A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city one that contains substantial visible remains. A town becomes a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, or due to natural or human-caused disasters such as floods, prolonged droughts, government actions, uncontrolled lawlessness, pollution, or nuclear disasters; the term can sometimes refer to cities and neighbourhoods that are still populated, but less so than in past years. Some ghost towns those that preserve period-specific architecture, have become tourist attractions; some examples are Bannack, Centralia and South Pass City in the United States, Barkerville in Canada, Craco in Italy, Elizabeth Bay and Kolmanskop in Namibia, Pripyat in Ukraine, Danushkodi in India. The town of Plymouth on the Caribbean island of Montserrat is a ghost town, the de jure capital of Montserrat, it was rendered uninhabitable by volcanic ash from an eruption. The definition of a ghost town varies between individuals, between cultures.
Some writers discount settlements that were abandoned as a result of a natural or human-made disaster or other causes using the term only to describe settlements that were deserted because they were no longer economically viable. Some believe. Whether or not the settlement must be deserted, or may contain a small population, is a matter for debate. Though, the term is used in a looser sense, encompassing any and all of these definitions; the American author Lambert Florin's preferred definition of a ghost town was "a shadowy semblance of a former self". Factors leading to abandonment of towns include depleted natural resources, economic activity shifting elsewhere and roads bypassing or no longer accessing the town, human intervention, massacres and the shifting of politics or fall of empires. A town can be abandoned when it is part of an exclusion zone due to natural or man-made causes. Ghost towns may result when the single activity or resource that created a boomtown is depleted or the resource economy undergoes a "bust".
Boomtowns can decrease in size as fast as they grew. Sometimes, all or nearly the entire population can desert the town; the dismantling of a boomtown can occur on a planned basis. Mining companies nowadays will create a temporary community to service a mine site, building all the accommodation and services required, remove them once the resource has been extracted. Modular buildings can be used to facilitate the process. A gold rush would bring intensive but short-lived economic activity to a remote village, only to leave a ghost town once the resource was depleted. In some cases, multiple factors may remove the economic basis for a community. S. Route 66 suffered both mine closures when the resources were depleted and loss of highway traffic as US 66 was diverted away from places like Oatman, Arizona onto a more direct path. Mine and pulp mill closures have led to many ghost towns in British Columbia, Canada including several recent ones: Ocean Falls which closed in 1973 after the pulp mill was decommissioned, Kitsault B.
C. whose molybdenum mine shut after only 18 months in 1982 and Cassiar whose asbestos mine operated from 1952 to 1992. In other cases, the reason for abandonment can arise from a town's intended economic function shifting to another, nearby place; this happened to Collingwood, Queensland in Outback Australia when nearby Winton outperformed Collingwood as a regional centre for the livestock-raising industry. The railway reached Winton in 1899, linking it with the rest of Queensland, Collingwood was a ghost town by the following year; the Middle East has many ghost towns that were created when the shifting of politics or the fall of empires caused capital cities to be or economically unviable, such as Ctesiphon. The rise of condominium investment caused for real estate bubbles leads to a ghost town, as real estate prices rise and affordable housing becomes less available; such examples include China and Canada, where housing is used as an investment rather than for habitation. Railroads and roads bypassing or no longer reaching a town can create a ghost town.
This was the case in many of the ghost towns along Ontario's historic Opeongo Line, along U. S. Route 66 after motorists bypassed the latter on the faster moving highways I-44 and I-40; some ghost towns were founded along railways where steam trains would stop at periodic intervals to take on water. Amboy, California was part of one such series of villages along the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad across the Mojave Desert. River re-routing is one example being the towns along the Aral Sea. Ghost towns may be created when land is expropriated by a government, residents are required to relocate. One example is the village of Tyneham in Dorset, acquired during World War II to build an artillery range. A similar situation occurred in the U. S. when NASA acquired land to construct the John C. Stennis Space Center, a rocket testing facility in Hancock County, Mississippi; this required NASA to acquire a large (approximately 34-square-mile (88
Prospecting is the first stage of the geological analysis of a territory. It is the physical search for minerals, precious metals or mineral specimens, is known as fossicking. Prospecting is a small-scale form of mineral exploration, an organised, large scale effort undertaken by commercial mineral companies to find commercially viable ore deposits. Prospecting is physical labour, involving traversing, panning and outcrop investigation, looking for signs of mineralisation. In some areas a prospector must make claims, meaning they must erect posts with the appropriate placards on all four corners of a desired land they wish to prospect and register this claim before they may take samples. In other areas publicly held lands are open to prospecting without staking a mining claim; the traditional methods of prospecting involved combing through the countryside through creek beds and along ridgelines and hilltops on hands and knees looking for signs of mineralisation in the outcrop. In the case of gold, all streams in an area would be panned at the appropriate trap sites looking for a show of'colour' or gold in the river trail.
Once a small occurrence or show was found, it was necessary to intensively work the area with pick and shovel, via the addition of some simple machinery such as a sluice box and winnows, to work the loose soil and rock looking for the appropriate materials. For most base metal shows, the rock would have been mined by hand and crushed on site, the ore separated from the gangue by hand; these shows were short-lived and abandoned quite soon, requiring the prospector to move onwards to the next and bigger and better show. Though, the prospector would strike it rich and be joined by other prospectors and larger-scale mining would take place. Although these are thought of as "old" prospecting methods, these techniques are still used today but coupled with more advanced techniques such as geophysical magnetic or gravity surveys. In most countries in the 19th and early 20th century, it was unlikely that a prospector would retire rich if he was the one who found the greatest of lodes. For instance Patrick Hannan, who discovered the Golden Mile, died without receiving anywhere near a fraction of the value of the gold contained in the lodes.
The same story repeated at Bendigo, Ballarat and California. In the United States and Canada prospectors were lured by the promise of gold and other precious metals, they traveled across the mountains of the American West, carrying picks and gold pans. The majority of early prospectors had no training and relied on luck to discover deposits. Other gold rushes occurred in Papua New Guinea, Australia at least four times, in South Africa and South America. In all cases, the gold rush was sparked by idle prospecting for gold and minerals which, when the prospector was successful, generated'gold fever' and saw a wave of prospectors comb the countryside. Modern prospectors today rely on training, the study of geology, prospecting technology. Knowledge of previous prospecting in an area helps in determining location of new prospective areas. Prospecting includes geological mapping, rock assay analysis, sometimes the intuition of the prospector. Metal detectors are invaluable for gold prospectors, as they are quite effective at detecting gold nuggets within the soil down to around 1 metre, depending on the acuity of the operator's hearing and skill.
Magnetic separators may be useful in separating the magnetic fraction of a heavy mineral sand from the nonmagnetic fraction, which may assist in the panning or sieving of gold from the soil or stream. Prospecting pickaxes are used to scrape at rocks and minerals, obtaining small samples that can be tested for trace amounts of ore. Modern prospecting pickaxes are sometimes equipped with magnets, to aid in the gathering of ferromagnetic ores. Prospecting pickaxes are equipped with a triangular head, with a sharp point. Bioprospecting Geobotanical prospecting Gold prospecting Gold Prospectors Association of America Gold rush Mineral exploration Mining Oil exploration United States Geological Survey Metal Detector Prospecting in Tasmania Prospecting in Nova Scotia Prospecting in Northwestern Ontario Historical pictures of prospectors and the Gold Rush Prospecting in the West Prospecting in Indonesia
Chino Valley, Arizona
Chino Valley is a town in Yavapai County, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the town is 10,817. Chino Valley is located at 34°45′30″N 112°26′59″W; the town is located adjacent the southeast terminus of Chino Valley, about 9 miles north at Paulden. The smaller north-trending Little Chino Valley lies just east of the townsite. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 63.4 square miles, all of it land. Chino Valley is the site of the first Territorial Capital of Arizona; the capital moved to Prescott, 15 miles away, in 1864. U. S. Army Cavalry Lt. Amiel W. Whipple, while traveling through the area in 1854, gave the community its name. "Chino" is the Spanish name for the abundant curly grama grass growing in the area. In 1895, a narrow gauge branch of the United Verde and Pacific Railroad to Jerome, joining the Santa Fe, Phoenix Railway, was completed, Jerome Junction was established. In 1923, the activities of Jerome Junction were absorbed by Chino Valley.
The town of Chino Valley was incorporated in 1970. The town is in north-central Arizona, on state Highway 89, 15 miles north of Prescott and 35 miles south of Ash Fork, on Interstate 40. Chino Valley is at an elevation of about 4,750 feet; as of the census of 2000, there were 7,835 people, 3,030 households, 2,172 families residing in the town. The population density was 421.6 people per square mile. There were 3,256 housing units at an average density of 175.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.07% White, 0.23% Black or African American, 0.94% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 2.59% from other races, 1.94% from two or more races. 9.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,030 households out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.3% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.3% were non-families. 23.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.01. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $32,289, the median income for a family was $35,013. Males had a median income of $27,160 versus $21,667 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,555. About 12.6% of families and 15.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.2% of those under age 18 and 13.5% of those age 65 or over. Average weather in Chino Valley, Arizona Normal climate in Chino Valley, Arizona The Chino Valley Unified School District presently operates four school facilities in the Town of Chino Valley. Territorial Early Education Center and Del Rio Elementary students.
Heritage Middle School educates sixth through eighth graders in the district. Two County Teachers of the Year and Two Channel 3 Silver Apple Teacher award winners are on the HMS faculty. Chino Valley High School partners with Yavapai College Campus for Agribusiness, Science & Technology, located in Chino Valley, where seniors may jointly enroll in CVHS and Yavapai for advanced study; the school's Aquaculture & Biotech Lab and Livestock Facilities support the FFA program. CVHS houses five computer lab environments for students plus programs in music and art, an FBLA program, along with the full component of extracurricular activities and sports programs; the district operates under the supervision of a five-member governing board and one district superintendent. The district presently employs 7 administrators and 6 directors on a full-time basis, 158 certified teachers and 190 full- and part-time classified employees. Chino Valley has two charter schools. Mingus Springs is a kindergarten - 8th grade school.
Excel Education Centers is a 6th grade - 12th grade school. Chino Valley has a campus of Yavapai College, it is the home of The X Factor USA contestant Drew Ryniewicz. Chino Valley, AZ Chino Valley, Arizona Detailed Profile Chino Valley Unified School District Chino Valley Chamber of Commerce Chino Valley Review Prescott eNews - Original Local News Website Chino Valley Historical Society
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Yavapai County, Arizona
Yavapai County is near the center of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 211,073; the county seat is Prescott. Yavapai County comprises AZ Metropolitan Statistical Area. Yavapai County was one of the four original Arizona counties created by the 1st Arizona Territorial Legislature; the county territory was defined as being east of longitude 113° 20' and north of the Gila River. Soon thereafter, the counties of Apache, Coconino and Navajo were carved from the original Yavapai County. Yavapai County's present boundaries were established in 1891; the county is named after the Yavapai people, who were the principal inhabitants at the time the United States annexed the area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 8,128 square miles, of which 8,123 square miles is land and 4.4 square miles is water. It has about 93% of the area of the U. S. state of New Jersey. It is larger than three U. S. states and the District of Columbia combined. The county's topography makes a dramatic transition from the lower Sonoran Desert to the south to the heights of the Coconino Plateau to the north, the Mogollon Rim to the east.
The highest point above sea level in Yavapai County is Mount Union at an elevation of 7,979 ft and the lowest is Agua Fria River drainage, now under Lake Pleasant. Mohave County—west La Paz County—southwest Maricopa County—south Gila County—east Coconino County—north/northeast Agua Fria National Monument Coconino National Forest Kaibab National Forest Montezuma Castle National Monument Prescott National Forest Tonto National Forest Tuzigoot National MonumentThere are nineteen official wilderness areas in Yavapai County that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Fourteen of these are integral parts of National Forests listed above, whereas five are managed by the Bureau of Land Management; some of these extend into neighboring counties: Apache Creek Wilderness Arrastra Mountain Wilderness in Mohave County. Public land: about 75% of the county's area is publicly owned, includingFederal ownership: about 50% of the county's area is owned by the federal government of the United States, includingNational Forest lands, managed by the US Forest Service: 38% of the county's area Federal lands managed by the U.
S. Bureau of Land Management: 11.6% of the county's area Small areas of federal land are managed by the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs and the National Park Service: less than 0.5% of the county's area. Yavapai-Prescott Tribe 1,413 acres Yavapai-Apache Nation 685 acres About 25% of Yavapai County is owned by the State of Arizona as state trust lands, managed by the Arizona State Land Department. There are numerous fauna species within Yavapai County. For example, a number of plants within the genus Ephedra and Coreopsis are found in the county. Yavapai County is the location of several groves of the near-threatened California Fan Palm, Washingtonia filifera. Yavapai County is home to Arcosanti, a prototype arcology, developed by Paolo Soleri, under construction since 1970. Arcosanti is just north of Arizona. Out of Africa Wildlife Park is a private zoo; the park moved to the Camp Verde area from the East Valley in 2005. 10 miles northwest of the town of Bagdad lies the Upper Burro Creek Wilderness Area, a 27,440-acre protected area home to at least 150 species of birds and featuring one of the Arizona desert's few undammed perennial streams.
As of the 2000 census, there were 167,517 people, 70,171 households, 46,733 families residing in the county. The population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 81,730 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.89% White, 0.39% Black or African American, 1.60% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 3.58% from other races, 1.95% from two or more races. 9.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 70,171 households out of which 23.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.00% were married couples living together, 8.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.40% were non-families. 26.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.79. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.10% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 22.40% from 25 to 44, 27.40% from 45 to 64, 22.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol