Sir Donald George Bradman, AC referred to as "The Don", was an Australian international cricketer acknowledged as the greatest batsman of all time. Bradman's career Test batting average of 99.94 has been cited as the greatest achievement by any sportsman in any major sport. The story that the young Bradman practised alone with a cricket stump and a golf ball is part of Australian folklore. Bradman's meteoric rise from bush cricket to the Australian Test team took just over two years. Before his 22nd birthday, he had set many records for top scoring, some of which still stand, became Australia's sporting idol at the height of the Great Depression. During a 20-year playing career, Bradman scored at a level that made him, in the words of former Australia captain Bill Woodfull, "worth three batsmen to Australia". A controversial set of tactics, known as Bodyline, was devised by the England team to curb his scoring; as a captain and administrator, Bradman was committed to attacking, entertaining cricket.
He hated the constant adulation, it affected how he dealt with others. The focus of attention on his individual performances strained relationships with some teammates and journalists, who thought him aloof and wary. Following an enforced hiatus due to the Second World War, he made a dramatic comeback, captaining an Australian team known as "The Invincibles" on a record-breaking unbeaten tour of England. A complex driven man, not given to close personal relationships, Bradman retained a pre-eminent position in the game by acting as an administrator and writer for three decades following his retirement. After he became reclusive in his declining years, his opinion was sought, his status as a national icon was still recognised. 50 years after his retirement as a Test player, in 1997, Prime Minister John Howard of Australia called him the "greatest living Australian". Bradman's image has appeared on postage stamps and coins, a museum dedicated to his life was opened while he was still living. On the centenary of his birth, 27 August 2008, the Royal Australian Mint issued a $5 commemorative gold coin with Bradman's image.
In 2009, he was inducted into the ICC Cricket Hall of Fame. Donald George Bradman was the youngest son of George and Emily Bradman, was born on 27 August 1908 at Cootamundra, New South Wales, he had a brother and three sisters—Islet and Elizabeth May. Bradman was of English heritage on both sides of his family, his grandfather Charles Andrew Bradman left England for Australia. When Bradman played at Cambridge in 1930 as a 21 year old on his first tour of England, he took the opportunity to trace his forebears in the region. One of his great-grandfathers was one of the first Italians to migrate to Australia in 1826. Bradman's parents lived near Stockinbingal, his mother Emily gave birth to him at the Cootamundra home of a midwife. That house is now the Bradman Birthplace Museum. Emily had hailed from Mittagong in the NSW Southern Highlands, in 1911, when Don Bradman was about two-and-a-half years old, his parents decided to relocate to Bowral, close to Mittagong, to be closer to Emily's family and friends, as life at Yeo Yeo was proving difficult.
Bradman practised batting incessantly during his youth. He invented his own solo cricket game, using a cricket stump for a bat, a golf ball. A water tank, mounted on a curved brick stand, stood on a paved area behind the family home; when hit into the curved brick facing of the stand, the ball rebounded at high speed and varying angles—and Bradman would attempt to hit it again. This form of practice developed his timing and reactions to a high degree. In more formal cricket, he hit his first century at the age of 12, with an undefeated 115 playing for Bowral Public School against Mittagong High School. During the 1920–21 season, Bradman acted as scorer for the local Bowral team, captained by his uncle George Whatman. In October 1920, he 29 * on debut. During the season, Bradman's father took him to the Sydney Cricket Ground to watch the fifth Ashes Test match. On that day, Bradman formed an ambition. "I shall never be satisfied", he told his father, "until I play on this ground". Bradman left school in 1922 and went to work for a local real estate agent who encouraged his sporting pursuits by giving him time off when necessary.
He gave up cricket in favour of tennis for two years, but resumed playing cricket in 1925–26. Bradman became a regular selection for the Bowral team. Competing on matting-over-concrete pitches, Bowral played other rural towns in the Berrima District competition. Against Wingello, a team that included the future Test bowler Bill O'Reilly, Bradman made 234. In the competition final against Moss Vale, which extended over five consecutive Saturdays, Bradman scored 320 not out. During the following Australian winter, an ageing Australian team lost The Ashes in England, a number of Test players retired; the New South Wales Cricket Association began a hunt for new talent. Mindful of Bradman's big scores for Bowral, the association wrote to him, requesting his attendance at a practice session in Sydney, he was subsequently chosen for the "Country Week" tournaments at both cricket and tennis, to be played during separate weeks. His boss presented him with an ultimatum: he could have only one week away from work, therefore had to choose between the two sports.
He chose cricket. Bradman's performances during Country Week resulted in an invitation to play grade crick
Keith Ross Miller, was an Australian test cricketer and a Royal Australian Air Force pilot during World War II. Miller is regarded as Australia's greatest all-rounder; because of his ability, irreverent manner and good looks he was a crowd favourite. English journalist Ian Wooldridge called Miller "the golden boy" of cricket, leading to his being nicknamed "Nugget", he "was more than a cricketer... he embodied the idea that there was more to life than cricket". A member of the record-breaking Invincibles, at the time of his retirement from Test cricket in 1956, Miller had the best statistics of any all-rounder in cricket history, he batted high in the order, sometimes as high as number three. He was a powerful striker of the ball, one straight six that he hit at the Sydney Cricket Ground was still rising when it hit the upper deck of the grandstand. Miller was famous for varying his bowling to bemuse batsmen: he made sparing use of slower deliveries and would adjust his run-up bowling his fastest deliveries from a short run.
He was a fine fielder and an acrobatic catcher in the slips. Away from cricket, Miller was a successful Australian rules footballer, he was selected to represent the Victorian state team. He played 50 games for St Kilda, for whom he kicked eight goals in one game against North Melbourne, during 1941. Miller's personality – love of the contest, rather than victory, his larger-than-life rebelliousness and carousing – helped both shape and limit his cricketing career, as he espoused the opposite of the more puritanical values of Donald Bradman, his captain and national selector. Neville Cardus referred to Miller as "the Australian in excelsis"; this status was reflected when Miller was made one of the ten inaugural members of the Australian Cricket Hall of Fame. Born in the western Melbourne suburb of Sunshine, Miller was the youngest of Leslie and Edith Miller's four children, he was named after the Australian pioneer aviator brothers Keith and Ross Smith, who were half-way through their historic flight from England to Australia at the time Miller was born.
The three Miller boys played Australian rules football in cricket in summer. Their father had been a successful local cricketer and taught the boys to play with an orthodox and classical technique, relying on a solid defence and concentration in the mould of Bill Ponsford. At the age of seven, Miller's family moved in Melbourne's south east; as a child, Miller was small for his age, which forced him to develop his technique rather than rely on power, something that held him in good stead for the future. At the age of 12, he was selected for an under-15 Victorian schoolboys cricket team. At the time, he wielded a sawn-off bat, he impressed with his footwork and style. However, Miller reasoned that, as he appeared destined to be short, a career as a jockey was more than one as a cricketer or footballer. Miller attended the selective Melbourne High School, where Australian test captain Bill Woodfull was his mathematics teacher. Miller was a mediocre student. Aged 14, Miller was selected for the school's first XI, scoring 44.
His control and solidity prompted the spectators to call him The Unbowlable—Woodfull's own nickname. In 1934, Miller failed all of his subjects, scoring zero in his final exam for Woodfull's geometry class, was forced to repeat the year. Keith Truscott, Miller's school cricket captain took him to a trial with local club side St Kilda at the start of the 1934–35 season, but Miller could not find a place in any of its five teams. Joining the local sub-district cricket club Elsternwick instead, he did not get to bat or bowl in his first match, was dropped to the second XI for his poor fielding, his teammate, former Victoria state player Hughie Carroll, spotted Miller's talent and lured him to the rival South Melbourne club. Miller began playing for South Melbourne the following season, it was at South Melbourne that Miller met Ian Johnson and Lindsay Hassett, his future Australia captains. Miller scored 12 not out on debut. In March 1936, Miller played for South Melbourne against Carlton, captained by Woodfull.
Miller came to the crease at 6/32. He guided his team to 141, putting on a stand of 65 with the last man and finishing with 61; the crowd gave Miller a standing ovation, newspapers him compared him to Ponsford and Alan Kippax. The Carlton team presented him with a silver eggcup, "for sterling performance", which Woodfull presented to Miller during an algebra class. During 1936, Miller underwent a sudden growth spurt, of 28 centimetres in the year, reaching 185 centimetres in height; this thwarted his career as a jockey. With his increased height and weight, he began to play football with more physical aggression. At the end of 1936, he quit high school, taking a position as a clerk. For the 1937–38 cricket season, Miller transferred to the VCA Colts, where he won the team's batting trophy for having the best average. At this stage, his method of playing was steady accumulation of runs. Late in the summer, he made his first-class debut for Victoria and hit 181 against Tasmania at the Melbourne Cricket Ground.
In 1938–39, he rejoined South Melbourne and played four further matches for Victoria, scoring 125 runs at an average of 25.00. However, he was yet to play in the Sheffield Shield competition
Scarred trees are trees which have had bark removed by indigenous Australians for the creation of bark canoes, shelters and containers, such as coolamons. They are among the easiest-to-find archaeological sites in Australia. Bark was removed by making deep cuts in a tree with other similar tool; the area of bark removed is regular in shape with parallel sides and pointed or rounded ends, the scar stops above ground level. Australian native Eucalypt species such as box and red gum were used, the scars remain in trees that are over 200 years old, it can be rectangular, diamond, etc. Scarred trees are significant evidence of Aboriginal occupation and can provide information on Aboriginal activities in the area that they are located. In the 17th century, dugout canoe technology appeared in Australia, to supplement the bark canoe, causing many changes to both the hunting practices and the society of the Aboriginal Australians; the designs that adorn specific ceremonial trees are designated as'dendroglyphs.'
Australian Aboriginal artifacts Coolamon Aboriginal Dugout Canoes Humpy New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service. 2005. Aboriginal scarred trees in NSW - a field manual. ISBN 1-74137-316-6 http://www.scartrees.com.au/
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Queen Victoria Gardens
The Queen Victoria Gardens are Melbourne's memorial to Queen Victoria. Located on 4.8 hectares opposite the Victorian Arts Centre and National Gallery of Victoria, bounded by St Kilda Road, Alexandra Avenue and Linlithgow Avenue. Queen Victoria's reign started in 1837, two years after the initial European settlement of Melbourne, upon her death in 1901 it was thought appropriate to declare an enduring monument to her reign. A memorial statue was commissioned from sculptor James White showing the Queen in ceremonial gowns casting her regal gaze across ornamental lakes, sweeping lawns and rose gardens to the Melbourne Arts Centre Spire and the city skyscrapers. Queen Victoria Gardens are part of a larger group of parklands directly south-east of the city, between St. Kilda Road and the Yarra River known as the Domain Parklands, which includes; the clock was donated in 1966 to the City of Melbourne by a group of Swiss watchmakers. Behind the clock stands a bronze equestrian statue, a memorial to Queen Victoria's successor, King Edward VII.
The statue, by Melbourne born sculptor Bertram Mackennal, was unveiled on 21 July 1920. A granite and marble memorial, commissioned by public subscription from sculptor James White and positioned at the highest point of the gardens, commemorates five aspects of Queen Victoria; the memorial is of white Carrara marble, Harcourt granite and NSW Caloola marble, was unveiled by Sir John Madden on Empire Day, 24 May 1907. Home to native grasses, she-oaks, wattles and river red gums, the area now consists of ornamental lakes, sweeping lawns, flowerbeds of annuals, mature European and Australian trees and shrubs in a landscaped garden; as well as the monuments to Queen Victoria and King Edward VII, the gardens are notable for their array of sculptures. These include an exploratory play sculpture for children, The Genie, by Tom Bass in 1973; the Pathfinder was manufactured in 1974 by John Robinson and details a bronze Olympic Hammer thrower in action. The Phoenix was sculptored from cast bronze and welded copper sheet by Baroness Yrsa Von Heistner in 1973 to commemorate the 40th International Eucharistic Congress.
The Bronze Water Children is an installation by John Robinson, made in 1973, which shows playing children at the top of a stream. The Water Nymph is a kneeling bronze figure sculptored in 1925 by Paul Montford. A classic rotunda was built in 1913 and named after Janet, Lady Clarke, a philanthropist who worked for the welfare of women in Melbourne. MPavilion Melbourne City Council - Queen Victoria Gardens Queen Victoria Memorial
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.