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Yarmouth, Maine

Yarmouth is a town in Cumberland County, located twelve miles north of the state's largest city, Portland. The town was settled, while a district of Massachusetts, in 1636 and incorporated in 1849, 29 years after its admittance to the Union, its population was 8,349 in the 2010 census. As of 2018's estimation of 8,518, this is about 0.6% of Maine's total population. Five islands are part of the town. Yarmouth is part of the Portland–South Portland-Biddeford Metropolitan Statistical Area; the town's proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, its location on the banks of the Royal River, which empties into Casco Bay less than a mile away, means it is a prime location as a harbor. Ships were built in the harbor between 1818 and the 1870s, at which point demand declined dramatically. Meanwhile, the Royal River's four waterfalls within Yarmouth, whose Main Street sits about 90 feet above sea level, resulted in the foundation of sixty mills between 1674 and 1931; the annual Yarmouth Clam Festival attracts around 120,000 people over the course of the three-day weekend.

Today, Yarmouth is a popular dining destination, with fourteen sit-down restaurants. This equates to an average of just over one restaurant per square mile of land area; the town is accessed via two exits on each side of Interstate 295. U. S. Route 1 passes through the town to the west of I-295. While State Route 115 is the town's Main Street, it extends as West Main Street into North Yarmouth and as East Main Street from Lower Falls to Granite Street, two miles away, as part of Route 88. Yarmouth has been designated a Tree City USA community every year since 1979. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 22.94 square miles, of which 13.35 square miles is land and 9.59 square miles is water. Yarmouth is bisected by the Royal River; the town is bounded by Freeport to the north, North Yarmouth to the northeast, Cumberland to the west and Casco Bay to the south. Included as part of the town are Cousins Island, Lanes Island and Little Moshier Islands, Littlejohn Island.

The Royal River appealed to settlers because its four waterfalls and 45-foot rise within a mile of navigable water each provided potential waterpower sites. In October 1674, the first sawmill, of Englishman Henry Sayward and Colonel Bartholomew Gedney, was built on the eastern side of the First Falls, by present-day Lafayette Street. Sayward, who had arrived from England in 1637, had built a saw mill in York, but it burned in 1669, he lost about $3,500; the Second Falls are just on Bridge Street. Since 1674, 57 mills and several factories have stood on the banks of the river; the Native Americans called the First Falls Pumgustuk. In addition to the 1674 sawmill, this was the site of the first grist mill — Lower Grist Mills — built in 1813 and whose foundations support the overlook of today's Grist Mill Park; the mill, in business for 36 years, ground wheat and corn into flour using power generated by the water turbines set in the fast-flowing river below. Between 1870 and 1885, it was the site of Ansel Loring's second mill, named Yarmouth Flour Mill.

His first mill, up at the Fourth Falls, burned down in 1870. In 1720, a young Massachusetts native, Gilbert Winslow, erected a saw mill on Atwell's Creek; the creek was "a considerable watercourse then". Winslow married another Massachusetts native, namely Patience Seabury, a daughter of Samuel Seabury, Jr; the first mill to go up on the western side of the river was Samuel Seabury and Jacob Mitchell's grist mill in 1729. The first bridge carrying East Main Street was erected, above the falls, in 1748, it was rebuilt in 1800 "below the dam." By 1874, it was flanked by a grist mill, saw mill, a store and a carpenter's shop that took care of the needs of ships built in the harbor on the other side of the bridge. In 1911, Yarmouth Manufacturing Company's electric power plant was built on the site of James Craig's 18th-century sawmill. Businesses on this side included a fishing and camping equipment store and Industrial Wood Products. In the present-day building, at 1 Main Street, are F. M. Beck, C. A.

White & Associates and Maine Environmental Laboratory. The building was moved here in 1898 from Pleasant Street. A variety of mills have used power from the Second Falls. A cotton rag paper mill, run by Massachusetts natives William Hawes and father-and-son due Henry and George Cox, operated on the falls side of the bridge and the eastern side of the river from 1816 until 1821, at which point it was purchased by William Reed Stockbridge and Calvin Stockbridge, brothers who operated it for twenty years as W. R. & C. Stockbridge paper company. In 1836 it was inc

Maple Street Covered Bridge

The Maple Street Covered Bridge called the Lower Covered Bridge and the Fairfax Covered Bridge, is a covered bridge that carries Maple Street across Mill Brook off State Route 104 in Fairfax, Vermont. Built in 1865, it is the town's only historic covered bridge, is a rare two-lane covered bridge in the state, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. The Maple Street Covered Bridge is located on the south side of Fairfax village, carrying Maple Street across Mill Brook, a tributary of the nearby Lamoille River, between the village center and Bellows Free Academy; the bridge is a single-span structure of Town lattice design, set on abutments of stone and concrete. It is 20.5 feet wide, with a roadway width of 17.5 feet. Iron tie rods join the tops of the flanking trusses to provide lateral stability, the bridge deck is made of wooden planking; the exterior is clad in vertical board siding. The siding extends a short way on the interior of each portal; the bridge was built in 1865 by Stone.

It is the town's only surviving 19th-century covered bridge, is rare in the state as an example of a two-lane bridge, built to accommodate significant village traffic. A major renovation was conducted in 1990-1991 by Jan Lewandoski. Debate is conducted to this day as to whether the bridge is now "backwards"; when it was washed off its foundations by the Flood of 1927 it is unknown whether the bridge was put back on in the same direction as it was originally. Some say the eastern portal now faces west, vice versa. Transport portal Engineering portal National Register of Historic Places portal List of covered bridges in Vermont National Register of Historic Places listings in Franklin County, Vermont List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Vermont

Stokes problem

In fluid dynamics, Stokes problem known as Stokes second problem or sometimes referred to as Stokes boundary layer or Oscillating boundary layer is a problem of determining the flow created by an oscillating solid surface, named after Sir George Stokes. This is considered as one of the simplest unsteady problem that have exact solution for the Navier-Stokes equations. In turbulent flow, this is still named a Stokes boundary layer, but now one has to rely on experiments, numerical simulations or approximate methods in order to obtain useful information on the flow. Consider an infinitely long plate, oscillating with a velocity U cos ⁡ ω t in the x direction, located at y = 0 in an infinite domain of fluid, where ω is the frequency of the oscillations; the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations reduce to ∂ u ∂ t = ν ∂ 2 u ∂ y 2 where ν is the kinematic viscosity. The pressure gradient does not enter into the problem; the initial, no-slip condition on the wall is u = U cos ⁡ ω t, u = 0, the second boundary condition is due to the fact that the motion at y = 0 is not felt at infinity.

The flow is only due to the motion of the plate, there is no imposed pressure gradient. The initial condition is not required because of periodicity. Since both the equation and the boundary conditions are linear, the velocity can be written as the real part of some complex function u = U ℜ because cos ⁡ ω t = ℜ e i ω t. Substituting this into the partial differential equation reduces it to ordinary differential equation f ″ − i ω ν f = 0 with boundary conditions f = 1, f = 0 The solution to the above problem is f = exp ⁡ u = U e − ω 2 ν y cos ⁡ The disturbance created by the oscillating plate travels as the transverse wave through the fluid, but it is damped by the exponential factor; the depth of penetration δ = 2 ν / ω of this wave decreases with the frequency of the oscillation, but increases with the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. The force per unit area exerted on the plate by the fluid is F = μ y = 0 = ρ ω μ U cos ⁡ There is a phase shift between the oscillation of the plate and the force created.

An important observation from Stokes' solution for the oscillating Stokes flow is that vorticity oscillations are confined to a thin boundary layer and damp exponentially when moving away from the wall. This observation is valid for the case of a turbulent boundary layer. Outside the Stokes boundary layer –, the bulk of the fluid volume – the vorticity oscillations may be neglected. To good approximation, the flow velocity oscillations are irrotational outside the boundary layer, potential flow theory can be applied to the oscillatory part of the motion; this simplifies the solution of these flow problems, is applied in the irrotational flow regions of sound waves and water waves. If the fluid domain is bounded by an upper, stationary wall, located at a height y = h, the flow velocity is given by

Breakup of the Bell System

The breakup of the Bell System was mandated on January 8, 1982, by an agreed consent decree providing that AT&T Corporation would, as had been proposed by AT&T, relinquish control of the Bell Operating Companies that had provided local telephone service in the United States and Canada up until that point. This took the monopoly, the Bell System and split it into separate companies that would continue to provide telephone service. AT&T would continue to be a provider of long distance service, while the now-independent Regional Bell Operating Companies would provide local service, would no longer be directly supplied with equipment from AT&T subsidiary Western Electric; this divestiture was initiated by the filing in 1974 by the United States Department of Justice of an antitrust lawsuit against AT&T. AT&T was, at the sole provider of telephone service throughout most of the United States. Furthermore, most telephonic equipment in the United States was produced by its subsidiary, Western Electric.

This vertical integration led AT&T to have total control over communication technology in the country, which led to the antitrust case, United States v. AT&T; the plaintiff in the court complaint asked the court to order AT&T to divest ownership of Western Electric. Feeling that it was about to lose the suit, AT&T proposed an alternative: its breakup, it proposed that it retain control of Western Electric, Yellow Pages, the Bell trademark, Bell Labs, AT&T Long Distance. It proposed that it be freed from a 1956 antitrust consent decree administered by Judge Vincent P. Biunno in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey, that barred it from participating in the general sale of computers. In return, it proposed to give up ownership of the local operating companies; this last concession, it argued, would achieve the Government's goal of creating competition in supplying telephone equipment and supplies to the operative companies. The settlement was finalized on January 8, 1982, with some changes ordered by the decree court: the regional holding companies got the Bell trademark, Yellow Pages, about half of Bell Labs.

Effective January 1, 1984, the Bell System's many member companies were variously merged into seven independent "Regional Holding Companies" known as Regional Bell Operating Companies, or "Baby Bells". This divestiture reduced the book value of AT&T by 70%; the breakup of the Bell System resulted in the creation of seven independent companies that were formed from the original twenty-two AT&T-controlled members of the System. As of January 1, 1984, these companies were: NYNEX, acquired by Bell Atlantic in 1996, now part of Verizon Communications Pacific Telesis, acquired by SBC in 1997, now part of AT&T Inc. Ameritech, acquired by SBC in 1999, now part of AT&T Inc. Bell Atlantic, merged with GTE in 2000 to form Verizon Communications Southwestern Bell Corporation, rebranded as SBC Communications in 1995, acquired AT&T Corporation in 2005 BellSouth, acquired by AT&T Inc. in 2006 US West, acquired by Qwest in 2000, which in turn was acquired by CenturyLink in 2011In addition, there were two members of the Bell System that were only owned by AT&T.

Both of these companies were monopolies in their coverage areas, received Western Electric equipment and had agreements with AT&T whereby they were provided with long distance service. They continued to exist in their pre-breakup form after the antitrust case, but no longer directly received Western Electric equipment, were no longer bound to use AT&T as their long distance provider; these companies were: Cincinnati Bell, now the only Bell System member to remain independent, covering the Cincinnati metropolitan area Southern New England Telephone, acquired by SBC in 1998, now part of Frontier Communications, covering Connecticut. The breakup led to a surge of competition in the long distance telecommunications market by companies such as Sprint and MCI. AT&T's gambit in exchange for its divestiture, AT&T Computer Systems and after spinning off its manufacturing operations and other misguided acquisitions such as NCR and AT&T Broadband, it was left with only its core business with roots as AT&T Long Lines and its successor AT&T Communications.

It was at this point that AT&T was purchased by one of its own spin-offs, SBC Communications, the company that had purchased two other RBOCs and a former AT&T associated operating company, which purchased another RBOC. One consequence of the breakup was that local residential service rates, which were subsidized by long distance revenues, began to rise faster than the rate of inflation. Long-distance rates, fell both due to the end of this subsidy and increased competition; the FCC established a system of access charges where long distance networks paid the more expensive local networks both to originate and terminate a call. In this way, the implicit subsidies of the Bell System became explicit post-divestiture; these access charges became a source of strong controversy as one company after another sought to arbitrage the network and avoid these fees. In 2002 the FCC declared that Internet service providers would be treated as if they were local and would not have to pay these access charges.

This led to VoIP service providers arguing that they did not have to pay access charges, resulting in significant savings for VoIP calls. The FCC was split on this issue for some time.


Dundrennan is a village in the historical county of Kirkcudbrightshire in Dumfries and Galloway, about 5 miles east of Kirkcudbright. Its population is around 230, it is most notable for the ruins of a 12th-century Cistercian monastery. The weapons testing establishment Dundrennan Range is nearby. From 2001 until 2015 the Wickerman music festival was held on the nearby farm of East Kirkcarswell. On July 18th 1944 at 12:15am, on a night training exercise from RAF Carlisle, Crosby-on-Eden, an RAF Beaufighter crashed into a house in the main street. Four members of the Hamilton family died along with the two airmen, their names are. James Hamilton aged 35 and his wife Georgina aged 33, their children Henry aged 10 and Agnes aged 8; the 2 airmen who died in the crash. F/S Henry Wiles Aged 21 from Aldershot, buried at Aldershot Civilian Cemetery. Sgt. Eric Young Aged 21 from plaque at Leeds Lawns Wood Crematorium. Grid reference NX748476 List of places in Dumfries and Galloway and photographs of Gravestones in Dundrennan Abbey Grounds

Men's K-1 at WAKO World Championships 2007 Belgrade -67 kg

The men's welterweight K-1 category at the W. A. K. O. World Championships 2007 in Belgrade was the fifth lightest of the K-1 tournaments, involving fourteen fighters from four continents; each of the matches were fought under K-1 rules. As the competition did not have enough fighters for a sixteen-man tournament, two of the competitors had a bye through to the quarter finals; the eventual gold medallist was Piotr Kobylanski from Poland who defeated Gor Shavelyan from Russia in the final. Defeated semi finalists Vitaliy Hubenko from the Ukraine and Yauheni Vinahradau from Belarus received bronze medals. List of WAKO Amateur World Championships List of WAKO Amateur European Championships List of male kickboxers WAKO World Association of Kickboxing Organizations Official Site