Harry Johnston as British consul with instructions to make treaties with local rulers beyond Portuguese jurisdiction. In 1889, a British protectorate was proclaimed over the Shire Highlands, extended in 1891 to include the whole of present-day Malawi as the British Central Africa Protectorate. In 1907, the protectorate was renamed Nyasaland, a name it retained for the remainder of its time under British rule. In a prime example of what is sometimes called the "Thin White Line" of colonial authority in Africa, the colonial government of Nyasaland was formed in 1891; the administrators were given a budget of £10,000 per year, enough to employ ten European civilians, two military officers, seventy Punjab Sikhs and eighty-five Zanzibar porters. These few employees were expected to administer and police a territory of around 94,000 square kilometres with between one and two million people.
In 1944, the Nyasaland African Congress was formed by the Africans of Nyasaland to promote local interests to the British g